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Fortnightly Review 

Founded, Edited and Published 




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America Press 

St. Louis, Mo. 


The Catholic 
Theological Union ^ 
Chicago, Ilk 


January 1 

A Message 
of Friendly 




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The New Canon Law 




With a Preface by Very Rev. Msgr. Philip Bernardini, J. U. D. 

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University, Washington, D. C. 

Complete in one volume, large 8vo, 452 pages. Cloth, net, $4.50 

Added weight and authority are given to the work by the commendatory preface written for 

it by the Very Reverend Monsignor Philip Bernardini, J . U. D., Professor of 

Canon Law at the Catholic University in Washington. 

A very full Index of Subjects enhances the usefulness of the work, 
facilitating ready reference to its contents on any particular subject. 

("The New Marriage Legislation? 
DO YOU WISH I Tne New Laws Concerning the Clergy? 
TO know \ Tne New Laws Concerning Religious? 

The New Canons on the Sacraments? 1 explained in this hook 

L And all other Church Laws of interest to you? J v 

I The3 r are all stated 
>in full and concisely 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: £. Herder Book Co. 


The Fortnightly Review 



January 1, 1921 

My Mother's Last Picture 

By Charles J. Quirk, SJ. 

I love this picture best of all, 
For God hath made it fair; 

It speaks of sorrows nobly borne, — 
The benison of prayer! 

Lack of Inspiration in the Teaching 

The unrest and discontent now so 
much in evidence have entered the 
teaching world. It is said that many 
teachers have become dissatisfied with 
their pay and have sought more remu- 
nerative employment in other fields. 
The schools of America are, therefore, 
tacking the desired number of teachers, 
and educational work is handicapped. 

A writer in the Educational Reviezv 
for October, 1920, has a good deal to 
say about teachers who are engaged in 
their profession "just for love of the 
work." He seriously questions such an 
attitude, and looks upon the remark as 
a harmless and inexpensive "beau 
geste." He frankly states his belief that 
the avowal of such teachers does not 
carry much weight, and that it does not 
do much honor to the profession. 

It is quite true that in these days of 
'The high cost of living" the pedagogue 
must look to the supply of his material 
wants with the same care that every 
provident householder exercises. He 
has a right to full remuneration for his 
services to the community. He is doing 
a good work whose finest results may 
appear more conspicuously in later 
years. He has a right to "protest" when 
hi? work seems to be estimated in a nig- 
gardly way. 

Yet while the unrest is manifesting 
itself in the teaching world and is taking 
chiefly the form of a demand for "high- 
er wages," there is a vast body of men 
and women who are in the work for 
sheer love of it. Thev neither think of. 

nor receive, pay. They expect, of 
course, that their material wants in the 
line of food, clothing, shelter, etc., be 
satisfied. But beyond this they make no 
further demand. They are inspired by 
a high ideal. They love their work be- 
cause it gives them an opportunity for 
the highest kind of service. They re- 
alize that in the class-room the needs 
of future moral heroism and spiritual 
greatness can be sown in the hearts of 
the children, and it is because they want 
to do something excellent for the com- 
ing generations that they are so enthu- 
siastic about their work and so zealous 
in its conduct. 

These workers are found chiefly in 
the ranks of the Catholic religious or- 
ders which are devoted to education. 
They have built up for us and our chil- 
dren a Catholic system of education in 
the United States. It was their zealous 
devotion to this work that gave rise to 
the saying that while great secular insti- 
tutions of learning have an "endowment 
of money," the Church in her religious 
teaching orders has "an endowment of 
men and women" who consecrate the 
service of their best years to teaching 

There is no intention to compare the 
services of these teachers with those of 
educators who must look to a monetary 
consideration. In the ranks of the lat- 
ter we have had illustrious representa- 
tives of the profession in our country. 
Still no one can gainsay the fact that the 
fear of not receiving sufficient remuner- 
ation tends to deaden the enthusiasm of 
the teacher. Keeping one's eye on a 
return of dollars checks inspiration in 
the work. Catholics ought to cons : der 
ro sacrifice too great, if it be made to 
keep up and enlarge the army of will- 
ing and enthusiastic workers in their 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, SJ. 


January 1 

The High Tide of Crime 

What is the cause of the present epi- 
demic of crime in all parts of our coun- 
try, and what is the remedy that prom- 
ises at least a reasonable relief? Day- 
light robberies, burglaries, murders, 
wholesale shoplifting, are everyday oc- 
currences in all our large cities. Train 
robberies are carried out at perfect 
leisure. Crime seems to be the order of 
the day with a very large proportion of 
our citizenship : for we cannot any 
longer blame all or the greater part of 
these outrages on the "uneducated for- 
eigner." There is too much genuine 
native American "push" and "punch" 
manifested in the various operations. 

What, then, is the one deep-seated 
cause of the epidemic ? for there may be 
secondary causes influencing this or that 
particular crime, whilst the whole sin- 
ister movement seems to have one single 
ultimate cause. Let us ask the men of 
the law, who certainly ought to know 
something about the causes of crime. 
Federal Judge Landis thinks that the 
lax handling of our laws in regard to 
influential criminals, or, rather, in re- 
gard to criminals with influential politi- 
cal friends, is at the bottom of the trou- 
ble. In his recent address to the St. 
Louis Bar Association the Judge said: 
"Get the criminal, and when you have 
got him, keep him." This is easily said, 
but very difficult in the observance. For 
grand juries may indict, and petit juries 
may convict, but the paroling power 
may undo the work of both. 

But even if we admit that a succes- 
sion of crimes may be committed by the 
same individual, convicted and paroled, 
or convicted in rapid sequence, still the 
answer does not satisfy, as it takes the 
criminal as a present fact, whereas the 
question, in the last analysis, is, why 
have we criminals ? 

Let us then ask the educator: What 
is the deeper cause of our present epi- 
demic of crimes? Parents are to blame, 
says a prominent member of the gu : ld. 
"Fathers and mothers did not do their 
duty by their children a few years ago, 
and now look what is happening." 

This, if true, would go nearer to the 

root of the evil than the former answer. 
For under the influence of the parents 
we should really have, not the criminal 
as such, but rather the making of the 
ciiminal. Yet, is the answer correct? 
In the great mass of parents there are 
certainly but very few who would wish 
their children a life of outlawry and 
crime. On the contrary, most parents 
desire nothing more earnestly than that 
their offspring should become useful, 
honest, upright, and helpful members of 
society, and thus be a credit to their 
name. Indeed, they often fail to use the 
proper means of attaining this their de- 
sired end, insisting too much on a cer- 
tain foolish indulgence in regard to the 
whims and notions of their darling?, and 
far too little on their own high parental 
authority derived from the Father of 
All, and the duty and blessedness of 
their children's submitting to the will of 
father and mother. Hence a good part 
of the spirit of disobedience, self-will 
and fat?l self-indulgence. 

But this failing in parents is not suffi- 
cient to account for the manifest per- 
version of so many of the youth of the 

What, then, is the cause? 

We find it in our much-lauded mod- 
ern educational system, in our secular 
schools. Not as though they taught 
disregard of the moral or civil law, or 
intentionally promoted it : yet, I believe 
thoughtful men will agree with me when 
I say that the absence of any teaching 
en God, the Master of the Universe and 
the Supreme Law-giver, on the wonders 
of nature as the work of His hand, o r 
the moral beauty and grandeur of a vir ■ 
tuous life, on the mysteries of death, 
resurrection, and the life to come, on the 
sacred and eternal truths of religion, 
must have a materialistic influence upon 
the youthful mind and heart, especially . 
at a time when man is most impression- 
able. Hour after hour, day after day, 
month after month, the child hears of 
nothing but what the eye can see, and 
the ear can hear, and the understanding 
grasp : and all these things are for the 
service and use of this present life on 
earth. How to make money, how to do 



business, bow to gain power, how to 
succeed in the affairs of the world, are 
the sole to^ic c that enter into his school 
curriculum. God and eternal Truth are 
excluded by law. 

The Sunday school may try to make 
up for this deficiency ; but to most chil- 
cren the Sunday school teaching ap- 
pears as something tedious, fanciful, 
unreal, being separated by a wide gulf 
from the ordinary daily instructions. 
Besides, how few the children, compara- 
tively speaking, whom the Sunday 
school can reach ! The home, too, and 
I believe there are, as yet, many sincere- 
ly Christian homes in the land, the home 
may do a great work for the religious 
training of the children ; yet, alas, expe- 
rience teaches that most parents lack the 
knowledge, the time, and, above all, the 
interest requisite to ground their chil- 
dren in the religion of Christ. A super- 
ficial smattering of Bible knowledge 
will not keep a child on the path of 
righteousness ; it requires a deep, strong 
conviction of the reality of the unseen 
Avorld, of the all-seeing eye of God, and 
of the dread judgment awaiting all men. 

We believe that this awful neglect of 
religious education in the youth just now 
emerging into manhood and womanhood 
is the deep-seated cause of the preva- 
lence of lawlessness and crime in our 
day. Whtre there is no respect for God 
and His law, there can be but little re- 
spect for the laws made by man. Fear 
of the penalties of the law is growing 
less and less. What, then, should re- 
strain the seeker after quick gains and 
consequent indulgence ? 

"The population of the United 
States," says the New York Herald, 
"comprising one-seventeenth of the hu- 
man beings on earth, spends annually as 
much money for education as the other 
rixteen-seventeenths, according to P. P. 
Claxton, the United States commis- 
sioner of education. The fact that we 
pay out for schools as much as all the 
other people in the world put together 
do, is a matter of small consequence. 
The fact of grave importance is that 
there are adult illiterates in America 
where there should be none." 

And we would add, the fact of grav- 
est importance is that the educational 
system of a Christian land completely 
ignores Him "without whom they that 
build and guard the house build and 
guard in vain." 


St. Louis. Mo. 

Preparing for the Second World War 

The chief of the United States Chem- 
ical Warfare Service announces his pur- 
pose to advance training in gas warfare 
to a point where it will be ''impossible 
for any nation to have gone further." 
He expresses the opinion that his an- 
nouncement will go a long way toward 
deterring other nations from attempt- 
ing to develop this method of extermi- 
nation, in competition with the United 
States, on the ground that America has 
such incomparable resources and such 
a fine manufacturing equipment that 
the other countries will feel it futile to 
enter the race. 

If this is the effect of the announce- 
ment, it will be the first time in history 
that such a result has followed such a 
warning ; for "warning" seems to be the 
correct word to describe the statement 
cf Brigadier-General Fries. 

In fact, it cannot be forgotten that 
Great Britain already has announced 
her intention of carrying out precisely 
the same program. And these are two 
of the greatest powers that helped to 
win the world war, which, we were as- 
sured, was "to end war." 

Evidently Colonel Repington, who 
calls his book "The First World War," 
is not alone in assuming a series of such 
conflicts. And as long as competitive 
development of the most dreadful 
weapons of annihilation, which were 
supposed to be forbidden before the 
world war, is allowed to go on unre- 
stricted, it will not be attributable to 
the wisdom and foresight of military 
men and politicians if wars, more and 
more destructive, do not recur. 


— Disraeli said : "A man is known by the 
company he keeps and the cigars he gives to 
his friends." 


January 1 

Democratising Industry 

The September (1920) number of 
Studies had an interesting article on 
"The Democratic Transformation of 
Industry" from the pen of Dr. John A. 
Ryan of the Catholic University of 
America. The writer first briefly 
explained the nature of the disease in 
the industrial system, and then suggest- 
ed certain remedies calculated to cure it. 
Our present system is fast developing 
into a kind of industrial feudalism, un- 
der which society appears to be perma- 
nently divided into two classes — the 
propertied and the propertyless. "The 
general situation is that the vast major- 
ity of men who begin life as employees 
must resign themselves to dependence 
upon wages or salaries for their liveli- 
hood until the end of their working 
days. And the complement of this sit- 
uation is that, so far at least as urban 
industry is concerned, the functions of 
ownership and direction are performed 
by a small minority." The great defect 
of this state of affairs is that it concen- 
trates the attention of both classes on 
the diversity of interests, and obscures 
and minimizes the community of inter- 
ests between capital and labor. The re- 
sults are restriction of output, industrial 
friction, and social discontent. 

In Dr. Ryan's opinion, there is but 
one remedy for these evils — namely, "to 
put labor in such a position that it will 
particpate in the benefits of owner- 

These benefits are chiefly three. "The 
first is the direction of industrial opera- 
tions; the second is the possibility of 
obtaining indefinitely large gains as a 
result of hard work and industrial effi- 
ciency ; the third is the consciousness of 
independence, security and self-respect, 
and the possession of a degree of social 
and political power which the property- 
less man, other things being equal, can 
never hope to obtain." 

To secure for labor the first of these 
benefits Dr. Ryan suggests participation 
in management ; that is, industrial ad- 
ministration. The workers in an estab- 
lishment should have something to say 
about the industrial side of manage- 

ment . . . should take part Jo all 
those phases of industrial management 
which concern them directly — wages, 
hours, shop conditions, discipline, etc. 

The second benefit might be secured 
to labor by profit-sharing ; that is, bv 
giving the workers, in addition to their 
wages, a part of the surplus profits. Dr% 
Ryan adds the word "surplus," be- 
cause he thinks it is not feasible to seek 
any share for the workers till the owners 
have first drawn the prevailing rate of 
interest on their capital. By prevailing 
rate of interest he seems to mean the 
normal rate of dividend — "the rate of 
interest that can generally be obtained 
on investments of normal security." 

The benefits under the third heading, 
namely, personal independence, security 
and social power, can only be derived 
from ownership itself. Sole proprietor- 
ship of an individual business is, of 
course, out of the question for the great 
majority of industrial workers ; but co- 
operative ownership, which is quite feas- 
ible, will secure the same benefits. 

Such, in bare outline, are the changes 
recommended by Dr. Ryan for the dem • 
ocratization and stabilization of the in- 
dustrial system. The present state of 
affairs cannot last. "There are only 
two conceivable alternatives : one is So- 
cialism ; the other is co-operative con- 
trol and ownership by the workers of 
the greater part of industry. Reforms 
which will merely better the conditions 
of life and labor of the wage-earner 
. . . will have no permanent value. 
What the worker needs is a change of 

In a discussion of Dr. Ryan's paper 
in the Irish Theological Quarterly (No. 
60), another writer, presumably Dr. 
Kelleher, says : 

"Few will question the desirability 
and urgency of the changes recommend- 
ed by Dr. Ryan. Thev are excellent re- 
forms as far as they go ; and they go, it 
may be admitted, as far as actual reform 
\l likely to go for some years to come. 
Still, we doubt if a final settlement can 
ever be achieved without more far- 
reaching reforms than those adumbrated 
in Dr. Ryan's article. In saying that 



'what the worker needs is a change of 
status,' Dr. Ryan has undoubtedly 
struck the right note. But will the re- 
forms that he suggests bring about, even 
in time, that change of status? We do 
not doubt that 'co-operative control and 
ownership by the workers of the greater 
part of industry' would, if achieved, 
change the whole status of the working- 
man ; but we can see little hope of any 
substantial advance in that direction, 
until the grip of the present owning 
class on the world's capital is first loos- 
ened by preliminary reform. It is here 
that Dr. Ryan's article appears to be 
weak. It seems to us that the prelim- 
inary reforms that he suggests are not 
sufficiently drastic to loosen that grip 
appreciably. In a word, we fail to see 
how co-operative ownership by the now 
propertyless wage-earners can be estab- 
lished on any considerable scale, while 
the feudal lords of industry — even if 
they concede to labor a voice in indus- 
trial administration and a share of the 
surplus profits — still maintain the rest of 
their privileges, and the practical mo- 
nopoly of capital which these privileges 

"Again, a voice in the regulation of 
hours, discipline and such other things 
as 'directly' concern them is, of course, 
something. gained for the workers. But 
are they not also deeply interested in the 
things that concern them indirectly? 
Why, for instance, should the capitalist 
alone have a voice in the policy of 
production? . . . While the capitalist 
controls the credit and policy of pro- 
duction, a voice in industrial adminis- 
tration can do little for the wage-earners 
beyond making their dependence a little 
more tolerable. 

"Again, the sharing of surplus profits 
does not bring us very far. From Dr. 
Ryan's definition of 'surplus profits' it 
seems .to follow that in the average es- 
tablishment there will be no surplus to 
divide, so long as the standard of effi- 
ciency remains at its present level. If 
there is to be a surplus at all, therefore, 
il must be brought about by the in- 
creased efforts and diligence of the 
workers. To secure this extra effort 
Dr. Ryan holds out to the workers the 

hope of a share in the increased profits 
due to their increased efficiency. We 
doubt whether the average wage-earner 
would think it worth his while to 'speed 
up.' in the circumstances. If profit-shar- 
ing is necessary at all, why should it be 
confined to profits above the normal rate 
of interest? Dr. Ryan would say that 
no other scheme is feasible, so long as 
the regime of private capital obtains. 
Perhaps he is right. In any case, this 
normal rate is not a sacrosanct thing, 
but merely the outcome of economic 
forces working on the basis of economic 
feudalism, which is ex hypothesi an in- 
equitable condition for the workers. If 
it stands in the way of a necessary 
scheme of profit-sharing, let us try to 
limit it, so far as estimating surplus 
profits is concerned, by legal enactment 
binding every industrial establishment in 
the country. For the purposes of a 
profit-sharing scheme, the normal rate 
of dividend could, we believe, be dimin- 
ished fictione juris to a vanishing point, 
if necessary, without seriously interfer- 
ing with the capitalization of industry. 
"Until some such drastic step is taken 
we see little hope that profit-sharing can 
accomplish anything beyond slightly 
easing the situation." 

The New Typewriter 

The budding authoress had purchased 
a typewriter, and one morning the agent 
called and asked : 

"How do you like your new type- 
writer, madam?" 

"It's wonderful !" was the enthusias- 
t:c reply. "I wonder how I ever did my 
writing without it." 

"Would you mind," asked the agent, 
"giving me a little testimonial to that 
effect ?" 

"Certainly not," she responded. "I'll 
do it, gladly." Seating herself at the 
machine she pounded out the following : 

"Aafteb Using thee Automatid Back- 
action atype write, er for thre emonth 
%an d Over, I unhesittattingly pronoun 
ce it tobe al ad more th e Manufacturss 
claim ! for it. Durinb the tim e been in 
myy possessio n $i thre month it had 
more th an paid paid for itse*f in thee 
saVing off tim e nnD laborr?" 


January 1 

The Uses and Abuses of Sport 

We are living in an age of sport. 
For the sake of physical exercise and 
sports of every description young men 
and boys are anxious to go to college, 
join the Y. M. C. A. and Catholic socie- 
ties as well. Millions of dollars are 
annually wasted on sporting fads and 
the newspapers have sporting editors 
and sporting pages. Whenever the 
weather permits, we have outside 
sports, and when climatic conditions 
are unfavorable, we have inside sports. 
Thus sport is quite independent of the 
weather. W r here there is a will there 
is a way, at any rate, when there is 
question of sport. We are no pessimist 
and do not believe in pessimism. We 
admit, that we enjoy sport as well as 
others, but it must be reasonable and 
it should be limited. Many a game of 
pool and billiard have we played with 
our society members ; many a ball and 
bat and football have we purchased 
for the boys, and helped them kick it, 
too, if you please, — not thinking it 
below our clerical dignity. On several 
occasions we were asked to act as 
umpire, but considered ourselves bound 
in justice to decline the honor, because 
ignorance of the rules and regulations 
rendered us incompetent for that 

We realize that healthful exercise is 
not only good but necessary for the 
physical development of the young. 
Young men and boys who have an 
opportunity and time for a game, rec- 
reation or physical culture, are in bet- 
ter condition for intellectual as well 
as manual labor. We fail to see any 
desecration of the Sunday in a game 
of base-ball, providing, of course, that 
divine service is not neglected. Let us 
take care of the soul first, and then of 
the body. To this there is no objec- 
tion, and cannot reasonably be. But 
when sport is carried to excess ; when 
it threatens to become the end instead 
of a means to an end — be that end 
education or Catholic society life — 
when it is looked upon as a profession, 
and men and boys are trained to it 
like animals, then it is time, we think, 
to call attention to the fact that excess. 

even in lawful things, is evil. Even 
the casual observer cannot fail to 
notice that our young people are too 
much addicted to sports. Frequently 
we have heard the complaints of the 
clergy ; college professors recognize 
that excessive indulgence in sports is 
proving to be a detriment to the intel- 
lectual development of students, and 
the presidents of Catholic young men's 
and boy's societies have made the ex- 
perience that whenever there is "an 
attraction" or some "sporting feature," 
society members are "conspicuous" for 
non-attendance at meetings. 

There was a time when boys attended 
college for the sake of acquiring a 
scientific and moral training. Now many 
parents are wasting their money to 
have their sons turned into sports. 
Habeant sibi, if it so pleases them. 
We have a word to say to the presi- 
dents of young men's societies ; not of 
criticism, but of what we consider 
good advice. The man who thinks 
that he can hold his boys by means 
of sport is mistaken. Some of them — 
the "sports" — he may hold, for a time ; 
all, or the majority of them, and for 
good — no. The taste of boys in sport- 
ing matters is diverse, and to satisfy 
them all is an impossibility for the best 
of college and society presidents. Then 
we must not forget that quite a num- 
ber of boys have no taste for any kind 
of sport. And, finally, it should be 
considered that boys and young men 
are usually attracted by novelty. As 
long as something is new to them, they 
display an abundance of enthusiasm ; 
but when the novelty has worn off, the 
interest is almost sure to lag. We have 
experienced this in a beautiful club 
house erected principally for the use 
of the parishioners. A double bowling 
alley ; a spacious pool and billiard 
room ; shower and tub baths ; a fairly 
well equipped gymnasium and one of 
the finest auditoriums and stages in the 
State, — all these attractions could not 
hold the boys and young men. The 
unsatisfactory results obtained by other 
presidents of Catholic young men's 
and boys' societies, whom we have 
consulted in the matter, may serve as 



evidence to substantiate our contention 
that it is folly to base hopes for our 
Catholic societies on sport. 

In Germany, conditions are practi- 
cally the same as here. Discussing the 
influence of sport on Catholic juvenile 
society life, General Secretary Mosterts 
and other gentlemen of the Central 
Bureau admitted that "the thing is 
overdone." This we found to be the 
general sentiment of priest-presidents 
throughout that country. The chief 
argument they advance in support of 
the sporting fad is that it serves as a 
weapon against the influence of Social- 
ism. However, the tendency is strong- 
ly in favor of limitation, and, in the 
meantime, the local presidents and the 
Central Bureau lose no opportunity to 
make it perfectly plain that the relig- 
ious and moral training of the young 
is the primary object of the organiza- 
tion and the very essence of all their 
efforts. Father J. Driiding, S.J., has pub- 
lished an article in the Corrcspondenz- 
blatt under the heading of : "Sodalities 
and Juvenile Societies,'' in which he 
says : "It may be pleasing to them or dis- 
pleasing, certain people will sooner or 
• later learn that physical exercise may 
indeed contribute to some extent to the 
formation of character ; but character 
and morality calculated to stand the 
test of tempests and temptations of the 
juvenile age must be built upon a dif- 
ferent foundation than the one offered 
by the sporting campus, the gymnasi- 
um, and the summer camp." He is 
right. There is, after all, but one 
foundation upon which true character 
and sound morality can be constructed 
and maintained, and that is religion. 
Sport is good enough as a means to 
secure this end, but at no time may a 
principle be sacrificed for the sake of 
sport. Our boys and young men should 
be aroused to Catholic consciousness. 
This Catholic consciousness must ac- 
company them constantly, and guide 
their thoughts, sentiments, and actions. 
To effect this is the primary object of 
Catholic juvenile societies. Catholic 
boys and young men should be willing 
and glad to become members of the 
parochial and national Catholic socie- 
ties, because they are Catholics, and 

because they are determined to stand 
by their Church. The unity of faith 
must band them together, and the 
love for that faith is the strong tie 
that will keep them together. This is 
an argument the value of which, it 
seems to us, has been underestimated 
in the past. Fr. A. B. 

• ■ § > ■ ■ 

The Death of Venerable Bede 

In the introduction to his "Golden 
Days of the Early English Church" 
(Dutton) Sir Henry Howorth quotes 
once again the well-known account of 
the death of the great Saxon chronicler, 
St. Bede, as told by an eye-witness. It 
seems the famous monk of Yarrow re- 
mained an example of inveterate author- 
ship to the very end. He fell seriously 
ill while engaged on his translation of 
the Gospel of St. John. In spite of his 
indisposition he insisted on continuing 
his work of dictation, for it seems that 
he had long been too old and feeble to 
be his own amanuensis. One Cuthbert 
tells the tale: 

"On the Wednesday before Ascen- 
sion Day he became worse, but still 
taught and dictated cheerfully. The 
next day he bade us write diligently 
what we had begun, and this we did to 
the third hour. We then walked in pro- 
cession with the relics, as was custom- 
ary. One of us stayed behind who 
said : 'There is still one chapter want- 
ing of the book which thou hast been 
dictating, but it seems hard for thee to 
be questioned further-' 'Nay,' said he, 
'it is easy : take thy pen and mend it 
quickly and write' ; and he did so. The 
brethren were then summoned to hear 
his last commands. Then the same boy 
Wilbert said once more : 'There is still 
one sentence, dear master, which is not 
written down.' He replied : 'Then write 
it.' After a little space the boy said : 
'Now it is finished.' And he answered: 
'Well, thou hast spoken the truth ; it is 
finished. Take my hands in thy hands' 
— and thus upon the floor of his cell, 
singing 'Glory be to the Father and the 
Son and the Holy Ghost,' and the rest, 
he breathed his last." 

Thus died the first great English man 
of letters. 



January 1 

Two Educational Reports 
It is a happy sign of the progress of 
Catholic education that the annual re- 
ports of the parish schools of various 
dioceses are no longer dry statistics of 
the number of children in the grades. 
Many of them contain matters of inter- 
est to all our Catholics teachers. Thus, 
Rev. John Dillon in his "Tenth Report 
of the Superintendent of Parish 
Schools, Diocese of Newark,"' discusses 
among other timely topics : Teachers' 
Training. School Environment, Grading 
and Promotion, and that most timely of 
all subjects for those interested in the 
progress of education — and in the pre- 
servation of our liberties — the Smith- 
Towner Bill. It is one of the most lucid 
explanations of the dangers that lurk 
under that apparently harmless instru- 
ment that we have read. And the in- 
formation is conveyed in the space of a 
few pages. 

Another excellent piece of work is the 
"Sixteenth Annual Report of the Par- 
ish Schools of the Diocese of Pitts- 
burgh, 1919-1920." (Pittsburgh Ob- 
server print j. It contains informatory 
paragraphs on Civics and Americani- 
zation. Physical Culture. Health Inspec- 
tion. Vocational Guidance, etc. 

A. M. 

A Good Suggestion to the K. of C. 
The Nation says (No. 2892) : 
"We sincerely trust that the Knights 
of Columbus plan to donate the unex- 
pended balance of its war moneys, some 
85,000,000, to the American Legion for 
a costly home in Washington. D. C. will 
not be approved. With such human 
suffering and misery on all sides, it 
seems inexcusable to put so much monev 
into another monumental structure in 
Washington, and one that is not needed. 
If it is asserted that the Knights are 
bound to use this money for soldier pur- 
poses, then let them use it for the dis- 
abled, the maimed, the needy, and the 
dependent, who are certainly faring 
none too well at the government's hand-. 
We doubt whether any donor of this 
money would have objected had its in- 
come or its principal been used to aid 

devasted France or Belgium, or the suf- 
fering anywhere in Allied countries. 

"But the American Legion itself is 
still a questionable thing. It is by no 
means clear whether it will become a 
menace to the country or a source of 
pride and an organization of great use- 
fulness. Again, it is a rapidly shrinking 
body ; at its last convention in Cleveland 
the press reports gave it only about 
800,000 paid-up members, as against 
the original 3,000,000. To beseech an 
organization which has up to this time 
proved prejudicial, opinionated and re- 
actionary, whose future is not even cer- 
tain, to overcome its great reluctance to 
accept this great sum is surely folly. 
Far better use for it would be the start- 
ing of a new Red Cross, a White Cross 
or a Green Cross, to assume the neutral, 
international position Clara Barton 
planned for the now government- 
prostituted Red Cross. We should 
have an organization ready to go 
into Ireland, or Russia, or any other 
place under the sun where human 
beings are suffering, without asking 
anything except whether human be- 
ings were suffering. That would be a 
worth-while monument to the American 
Catholic soldiers who fell in the war." 


The Labor Vote 

To the student of social psychology 
the last election has a strange fascina- 
tion. For, in spite of the manifest un- 
rest of the masses, a reactionary ma- 
chine was swept into power. At a time 
when radicalism is in the ascendancy 
the return to reaction seems uncondi- 
tional. Add to this the unattractive per- 
sonalities of the candidates, obstruction- 
ist platforms, manufactured issues, and 
anachronistic methods of electioneering, 
?nd the paradox grows. 

Every industrial State in the Union 
without a single exception piled up a 
record-breaking total against the Demo- 
crat^ party. Moreover, Senator Cum- 
mings in Iowa and Gov. Allen of Kan- 
sas were reelected, though marked for 
defeat by the American Federation of 
Labor. Cox, who had been held up as 
the more desirable candidate to the lat- 




ter organization, was terribly beaten. 
On the other hand, the Socialist vote to- 
taled less than 2,000,000 out of a possi- 
ble 30,000,000. This, to be sure, is 
slightly more than in 1912, but an in- 
crease wholly disproportionate to the 
drift towards radicalism. The Farmer- 
Labor party proved to be a joke at the 
polls. Only one Socialist, Meyer Lon- 
don of New York, was elected to Con- 
gress. Victor Berger was defeated in 
Wisconsin, and the Republican landslide 
swept two, if not three, of the five 
ousted New York Congressmen to 
defeat. On the surface the figures 
carry much of hope for the antiquated 
standpat regime, regardless of political 

But it is not at all unlikely that the 
result does express the dissatisfaction 
of the workers. The Democratic party 
had come to represent a species of abso- 
lutism, obstructionism, and one-man 
power particularly distasteful to the 
American people. The Republican party, 
on the contrary, was in eclipse and hence 
obscure, unimportant, and impotent. 
It represented, too, a collective as op- 
posed to a single authority. Hence a 
vote for Republicanism was a real pro- 
test vote in the mind of labor, whose 
vote, which had formerly gone to the 
Socialists and Independents, was regis- 
tered with complete satisfaction against 
the Democratic party. Moreover, the 
Socialist total represents, with due al- 
lowance for the mere "protest votes,'' a 
tremendous increase in confirmed radi- 

The whole situation is a sad com- 
mentary on the existing political leader- 
ship, the leading parties, and the confu- 
sion of ideas engendered by a venal and 
ignorant press. American labor needs 
new and better leadership and a news 
bureau and press of its own. Until then 
K will continue to bring down upon it- 
self reaction, which it does not want nor 
intend. F. 

— Show me the man who has ceased to 
struggle, and you show me a man whose soul 
is dead. 

— How about that new subscriber you 
promised to send us last year? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(Twenty-second Installment) 

The year 1886 started quite well. The 
settlers were beginning to be prosperous, the 
parochial school was well attended, and the 
monthly examinations proved that the chil- 
dren were advancing. Mr. Gleissner con- 
tinued his studies under the direction of the 
pastor, and helped to instruct the children 
and lead the choir. During Lent the Forty 
Hours' devotion was celebrated solemnly 
and also the jubilee of 1886. Father Theo- 
dore Smith, O.S.B., then pastor at Doniphan, 
Mo., helped me out. 

The same year a branch of the Catholic 
Knights of America was established, which 
hi course of time became the largest branch 
of that order in Arkansas. When application 
was made for the charter, I was the only one 

The same year I opened the first Catholic 
school in Jonesboro ; Miss Kate Esselman, 
now Mrs. Skinner, the daughter of Dr. J. C. 
Esselman, of Pocahontas, was its first 

On March 5th we lost our sexton, the \ en- 
erable Nicholas Bach. His career was so 
remarkable and his exemplary life has done 
so much good for the church and the de- 
struction of prejudice that he deserves more 
than a passing remark. When he took nek 
his chief anxiety was for his old sister, Mary 
Ann, who had emigrated with him to Ameri- 
ca forty-two years before. He was lying in 
the adjoining room to hers. A kind provi- 
dence intervened, making his anxiety super- 
fluous. After he had been sick a few days 
she also took to bed and died on the 4th of 
March. He himself passed away the next 
day. Around his death-bed knelt the priest, 
all the school children, and many friends. At 
the recitation of the litany for the dying he 
himself .ioined in the answers to the end, and 
frequently kissed the crucifix. We were s f ill 
praying when he gave up his pious soul to its 
maker. He and his sister were buried in the 
Catholic cemetery on March ~th. The whole 
congregation and a large crowd of Protest'int 
friends from town and country honored them 
by their presence. 

Nicholas Bach, commonly called "Uncle 
Nick." was born in Lorraine, in 181 7. In 
Strasbourg and Metz he finished his studies 
for the priesthood and had already received 
minor orders, but when his class was cailed 
to higher orders, he was put back for a year. 
upon inquiry why that was done he re- 
ceived no satisfactory answer, and thereupon 
determined to go to America, where he had 
two brothers in Pocahontas. Just as he was 
ready to leave, he received a letter from the 
rector of the seminary, saying that the person 
who had denounced him. a young girl, had 
withdrawn her accusation, acknowledging 



January 1 

that it had been done through jealousy. 
Therefore, he could come back and be or- 
dained. However, it was too late. Bach 
thought he would prefer to become a mis- 
sionary ia America. He had with him the 
very best recommendations. He left with 
his sister. Mary Ann. in 1845. tor Xew York. 
As they had acquaintances in Buffalo, they 
stopped in that city. Bach was there accepud 
for the diocese by the Bishop. However, he 
had first to accompany his sister to Poca- 
hontas. whore his two brothers, John and 
Peter, were then living. They went from 
Buffalo to New Orleans. There they were 
advised to go by river as far as Xcw Madrid, 
Mo. where a good many French settlor^ at 
that time resided, and where they would find 
out about Pocahontas. Arriving in New 
Madrid, they found a number of Fi\ 
who were acquainted with John and P;'cr 
Bach. They instructed Nicholas how to roach 
Pocahontas, and gave him a horse to make 
the journey, about 130 miles. He left Mary 
Ann in their care and set out for Pocahontas 
There was no regular road. He rode through 
swamps and bayous, over rivers and Lakes, 
and afterw irds across hills and mountains. 
Often he could not see a house for many 
miles. When he finally reached the hills, he 
found settlers who knew his brothers and 
could direct him how to proceed. Finally, he 
reached Pocahontas, to the great joy of his 
brothers. It had been his first experience in 
riding horseback. Immediately his brother 
John left for New Madrid to bring Mary 
Ann. their sister, back with him. When 
everything was in order. Nicholas wanted to 
return to Buffalo to be ordained. His 
ers, who did an extensive business with a 
tannery and cotton gin, said they needed him 
and were bitterly opposed to his leaving. In 
the country they had at that time no ready- 
made shoes. Nicholas needed shoes to travel, 
and his brothers forbade the shoemaker to 
make any for him, for fear he would leave. 
By all kinds of stratagems they coaxed him 
to stay. Soon after. John, the oldest brother, 
died, and then Nicholas felt that he could 
not leave because their business was so ex- 
tensive. Nicholas could speak French and 
German, and that was a great help. He had to 
travel for the firm in different directions, to 
St. Louis, to New Orleans, even to Cuba. 
New Orleans was their main place of busi- 
ness, as they could reach that city by boa: 
directly from Pocahontas. After some year> 
his second brother Peter, also died, anil his 
sister. Mary Ann. who had become a widow 
with several children, now depended on him. 
Bach moved to Warm Springs, eighteen 
miles north of Pocahontas, where he conduct- 
ed an extensive business. When the Civil 
War broke out, he had about $60,000, a con- 
siderable sum for those days. But he lost 
nearly everything, as they were obliged to 
accept Confederate money in trade. Some 
gold he buried and told his sister where it 
was, as his life was constantly in danger. He 

was thougnt to be very wealthy, and the ma- 
rauding parties along the frontier knew this. 
He had many a hard experience living just 
on the boundary between Missouri and .Ar- 
kansas. After so many trials and troubles 
he no longer cared for his own life. One 
night a par:y of outlaws came to him and 
asked for money. He replied: "Gentlemen, 
I have no money for you." Then they 
showed him a rope and threatened to hang 
him. whereupon he said: "Gentlemen. 1 am 
a Frenchman, and I was not born to be hung; 
but if you want to shoot me, blaze away."-- 
and he ope vd his shirt. They dropped their 
guns and left. After the war he returned to 
Pocahontas, took charge of the tannery and 
provided for his sister and her children. 
When Father O'Kean built the church, he 
bought the lot next to it. and lived there 
with his sis'er and her family. The rectory 
is now on that lot. He attended the church 
as sexton from that time until his death, us 
punctually as if he were paid a salary. In 
the absence of the priest, lie led the recital 
of the rosary and other devotions. Ererj 
morning early he opened the church and 


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made his morning" meditation. lie also made 
a long visit every evening about eight o'clock, 
before closing the church. After 
O'Kean had been called away to the cathe- 
dral, Bach became advisor and spiritual father 
to all the Catholics. Especially converts were 
always sure to obtain good advice and en- 
couragement from him. The priests who vis- 
ited the place during the five years when no 
priest resided there, would always inform 
"Uncle Nick" of their coming. He, in his 
turn, would give notice to all the Zab 
and would himself meet the priest 
carriage at O'Kean. All the Catholics used 
to go to confession and communion \ 
visits. {To be continued) 



— With this issue the Fortnightly Review 
enters upon its twenty-eighth year. V, 
that its subscribers still think it is serving 
its purpose well enough to continue their 

— The question as to the original home of 
the Aryan race is still alive. The distin- 
guished Swedish scholar Montelius ha l 
out with the statement that our Indo-Ger- 
manic ancestors lived originally in southern 
Scandinavia and northern Germany, and that 
they spread over the earth in all directions 
immediately after the close of the ice age. 

— In consequence of being overloaded with 
other work, the publisher of the F. R. has 
not been able to devote the usual attention 
to the billing of delinquent subscribers and 
he would therefore respectfully request 
those who have not received a statement to 
inspect the address label and send in their 
subscriptions if they are in arrears. It would 
be a favor which we should appreciate highly. 

— We are glad to hear that the Rt. Rev. 
Msgr. F. A. Rempe, V.G. is about 6s gs 
Europe in the name of Archbishop Munde- 
lein and other American bishops with a view r 
of alleviating the misery among the people 
of the central powers. In order that this 
important work be done as effectively as pos- 
sible, it is well to have a German-American 
of Msgr. Rempe's type on the spot. He will 

no -doubt see to it that tkt Zi ■ . • 
especial ' ; wd. 

lected by tie various, relief ag--- 
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Wagner's Londres Grande Segars 


"yHE majority of —Jwn briEsw I hf mcaggH 

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vitb heEvy tcbacc:. eqpern a ' t K 3 bfid B cl I * profit 

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Matt. \\'a§ner & Son 

' - " ;>rth Pea? ; ---:-:" 
Buffalo. X. Y. 



January 1 

Methods of advertising that depend strictly 
on the truth must be encouraged and devel- 
oped. If necessary, there may eventually 
have to be an entirely new kind of training 
for those who prepare advertisements. It is 
silly to declare, as one reads of a certain 
volume in a current magazine, that "no book 
will be more widely read or more earnestly 
discussed." The public is tired of exaggera- 
tion, and this sort of advertising repels 
rather than attracts intelligent purchasers. 

— The Oxford letter to the professors of 
Germany and Austria found a grateful echo 
in those countries, even though the reply was 
signed with only ten names. Evidently the 
good spirit of rapprochement is at work, and 
at work to practical purpose. In more than 
one great scholarly enterprise which has been 
set on foot in England or America since the 
cessation of the war, German and Austrian 
savants have been cordially invited to co- 
operate, and have as cordially responded. A 
most welcome evidence that true zeal for 
scholarship knows no political barriers is the 
Anglo-American University Library. This 
scheme, of which Lord Bryce is president, is 
designed to supply English books publ'shed 
during or since the war period to the univer- 
sity teachers of Central Europe who have 
been unable to keep up to date in this respect. 

— Despite the unfavorable rate of exchange, 
American commodities are to be seen every- 
where in Europe. Thus our motion, pictures 
are ubiquitous. In Paris American cigarettes 
are the easiest to get. In London an orches- 
tra of negro players has flourished for nearly 
a year. Several New York theatrical shows 
are occupying the boards of London play- 
houses; and many of our magazines are dis- 
played at English news stalls. Strangely 
enough, European publishers— English and 
Continental — persist in offering the worst of 
our literature to their customers, as if they 

had not enough medicore books of their own. 
If this is a subtle way of creating anti- 
American feeling, it is one from which the 
perpetrators must suffer more than we do. 

— It always causes a shock to old-fashion jd 
Catholics to hear or read of priests taking 
part in the religious or semi-religious exer- 
cises of lodges, as, for instance, the "memo- 
rial day service" of the Elks. On such an 
occasion recently, at Rock Island, 111., the 
Rev. C. P. O'Neill is quoted in the public 
press as saying that "the order of Elks is the 
most noble order on earth and has accom- 
plished more good in the world than any 
other six organizations." Father O'Neill 
must have made this remark in a moment of 
distraction. Surely he does not mean that 
the K. of C. is surpassed by the B. P. 
O. Elks in doing good ! The worst feature 
of such clerical participation in the doings of 
the Elks is that through it Catholic young 
men are coaxed into dangerous lodges which 
are feeders to Freemasonry. 

— We find the following strange observa- 
tion in the Catholic Transcript, the official 
organ of the Bishop of Hartford (Vol. 
XXIV, No. 25) : "Have we a propaganda in 
the Catholic Church of America? Leo XIII 
discovered propaganda and plottings' every- 
where. In the presence of an American visi- 
tor, the Pontiff opened his snuff box and 
wondered whether or not one of the con- 
spirators might not be found hidden away 
in the powder. Is there a propaganda in 
the American Church? If so, who has been 
approached, and who was the agent? What 
arguments were presented? What sweets 
dispensed? The propaganda aims at high 
gain. High motives and high arguments must 
be exposed to the minds of men of high 
integrity. The candied tongue still hath 
powers to charm. Has anyone succumbed?" 
We can hardly suppose that the official organ 


An alms for the poor missionaries and 
Mass said for your own intentions. 

Send 11s your Mass stipends for the 

African Missionaries, who are much in 

need of them and we shall forward the 

money free of charge 


For the African Missions 

1219 Fullerton Building ST. LOUIS, MO. 




Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. 
The text lays down solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these irinciples, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been highly recommended by experts and members of the hierarchy and clergy who have made 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post free 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

ot any American bishop would at this late 
date wish to cast a slur on Pope Leo XIII 
because of his brief on "Americanism," dis- 
agreeable though this document was at the 
time of its publication to some. What, then, 
does the Catholic Transcript mean? "Dunkcl 
ist der Rede Sinn!" 


Literary Briefs 

—"A Child's Life of St. Joan of Arc," by 
Mary E. Mannix, is sufficiently described by 
its title. The book is prettily gotten up and 
makes a neat gift. (Benziger Bros.) 

— While we can discover nothing "path- 
breaking" (see jacket) in Father Joseph 
Husslein's, S.J., "Evolution and Social Prog- 
ress," the volume has its justification in the 
popular way in which the author explains the 
correct concept of evolution and shows how 
a false, material concept saps the foundations 
of society. The aim is clearly apologetic, and 
it is as a contribution to popular apologetics 
that the book must be judged. (P. J. Kenedy 
& Sons). 

— "Sermons," by the late Canon Sheehan, 
of "My New Curate" fame, is the first vol- 
ume of a posthumous collection. A second 
is t follow presently. The editor, Fr. M. J. 
Phelan, S.J., says in the preface that Canon 
Sheehan was wont to write out his sermons 
very carefully. They are characterized by a 
keen analysis of the human heart, a wealth 
of knowledge, fecundity of ideas, and rich- 
ness of imagination, and will no doubt find 
favor with the late Canon's many friends in 
the priesthood. (Benziger Bros.) 

— "An Awakening and What Followed," by 
James Kent Stone, D.D., better known among 
Catholics as Father Fidelis of the Cross, 
Passionist, tells the story of the author's 
conversion and its results. The volume is 
exceptionally well written and of great inter- 
est both from the psychological and the apol- 
ogetic point of view. Nothing more effective 
or convincing could be put into the hands of 
a truth-seeking Protestant, especially of the 
Anglican persuasion, than this book, which 
is printed in fine large type on good paper 
by the Ave Maria Press, Notre Dame, Ind. 

—"The Divine Office" by the Rev. E. J. 
Quigley, is, as the subtitle indicates, "a study 
in the Roman Breviary." Its chief merit is 
that it combines within a reasonable compass 
the historical, liturgical, theological and as- 
cetical aspects of the subject and thus fur- 

nishes a handy introduction for the ecclesi- 
astical student and a means whereby the busy 
priest, haply overfamiliar with the recital of 
the Office, may renew his interest and atten- 
tion. The author insists particularly on mak- 
ing the Breviary a real prayerbook and gives 
many useful devices for attaining this end. 
(B. Herder Book Co.) 

— Anne Catherine Emmerich's "Lowly Life 
and Bitter Passion ot Our Lord Jesus Christ," 
as edited originally by Fr. C. E. Schmoger, 
C.SS.R., has been translated from the fourth 
German edition into English. The four vol- 
umes bear date 1914, but reached us only the 
other day. The first opens with a sympa- 
thetic foreword by the late Fr. Albert Rein- 
hart, O.P. The translation reads well and 
is calculated to make the visions of the saint- 
ly Diilmen nun better known among English- 
speaking Catholics. Meanwlrle the contro- 
versy regarding the authenticity and value 
of these visions still continues in Germany. 
(New York: The Sentinel Press, 185 E. 
76th Str.) 

—Mr. Stewart E. Bruce, in "The War Guilt 
and Peace Crime of the Entente Allies," con- 
tends that Russia, Great Britain, and France 
were essentially as guilty of bringing on the 
world war as Germany ; that America's 
participation in the struggle was the unwise 
deed of mainly one man, and that the "peace 
settlement" is unjust and foolish. He advo- 
cates certain measures by which he believes 
the people could become the real masters of 
their own destiny, so that a repetition of 
such a calamity as the world war would be 
impossible. His remarks on the "patriotic 
debauch" of the past few years and "the sin 
of flag worship" are particularly apposite 
and impressive. "Ultra-patriotism," he says, 
among other things, "is not a virtue in a 
people — it is a national sin — it is a species 
of pagan idolatry, a sin that has brought its 
punishment down through the history of man- 
kind and never more swift and certain and 
retributive than during the late war." This 
little book will prove an eye-opener to many. 
(New York: F. L. Searl & Co., no W. 34th 

Books Received 

Life of St. Marqaret Marv Alacoque. By Rt. Rev. 
E. Itougaud, D.D., Bishop of Laval. 388 pp. 8vo. 
Benziger Bros. $2.75 net. 

St. Agnes Church, Cleveland, Ohio. An Interpreta- 
tion by Anne O'Hare McCormick. 48 pp. 4to. 
Richly illustrated. Cleveland, O. : The Rev. Gil- 
bert P. Jennings, LL.D., Pastor. 



January 1 

A batch of pamphlets from the Catholic Truth So- 
ciety, 69 Southwark Bridge Road, S.E. 1, London, 
England, as follows: 

Answers to a Jewish Enquirer. By the Rev. 
Tl eodore Ratisbonne (1814-1884). Translated 
from the French. 48 pp. 16mo. 6 pence. 
The Road to Damascus. The Story of an Under- 
graduate's Conversion. By W. A. D. With 
an Introduction by the Rev. C. C. Martindale, 
S.J. 32 pp. 16mo. 6 pence. 
The Lambeth Conference. Reprinted from the 
Tablet, Aug. 28, 1920. 12 pp. 16mo. 6 pence. 

The Pope's Latest Message of Peace. Official 
Translation of the Encyclical of May 23, 1920. 
12 pp. 16mo. 2 pence. 
Women in the Catholic Church. By the Rev. 
H. F. Hall. 12 pp. 16mo. 2 pence. 
The Palace Beautiful, or the Spiritual Temple of 
God. By the Rev. Frederick A. Houck. 167 pp. 
12mo. Frederick Pustet Co., Inc. 
The Divine Office. A Study of the Roman Breviary. 
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The Fortnightly Review 



January 15, 1921 

The New Home 
By Margaret Ashmu-n 

How strange it is, a month ago 
I lodged elsewhere, and did not know 
This house existed ; now I sit 
And see myself the lord of it. 

My foot was free; for years of days 
I went my unregardful ways. 
Yet men were toiling with the pick. 
Were smelting steel and burning brick, 
And felling trees, and in the mill 
Were shaping rafter, joist, and sill. 
To rear my roof against the rain. 
They raised the chimney, set the pane, 
Made every corner true and plumb, 
To wait the hour that I should come. 

These men had sailed from over sea 
That they might do this good for me ; 
But all the time, I did not know 
They lived — until a month ago. 

God bless, I say, the kind forethought, 
And bless the careful hands that wrought 
To build this house, and build it well, 
That I might have a place to dwell ! 

Belloc's Latest Book 

The Louisville Record has discovered 
the true purpose of Air. Hilaire Belloc's 
new hook, "Europe and the Faith." Our 
contemporary says (No. 48) : 

"There are two distinct threads run- 
ning through this work — one Catholic, 
one British. It is easier to follow the 
first than the second. The first runs 
in a natural course ; the second is tortu- 
ous. Mr. Belloc's attempt to weave them 
together in a continuous unbroken cord 
that leads back from Protestant Eng- 
land to Pagan Rome, is artfully done; 
but it leaves us with some misgivings. 
His purpose to shake oft the Teutonic 
ancestry of his country and show Eng- 
land as the natural heir of the Christian- 
ized Roman Empire, is too obvious ; and 
it requires too much. First of all, it re- 
quires a belief that human nature is a 
variant, — one thing in a Roman, another 
thing in a Teuton. It requires belief in 
a fallacv still more fundamental, if that 

be possible, — that the faith is assimilable 
to the Roman nature and non-assimil- 
able to the Teuton, so that the Teuton 
cannot be truly Catholic without ceasing 
to be Teuton." 

In its No. 49 the Record emotes the 
Catholic Bulletin as saying that Mr. 
Belloc's thesis, if accepted, "would 
mean the re-writing of practically all 
the Catholic history of Europe since 
the migration of nations." It would 
mean something more and something 
worse that that : namely, the complete 
subversion of the Scriptural teaching 
that Cod "sanabiles fecit omnes na- 
tiones" (Wisd. I, 14) and of the Cath- 
olic dogma that Christ came to save all 
men and all nations of the earth. 

Our readers need not be reminded 
that we never were among the admirers 
of Hilaire Belloc and the whole 
"Chester-Belloc" literary clique. 

Rossini's "Stabat Mater" 

The Catholic CJtoirmaster for Oc- 
tober contains a strong denunciation of 
Rossini's Stabat Mater, the text for 
which is supplied by an account in the 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, headed 
"Opera at Maine Festival," wherein 
Rossini's work was the attraction : 

"Rossini's Stabat Mater music could 
be better used to accompany out and 
out melodrama and moving pictures 
(Wild West, cowboy and Indian fights 
and like scenes) than to reflect the 
holy woe and sacred sorrow of the 
Mother of our Redeemer." 

"The" Stabat Mater, as Rossini's 
meretricious work is commonly called, 
is referred to in Dom Alphege Sheb- 
beares paper on "Plainsong at Quarr 
Abbey" in Blackfriars. for November, 
in the .following terms : 

"By all means enjoy Rossini's Cujus 
animam if you don't understand the 
words, or can forget them !" 



January 15 

A Unique Christmas Card 

We are indebted to our venerable 
friend, the Rev. Lewis Drummond, S. 
J., of Loyola College, Montreal, for a 
copy of a unique Christmas card. The 
card contains some verses and a picture, 
both of which have a curious history. 

While thinking of Bethlehem and its 
contrast of childlike weakness and re- 
sistless power, Father Drummond, who, 
as our readers know, is a writer of rare 
distinction, was inspired to compose 
these lines : 

The Babe Divine 

Mere baby fair He lay, 

All wonderment in eyes, 
That opened wide and gay 

With gladness and surprise, 

As if the world to Him 
Was full of mystery, 
As if its marvels dim 

Must hide some witchery. 

Bereft He seemed of speech, 

Unable yet to frame 
(His time would come to preach) 

The lettres of His name. 

But well the Mother kenned 

That He whose tongue was tied. 

Her Maker and Last End, 
Was Word personified; 

That His all-grasping mind 

Played with the deeps of thought. 

And by one act defined 

What myriad mystics sought] 

That He the past must see, 
Of might-have-beens the how, 

What is and what shall be. 
In His eternal now ; 

How at His beck and call 

Is all that can be known, 
For He hath made it all 

And holds it as His own. 

Adoringly she saw 

How her own Infant swung 
The stars on might of law, 

Which silently they sung. 

O Jesus, sweet and strong, 
Who took the children's part, 

Make me to Thee belong 
As man with childlike heart. 

A shrewd literary critic, to whom he 
showed these verses, advised Father 
Drummond to have them printed in the 
form of a Christmas card and referred 
him to a Catholic artist, a woman of 
journalistic and general business ex- 

perience, who had already published 
artistic Christmas cards. The author, 
who had written these verses without 
thinking of any picture, now tried to 
find a suitable one. The first one he ex- 
amined was an accurate photograph of 
the Sistine Madonna of Dresden. But, 
though he found in the eyes of the In- 
fant depth and power, he did not find 
any look of childish wonder, such as 
the opening lines describe, and such as 
an)- naturally bright child might have. 
Then the lady, who is a collector of art 
treasures, showed Fr. Drummond an- 
other picture, saying that it came nearer 
to his idea. He agreed with her and 
caused the picture to be engraved as 
a frontispiece for a four-page card, 
bearing his verses on the inside. 

The most curious part of this coin- 
cidence is that the photogravure is a 
copy of a painting recently discovered 
in some obscure corner of Paris. Con- 
noisseurs agree that it must be a long- 
lost Raphael : for it bears the impress 
of his genius at its best. No other 
painter could give to the Divine Infant's 
eyes that look of combined eagerness 
and serenity, and to the Mother that 
virginal modesty which makes her veil 
her own eyes in order that His may 

The cards were put on the market un- 
fortunately a little too late for distribu- 
tion during the Christmas season 
abroad, though quite a number were 
sold in Montreal. 

The verses, as reproduced above, re- 
present a tour de force of condensation 
and metre, all the lines being of the 
same three-accent length and all rhym- 
ing alternately. They convey a lesson 
which is not confined to Christmastide, 
but which underlies the whole mystery 
of the Incarnation. 

Copies of this unique Christmas card 
can be had at twenty cents each from 
the Secretary of the Catholic Social 
Service Guild, 274 Union Ave., Mon- 
treal. Canada. Dealers who may wish 
to lav in a stock of these cards for 
Christmas, 1921, can purchase them at 
$15 a hundred. 

"The Babe Divine," if set to music 
by a real artist, might become a popular 




hymn. It contains a variety of leit- 
motifs : the gay beginning, the sombre 
speechlessness ; the trumpet-toned pro- 
clamation of the "Word personified;'' 
the Actus Purus hinted at in the line, 
"by one act defined," the staccato enum- 
eration of past, present, future, and 
"futuribilia ;" the calm possession of the 
universe ; the Mother's vision of the 
stars "swung on might of law" by the 
Infant, and the final plea of union with 
the Babe Divine. The poem also lends 
itself to translation into German because 
most of the words are Saxon. 

Entering upon a Period of Industrial 

Depression — A Catholic Employer 

to his Employees 

A Catholic employer, the president 
of a large industrial company, on Dec. 
22nd, addressed the subjoined circular 
letter to his employees, who have long 
since been admitted to a share in the 
profits of the business : 
Dear Associates : — 

Business, as you know, has "fritter- 
ed" away to nothing, and ours is no ex- 
ception, our sales for the fall months 
being only a third of what they were 
last year. 

We are losing money hand-over-fist 
every day, and we have been for some 
months, but it was our idea that our 
business was so good the first six 
months of the year that it would take 
care of the latter six months, and per- 
haps leave us a little profit. 

There have been no reductions in 
salary, and everyone has been kept at 
work, both on the road and at the fac- 
tory, but we are all facing a problem 
for next year, and it is my idea every- 
one should expect to share some of the 
loss and responsibility, and inasmuch 
as we expect to keep everyone who has 
been with us any length of time on the 
payroll, it might be necessary for us to 
make some drastic reductions, perhaps 
331/3% off, beginning with myself and 
to include everyone. 

This is a matter, however, in which 
everyone connected with the concern 
should have a voice, and if anyone has 
any suggestions to make, or can offer 
a better plan, it would give me a great 

deal of pleasure carefully to consider 

Let us hope, however, that business 
will start off with a rush January 1st, 
making no changes of any kind neces- 
sarv. Yours, &c. 

Consolidation of the "Herold des 
Glaubens" with the "Amerika" 

By a decision of the board of direc- 
tors of the German Literary Society, 
St. Louis, which publishes the Amerika 
(a daily, Sunday, and semi-weekly 
Catholic newspaper in the German lan- 
guage, now in its fiftieth year) and the 
Herold des Glaubens, the latter, the 
oldest German Catholic weekly journal 
published in the United States, has been 
consolidated with the semi-weekly edi- 
tion of the former, which now bears 
the sub-title, Herold des Glaubens. 

For seventy-two years the Herold has 
valiantly served the Catholic cause 
among the German immigrants and 
their descendants, and if it loses its in- 
dependent status now, the reason is 
solely the natural extinction in America 
of German as a spoken language, — 
which fact is gradually rendering the 
publication of German newspapers un- 
necessary and unprofitable. 

Unless we shall experience a notable 
revival of German immigration within 
the next few years, the entire German 
press of the country is doomed. Its de- 
cline is a great pity and involves a 
serious loss, for no section of the Cath- 
olic press has defended the faith more 
courageously than, and none has upheld 
such high standards as, the papers 
printed in German. The war with its 
untoward after-effects has greatly ac- 
celerated the inevitable process of ex- 
tinction. Let us hope that the spirit of 
the German Catholic pioneer journals 
will continue to live in their English 
offshoots, among which the Fort- 
nightly Review, like the Buffalo Echo 
and a few other English-language 
journals, is proud to be numbered. 


—After reading the Review, hand it to a 
friend; perhaps he will subscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolate of the good press. 



January 15 

Mr. F. X. Weinschenk and His Efforts 
on Behalf of the Catholic Press 

The Daily American Tribune reports 
the death, at Bellevue, la., of Mr. Frank 
X. Weinschenk, a retired stock-raiser, 
who had a strange career. Our con- 
temporary tells a few things ahout that 
career, namely, that in 1910, Mr. Wein- 
schenk became interested in the project 
of founding an international Catholic 
telegraph agency which would supply 
the people of the U. S., especially the 
Catholics, with reliable news and in- 
formation ; that he went to Europe and, 
with Mr. Baumberger, of Zurich, and 
others, organized the International In- 
dependent Telegraph Agency, more 
widely known as the "Juta," which he 
finally took over entirely, but had to 
give up as a failure, after devoting 
a large sum of money and much time 
and energy to an attempt at developing 

To this information we can add a 
little more from personal knowledge. 
Late in 1909, or early in 1910, Mr. 
Weinschenk, at the suggestion of a 
priest in whom he placed great con- 
fidence, wrote to the Editor of the 
Fortnightiy Review, saying that he 
was willing to put a hundred thousand 
dollars and more into a Catholic daily 
newspaper if Mr. Preuss would assume 
the editorship. The writer, who was 
then slowly recovering from a severe 
nervous breakdown, and did not think 
that he would ever fully regain his 
health, had to decline the offer, but he 
advised Mr. Weinschenk to apply to 
Archbishop Quigley, of Chicago, who 
shortly before, in an interview with the 
Editor of the F. R., had expressed deep 
concern in the foundation of a Catholic 
daily, so much so that he had thought 
of purchasing the Evening Journal, of 
that city. 

Mr. Weinschenk went to see the 
Archbishop, but the latter had mean- 
while been persuaded that it would 
be useless to start a Catholic daily un- 
less there was previously established an 
agency for furnishing reliable news. 
He therefore advised Mr. W T einschenk 
to devote his money to the establishment 
of an international Catholic news 

It was this advice that led Mr. Wein- 
schenk to go to Europe and take a hand 
in the "Juta," which had been estab- 
lished some time previously, but was 
on its last legs for want of funds. We 
are unable to say how much money he 
sank in the "juta," but the amount must 
have been considerable. He returned to 
America a year or so later, a very much 
disappointed man. 

While in Europe he had gained the 
impression that Great Britain was ruling 
the world through a big financial syndi- 
cate, to which its government and ours 
were subservient. He settled tempo- 
rarily in Washington and there opened 
a correspondence bureau, sending out 
regular bulletins, filled with facts, 
figures, and fancies. Before long he got 
into trouble with the government, was 
arrested, and held in confinement for 
some time. It soon became apparent 
that his mind had become deranged and 
he was discharged, went back to his 
home in Iowa, and the world never 
heard of him any more. 

The man had a genuine desire to 
serve the Catholic cause with his money, 
but unfortunately lacked judgment. The 
Tribune thinks that his undertaking, 
though a failure, probably paved the 
way for the "Kipa" and the .News 
Service of the N. C. W. C. This would 
not be very much glory, even if Mr. 
Weinschenk had originated the "Juta," 
which he did not. When he wrote us of 
his interview with Archbishop Quigley 
and of his intention of going to Europe 
to save and develop the "Juta," we 
thought it a mistake ; but having our- 
selves sent him to Chicago, we did not 
feel as if we should try to dissuade him 
from following the Archbishop's ad- 
vice. Had he stayed in Iowa and in- 
vested his capital in the Dubuque Trib- 
une, that paper would probably have 
developed into a daily ten years ago and 
now might possibly be self-sustaining. 

The case of Mr. Weinschenk again 
goes to show that it takes more than 
money and a good intention to perform 
an important public service to the Cath- 
olic cause. 

—If you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after you have read them. 




Lawlessness and its Cure 
One of the most common and danger- 
ous errors of our modern public life is 
the assumption that the actions of men 
can be controlled by statutes of civil 
law, without any regard to the prin- 
ciples and sanctions of the moral order. 
Thousands and thousands of lawmakers 
assemble every year in Congress, in the 
legislatures, in the city councils, and all 
are intent upon grinding out as many 
laws and ordinances as they can to meet 
every possible emergency. But as the 
number of statutes in our criminal 
codex have thus grown almost in infini- 
tum, lawlessness has kept pace with 
them, and the world is grown no better, 
but worse. The saying of Rome's great- 
est historian is to the point : "The State 
is most corrupt when laws are most 
numerous." In this matter there seems 
to be an endless chain of cause and 
effect : The multiplicity of laws produc- 
ing a disregard for them, and this law- 
lessness producing in turn a demand for 
new and more stringent laws, and so 
on without end, until the ruin of the 
State is complete. 

This is a very serious matter that 
deserves the attention of all thoughtful 
men. The danger is plain. If anything 
were necessary to prove it, we should 
but advert to the riot of crime that 
is now spread like a sickening pall over 
this our law-bound country. 

But what is the remedy? Shall we 
abolish our laws? Or shall we add new 
ones to the long roster? Certainly, 
neither the one nor the other expedient 
would serve the purpose. What, then, 
can be done? Enforce the laws we have? 
Well, that might help some. That 
answer, however, does not solve the 
difficulty, but only shifts the responsibil- 
ity from the criminal to the officers of 
the law. These latter are, no doubt, do- 
ing their best ; and if some officers really 
be delinquent in their duty, their prac- 
tice should be mended or ended. Yet, 
after all, the question recurs : What can 
be done to secure due respect for the 
law of the land? 

The true answer is : We must- place 
our whole system of law upon a new, 
or rather back upon the old, basis, name- 

ly, the eternal law of right and equity 
that God has inscribed upon the con- 
science of mankind. 

As Edmund Burke says: "All human 
laws are, properly speaking, only decla- 
ratory. They may alter the mode of 
application, but have no power over the 
substance of original justice." Now, 
your lawyers will tell me : That is ex- 
actly the principle on which our law- 
makers act. Every law must be the ex- 
pression of something that is right and 
just. Yes, it must be, and perhaps it is, 
as a rule: but our demand goes farther 
than the small circle of lawyers and 
legislators. If the mass of the people do 
not regard your laws in this light, then 
lawlessness will be the order of the day. 
And that is where the trouble lies. 
As one of our great orators has said: 
"We do not live by the laws of our 
land. You do not know one quarter of 
the laws that are on our statute-books. 
A virtuous and honest man does not 
need to know what the laws are. He 
does right of his own accord, and there- 
fore the law has no force on him." In- 
deed, a law-abiding citizen must first 
of all be a moral man. The men of the 
past generation were, for the most part, 
religious men of strong faith and a 
rugged sense of moral responsibility. 
They submitted to the restrictions of 
the civil law because they recognized 
them as applications of the eternal law 
of right. To raise up a new law-abiding 
generation, we must train our children, 
not only in the laws of nature, of eco- 
nomics, and of the courts, but even more 
so in the eternal law of righteousness 
and justice and charity. We must insist, 
not so much on their liberty, which so 
often turns into license, but rather on 
their duties to God and their fellow- 
men. As long as God's eternal law is 
ignored or ridiculed, so long we cannot 
expect a due regard for the laws of 
men, be they ever so wise. "A law is 
valuable, not because it is law. but be- 
cause there is right in it" ; and we may 
add : A law will be observed the better, 
the more men recognize the right that 
is in it. 

There is the only remedy for lawless- 
ness and crime. 

(Rev.) Iohx Rothensteixer 



January 15 

Mr. Towner on Federal Control 
of Education 

At a meeting held at Washington, D. 
C, May 19, 20, 21, 1920, the Hon. 
Horace M. Towner, Representative 
from Iowa, and sponsor of the much- 
discussed "Smith-Towner Bill", spoke 
on "Education as a National Interest." 
The address presents not a single argu- 
ment which has not been answered time 
and again. The speaker tried to take 
away all ground of complaint from the 
opponents to his scheme by blandly as- 
suring that "we have no idea or inten- 
tion of seeking control of education 
when we suggest the creation of a de- 
partment of education." The whole ad- 
dress is a flat contradiction of this as- 

For in the very paragraph preceding 
this statement, Mr. Towner said: "Un- 
fortunately, we have never done what 
we ought to have done years ago, name- 
ly, create a Department of Education, 
with its chief as a member of the Presi- 
dent's cabinet." 

But if the intended new department 
will not seek "control of education," 
what will be its main purpose? Will it 
not "investigate conditions" in schools, 
prescribe courses of study, revise the 
curriculum, "standardize" methods of 
teaching, introduce strange subjects 
into the class-room, etc.? For if all 
these activities are not taken up at the 
beginning, what guarantee have we that 
they will not be attempted, once the 
"Department" is well established? 

There are two pet arguments which 
are often brought forward by advocates 
of the Bill. Mr. Towner made use of 
them on this occasion. Referring to the 
fact that we have a Department of 
Agriculture, he asks : "Is it possible that 
the development of agriculture is con- 
sidered of greater interest and im- 
portance to the people of the United 
States than the development and en- 
couragement of education?" Ergo, we 
should have a Department of Educa- 

There is no parity when these two 
departments are considered with refer- 
ence to their meeting a real and vital 
need of our people. The Department of 

Agriculture can do good work by offer- 
ing practical suggestions to the farmers 
and the dairymen. These suggestions, — 
whether they be hints on exterminating 
chinch-bugs, or methods of pressing 
cheese, — will be of equal value to all 
agriculturists. The "personal equation" 
is not introduced, moral issues are not 
at stake, personal liberties are not in- 
fringed, higher moral and spiritual in- 
terests are not involved. 

The information and directions sup- 
plied by the Department of Agriculture 
have exactly the same meaning for our 
entire rural population, and they can be 
accepted or rejected without any cur- 
tailment of one's right as a citizen, or 
as a member of a democracy. But laws, 
and directions for the education and 
training of our children cannot be made 
mandatory upon all citizens without 
curtailing or taking away essential 

Mr. Towner speaks of the danger 
that threatens the Republic from illiter- 
acy. If we "allow a determining portion 
of our people to become or remain 
ignorant and illiterate, then I fear there 
is grave danger that the Republic will 
ultimately fall, dishonoring itself, and 
bringing upon itself the condemnation 
of mankind and the malediction of his- 
tory." Ignorance of the citizens of a 
State is indeed deplorable, as we see 
from the chaos now reigning in Russia. 
But of late we have been told again 
and again that it is the parlor sociol- 
ogist, the college socialist, the "high- 
brow" reformer, and others of this 
kind who have added to the social dis- 
content and have belittled legitimate 
authority. Would it not be worth while 
to teach these "reformers", before tak- 
ing millions from the pockets of the 
people for fighting illiteracy? 

(Rev.) Albert Muxtsch, S. J. 

— There is always a dearth of good plays 
for the amateur and parochial stage, and it 
will, therefore, interest some of our readers 
to be told that the January number of the 
Ladies' Flomc Journal contains a list of about 
fifty one-act plays, arranged by authors' names 
and with descriptive or critical comment, by 
Mr. Henry McMahon. At the end is a short 
list of "helpful manuals'' for amateur stage 




The K. of C. and that "Anti-Bolshevik 

The Catholic Sentinel, of Portland, 
Ore., in its edition of Dec. 23rd, pub- 
lished the following editorial note : 

From two sources, both Catholic, we 
note criticism of the "anti-Bolshevik" 
propaganda of the Knights of Columbus 
as spread by Messrs. Goldstein and Col- 
lins, K. C. lecturers. Thus the Echo of 
Buffalo. X. Y., quotes a letter from P. 
H. Callahan of Louisville, Ky., well- 
known manufacturer, and one of the 
organizers of the Knights of Columbus 
war work, who calls attention to the 
anti-labor movement now going on 
"under the guise of 100 per cent Am- 
ericanism." "Colonel Callahan," says 
the Echo, "expresses the fear that the 
Knights of Columbus, of which organi- 
zation he is a prominent member, will 
line up with the reactionary forces 
under the pretext of fighting Socialism 
and Bolshevism, and points to the re- 
actionary activity of David Goldstein 
and Peter \Y. Collins, who, he says, 
'are working overtime against any 
change in the established order of 
things.' " 

The other complainant is G. J. Knapp, 
who, "as a Catholic," writes to the N. 
Y. Nation his views of Mr. Collins in 
particular. He says : 

"For several years the Knights of 
Columbus have been sponsoring the lec- 
ture tours of one Peter W. Collins. Mr. 
Collins' special forte is calling for the 
heart's blood of those who disagree with 
him politically, especially the Bolshe- 
vists and Socialists of every shade of 
pink and red. His published interviews 
and speeches have uniformly been noth- 
ing more nor less than incitations to 
riots. Thus, witness the following from 
a published interview given by Mr. Col- 
lins several months ago in a western 
North Dakota city where I happened to 
be editing a newspaper at the time : 
They should be so handled that in a 
few minutes they will be scurrying into 
holes and corners to hide, or seeking 
hospitals to have their wounds doctor- 
ed.' What is this but inciting to violence 
and bloodshed?" 

We publish these complaints not to 

endorse them, but to call the attention 
of those concerned to them. 

Thus far the Sentinel. We may add 
that public attention has repeatedly been 
drawn to the noxious activity of Messrs. 
Collins and Goldstein by the Buffalo 
Eclio, the St. Louis Amerika, the Belle- 
ville Messenger, the Mount Angel 
Magazine, the Milwaukee Catholic 
Citizen, the Fortnightly Review, 
and a number of other journals, ap- 
parently without the slightest effect. 
May we not hope that the leaders of 
the K. of C. will soon perceive the un- 
wisdom of letting these agitators parade 
as champions of Catholic social reform, 
of whose true principles they know 
about as much as the man in the moon, 
and to send in their stead men who will 
explain and defend the social reconstruc- 
tion policy of the National Catholic 
Welfare Council, — men of the stamp, 
for instance, of Col. P. H. Callahan, of 
Louisville, Ky.? Collins and Goldstein 
have done incalculable damage to the 
cause of Catholicity and Columbian 
knighthood during the past few years. 


A Journal of Opinion 
Published Weekly 

yHE ECHO'S editorials discuss 
important religious, political, 
economic, and industrial questions 
from a thoroughly Catholic view- 

It contains thought - provoking 
articles on "Social Reconstruction - ' 
by competent authorities. 

A fearless Catholic Newspaper 
that covers a distinct field. 

Sample Copies on Request 
Subscription: $2.00 a Year 


564 Dodge St. Buffalo, N. Y. 



January 15 

The Government and Liberty Bonds 

Senator Warren, chairman of the 
Committee on Appropriations, is bine 
about the prospects of the Treasury. 
He says : "The government is now in 
a position that we all would think un- 
sound for a business man who was 
borrowing from day to day on the 
street, selling his paper where he might 
. . . .During the war, of course, it was 
easy to obtain funds, because every 
patriotic, loyal citizen was anxious to 
support . the government. They sub- 
scribed for funds readily at a low rate 
of interest; many of them, in fact, I 
might almost say, a majority of them, 
being compelled to borrow money to 
buy the bonds. They have since had to 
call upon the banks to relieve them, to 
take the bonds from time to time, at a 
reduction of from five to seventeen per 
< ent. They have had to dispose of many 
of them to pay their government taxes. 
You will find the last payment of taxes 
was largely made by those who liad no 
other funds available and had to sell 
their bonds." 

These statements are interesting, 
coming from a U. S. Senator. Even 
more interesting, however, observes 
The Freeman, is "the fact that those 
who foresaw and foretold this state of 
things during the great loan-drives were 
luck)' to get away with their lives. It 
now appears that the poor souls who 
offered Liberty bonds to pay for the last 
instalment of their income tax, could 
get acceptance only at market-value. 
The newspapers reported this, at any 
rate, and we suppose they know. 
Evidently the government is not out 
to take any chances on these bonds ; 
well, one can not blame the government, 
for one would not do it oneself. Still, it 
has a scurvy look, and does nothing to 
distinguish the present as an era of 
good feeling between the bondholders 
and their Uncle Samuel. Think of it: 
millions, probably, of those bondholders 
never before in their lives held a se- 
curity of any kind, and now when they 
contemplate the value of those they do 
hold, and recall the extravagant prom- 
ises and assurances held out to them at 
the time of purchase not so long ago, 
thev must ruefully wonder why the un- 

fortunate Mr. Ponzi, of Boston, has 
been sent to prison." 

A Colleague's Opinion of William 

Dr. George Santayana, who was pro- 
fessor of philosophy at Harvard, and 
for years a colleague of the late William 
James, in his remarkable book, "Char- 
acter and Opinion in the United States," 
lately published in England, where he 
now resides, says that the great psychol- 
ogist was really no philosopher at all. 

"On points of art and medicine," he 
says, "[James] retained a professional 
touch and an unconscious ease which 
he had hardly acquired in metaphysics. 
I suspect he had heartily admired some 
of his masters in those other subjects, 
but had never seen a philosopher whom 
he would have cared to resemble.... 
His excursions into philosophy were of 
the nature of raids." 

Mr. Santayana insists that James was 
always an agnostic : "He did not really 
believe ; he merely believed in the right 
of believing that you might be right if 
you believed." 

In fact, James was a democratic kind 
American who criticized philosophy 
and the harsh austerity of philosophers 
out of his own democratic kindness. 
Hence the "Varieties of Religious Ex- 
perience," of which it has been said 
that he arrives at no distinction between 
religion and delirium tremens. 

"The religions that had sprung up in 
America spontaneously, communistic, 
hysterical, spiritistic, or medicinal," 
says Santayana, "were despised by se- 
lect and superior people ; so he would 
not despise them. He was not going to 
contract delirium tremens himself, but 
--who knows? — it may be a way to 
truth.... Philosophy for him had a 
Polish constitution ; so long as a single 
vote was cast against the majority, 
nothing could pass." 

In fact, James did not like religion. 
"What a curse it would be," he said 
once, "if one couldn't forget all about 
it." The question arises — why did he 
occupy himself with it so intensely? 
That is a question Mr. Santayana can- 
not answer. 




K. of C. Publications 

A prominent Knight of Columbus 
complains that the Order has had bad 
luck with bulletins and other periodical 
publications issued by members osten- 
sibly in the interest of the organization. 
In one instance, that of the Good of 
the Order, Louisville, Ky., Col. P. H. 
Callahan purchased a semi-monthly K. 
of C. magazine in order to prevent it 
from being made a vehicle of objection- 
able advertising, political and otherwise, 
and from advocating a policy wh : ch was 
apt to prove detrimental rather than 
beneficial to the Order. 

This complaint suggests the question : 
Would not a consistent utilization of 
the existing Catholic press prove more 
advantageous, both for the Order itself 
and for the Catholic cause in general, 
than the establishment of separate and 
specifically K. of C. bulletins, reviews, 
or magazines, which, as a rule, either 
soon go under from lack of support or 
are exploited for purposes foreign from, 
cr even detrimental to, the aims and 
policies of the Order? 


"An Orgy of Blackguardism'' 
Those who did not read Mr. G. B. 
Shaw's articles on "The New Terror- 
ism" that the Hearst papers printed in 
three successive Sunday issues, missed 
a dose of strong common sense. 

Mr. Shaw writes with apparent 
earnestness and sincerity and no sus- 
picion of a jest. Among other equally 
notable things he says : 

"Extermination is a word which 
should be in every one's mouth at the 
present time, because it is the right word 
for all those securitist policies of co- 
ercion, retaliation, subjugation, re- 
establishment of order, imperialism, 
patriotism, and so forth, which have 
made post-war statesmanship such an 
orgy of blackguardism." 

Those are just the right words in the 
right place. "An orgy of blackguard- 
ism" nicely covers everything that since 
the armistice has taken place, first and 
foremost at Versailles, and then at 
every seat of Allied government, and 
except for the rejection of the treaty, at 
Washington as well. We are sick of it; 
we were sick of it in anticipation before 

it began ; and the presidential election 
showed plainly enough that the great 
majority of the people are sick of it. 
The thing now, as Mr. Shaw suggests, 
is for them to make themselves con- 
scious of one another and of their 
strength, and to take the word "exter- 
mination" purposefully into their 


The War to Blame? 

Commenting on the nation-wide wave 
of crime (see Fr. Rothensteiner's article 
in our No. 1), The Freeman says: 

"A good many men are out of work, 
out of money, more or less hungry and 
at loose ends. They have had author- 
itative instruction from the U. S. gov- 
ernment upon the essential cheapness 
and worthlessness of human life, and 
upon the sanction of violence in estab- 
lishing title to property. They now, pre- 
sumably, are adapting their education 
to the highly practical purpose of get- 
ting on in the world, quite as they have 
seen governments do. They are taking 
over to themselves, in other words, the 
'political means' of satisfying their 
needs and desires, and exercising it in 
an amateur way ; and they appear to be 
doing exceedingly well with it every- 
where, and reflecting credit upon their 

"As long as governments insist that it 
is not only right, but important and 
necessary, to kill their enemies, so long 
will private persons assume upon oc- 
casion the right to kill theirs. As long 
as President Wilson and his associates 
admit the public right of robbing Ger- 
mans, Russians, Irish, Syrians, and 
what not, so long will the private right 
of vis major be assumed on occasion as 
establishing title to such portable prop- 
ertv as may be handy. That is one of 
the drawbacks of such little experiences 
as the country has been passing through 
during the past four years. The logic of 
the case, moreover, does not seem wholly 
against the law-breaker. If, for the ad- 
vantage of the State and its beneficia- 
ries, it is right to kill and rob human 
beings who were born in Germany, why 
is it not right, for one's own advantage, 
to kill and rob human beings who were 
born in Connecticut or Kentucky?" 



January 15 

The Wrong Way to Combat Socialism 

A priest who is a member of a re- 
ligious order and a teacher in one of 
our American colleges for the training 
of foreign missionaries, wrote to us the 
other day : 

The Fortnightly Review has often 
complained that many of our Catholic 
sociologists and public speakers vehe- 
mently denounce Socialism in all its 
phases without even suggesting a con- 
structive programme for the healing of 
the real evils from which society is so 
manifestly suffering. I found your 
statements verified in some recent meet- 
ings which I attended. Eloquent speak- 
ers discoursed on Socialism, its spread, 
its alleged aims, etc., etc. They raved 
against it and relegated it to the lowest 
pit of hell without even once remark- 
ing that the people, especially the work- 
ing classes, have just and real griev- 
ances which deserve attention and re- 
dress. The whole cure proposed by these 
self-constituted social doctors was the 
imprisonment and deportation of all 
agitators, — as if Bolshevism could be 
combatted in this fashion ! It is astound- 
ing how superficially these important 
problems are treated by men who pre- 
tend to know the ins and outs of Social- 
ism, but evidently have made no serious 
study of the social problem. It seems to 
me, as it does to the F. R., that such 
a treatment of the biggest issue that is 
before the people to-day does more 
harm than good, and justifies the com- 
plaint made occasionally by Socialists 
that we Catholics do not understand 
their point of view at all. Let us hope 
that your criticism of the present slip- 
shod methods of combatting Socialism 
will be heeded and taken to heart by 
those who think themselves fit and 
called to combat Socialism in speech 
and writing. — J. E. 


Another "Prominent Catholic 

A recent issue of the National Civic 
Federation Review carries another ar- 
ticle by P. Tecumseh Sherman. It is 
along the same line as an article by him 
which appeared last September, but in 
this instance there is an additional 
headline to accentuate the fact of his 

being a prominent Catholic layman, 
which will be stressed by some of our 
non-Catholic friends as in the cases of 
Collins and Goldstein, who have been 
given such prominence as Catholic 
economists, whereas they are not econ- 
omists at all. 

This looks like a brazen effort, with a 
plan and personnel carefully prepared 
and selected, to offset the National 
Catholic Welfare Council's official pro- 
gramme. Perhaps our capitalist friends 
will now create a "Society of Little 
Catholic Brothers of the Rich," to help 
them oppose and defeat the objects of 
the Catholic reconstruction programme 
and retain every detail of the present- 

Sherman's "record" shows, by the 
way, that he has opposed a minimum 
wage and shorter hours at some of the 
State legislatures. 

"Non defensoribus istis. . . '." 

A Masonic Lodge at Harvard 

According to the Christian Science 
Monitor, what is believed to be the first 
lodge of the Ancient and Accepted 
Scottish Rite of Freemasonry identified 
with any university, has lately been es- 
tablished at Harvard, under the "dis- 
pensation" of the Grand Lodge of Mas- 

In the fact that there were 75 signers, 
representing more than forty jurisdic- 
tions in the U. S., our Boston contempo- 
rary, which, strange to say, serves the 
cause of Freemasonry with equal zeal 
as that of Christian Science, sees a 
"wide possibility for the furtherance 
of fraternal ideals and Masonic fellow- 
ship among the students and faculty 
members of the institute who are mem- 
bers of the craft." 

It seems inexplicable that, while some 
of our colleges and highschools are 
abolishing the comparatively harmless 
Greek letter fraternities on account of 
the evils resulting from secret societies 
among the students, the ancient and 
venerable university of Harvard should 
permit the establishment of real Free- 
masonry among its students. From 
the Catholic point of view one cannot 
but regard it as a bad omen. 




Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. 
The text lays down solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates extmplify these iriLciples, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been highly recommended by experts and members of the hierarchy and clerjry who have made 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post free 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

(Twenty-third Installment) 

"Uncle Nick" kept the church and church- 
yard through all those years as neatly as he 
could. Great was his joy when I came as 
resident pastor, and innumerable were the 
services which he rendered to all the Catholic 
immigrants. No way was too far, no work 
too hard for him. I myself found in him a 
real father and the best of friends. His 
was truly a golden heart. The last night he 
spent at my house we were together until mid- 
night. That night he told me that for years 
and years he had still hoped to become a 
priest, but now felt satisfied that he had not 
reached that dignity on account of the great 
responsibility before the Judge, whom he 
was soon to meet. Little we thought then 
that this was to be our last social meeting. 

Being well known and respected for over 
ioo miles around Pocahontas, "Uncle Nick" 
had done as much to destroy prejudice 
amongst outsiders as any priest could have 
done. His strict honesty was admired every- 
where. He always and everywhere freely 
professed his faith. His spotless life was an 
edification to all. In the time of the "Know- 
nothings," Southeastern Missouri was full of 
bigots and propagandists, who tried to de- 
stroy the Catholic Church ; but in Northeast 
Arkansas they found strong opponents, who 
said that the religion which produced such 
men as "Uncle Nick," deserved respect. 
Withal he was quite witty and never lost his 
temper in a controversy. At one time a 
Baptist tried to prove to him that all men 
ought to be baptized by immersion in a river 
or lake. "Uncle Nick" replied : "I suppose 
that is the best for you ; you do not take 
kindly to baths, anyhow." He was buried in 
cassock and surplice as a cleric, under die 
large cross in the center of the cemetery. I 
am sure he received a splendid crown from 
the Lord, whom he had served to faithfully. 

On the 17th of October of that year Mr. 
George Gleissner was ordained to the priest- 
hood by Bishop Fitzgerald at the cathedral 
in Little Rock, together with Mr. Patrick 
McCormack. On the 28th he celebrated his 
first Mass at Pocahontas. Father Felix 
Rumpf, O.S.B., then rector of St. Edward's 
Church, Little Rock, preached and assisted as 
deacon at the Mass, whilst Rev. Father Theo- 
dore Smith, O.S.B., from Doniphan, Mo., was 

subdeacon and I acted as assistant priest.. 
Rev. Father Pius Moran, a well-known Do- 
minican missionary, at that time rector of St. 
Peter's Church, Memphis, Tenn., preached an 
eloquent English sermon. A large crowd 
attended. All the guests were treated hospit- 
ably at the rectory. 

Father Gleissner's first Mass was the first 
celebration of that kind in Northeast Arkan- 
sas, and he was the first German priest or- 
dained for the Diocese of Little Rock. From 
that time on Father Gleissner and I together 
attended Pocahontas and the missions of 
Northeastern Arkansas. 

The day following this celebration Mrs. 
Mary Weibel, my sister-in-law, a sister of the 
Indian missionary, Father Bede Marty, 
O.S.B., then in North Dakota, died. At her 
funeral, for the first time, a solemn requiem 
was celebrated at Pocahontas Thus sadness 
followed joy, illustrating the saying: "Media 
vita mortc suimts cirenmdati." 

That fall three Dominican nuns — Sister 
Mary Frances, Sister Mary Petra, and Sister 
Mary Teresa, — of Racine, Wis., took charge 
of the parochial school at Pocahontas. With 
them was Sister Mary Laurentia, who took 
care of the housework. 

A mission preached by Rev. Alphonse 
Leute, O.S.B., from St. Meinrad's, concluded 
this year. 

Meanwhile the congregation at Jonesboro 
had also increased. The few families of that 
place worked like "beavers" for their church. 
At the beginning of the year they had Mass 
on two Sundays a month. However, the 
whole congregation was called together by 
the church bell also on the other Sundays. 
On those so-called "priestless" Sundays the 
altar boys would kneel at the altar ; the can- 
dles were lit ; the Mass prayers, the epistle 
and gospel with explanation were read from 
the gallery by some good reader ; then the 
rosary was recited and some congregational 
singing intermingled with the services. Thus 
the fervor and faith of the people were nour- 
ished. Sunday afternoons, at three o'clock, 
Mrs. Maria Teall, of the Commercial Hotel, 
would teach catechism, and I do not remem- 
ber of any Catholic boys or girls missing. 
Mrs. Teall used Deharbe's large catechism and 
Schuster's Bible History. In an examination, 
a hot contest of several hours brought out 
the fact that three of the children did not 
miss a single question from that large and diffi- 
cult catechism. Times have changed. To- 
day even priests find it difficult to get the 
children to appear Sunday afternoon and to 



January 15 




Bishop of Paderborn 

S. T. D. 

Translated from the Eleventh Edition of the German Original 
Revised and Edited by the REV. HERBERT THURSTON, S. J. 

Cloth, net $3.50 

There has been of late a very large output of non- 
Catholic books dealing with the life after death. 
Every unorthodox and fantastic opinion has found 
supporters, and especially the present-day craze for 
Spiritism is well represented in this literature. 

The need of a sound and attractive exposition of 
the Catnulic teaching on this subject has been in- 
creasingly felt, and in its issue of July, 1918, 
CATHOLIC COOK NOTES (London) voiced this 
urgent need, saying that "such a book, well written, 
abreast of the best scholarship, fair and courteous, 
critical but thoroughly Catholic, would be most wel- 

The present book is intended to supply this need 
and the names and the renown of both the author 

and the editor would seem to offer ample guarantee 
that the book will meet all requirements of a 
Church teaches on the subject. 

While thoroughly up to date in utilizing achieve- 
ments of science, and in meeting the objections of 
scientists antagonistic to the faith, the author has 
wisely taken the writings of the Fathers and Doctors 
of the Church as the foundation for his work, and 
his views and statements are invariably supported by 
unquestionable authorities, with the result that we 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 

memorize anything difficult. The larger De- 
lia rbe in our days would perhaps be regarded 
difficult even in Catholic boarding schools and 
colleges. But in this way the people and the 
children were always well prepared for the 
visits of the priest. 

Paragould and Peach Orchard also had 
each a Sunday, whilst Corning, Newport, 
and the other railroad stations were attended 
on weekdays. One of us was almost con- 
tinually on the missions, whilst the other 
remained at Pocahontas. We generally alter- 
nated in this. The school in Pocahontas this 
year counted 108 pupils, of whom eighty were 
Catholics. From time to time entertainments 
were given by the pupils. The editor of the 
Portia Free Press, who had assisted at a 
drama and several comedies given by the 
school children in 1887, praised the dramati- 
cal and musical achievements and remarked : 
Notwithstanding the mixture of nationalities 
a more friendly and harmonious condition 
cannot be imagined than we found among 
the happy pupils of St. Paul's school in Poca- 

At Altus, Ark., Father Maria Beatus Zis- 
wyler. a Swiss priest, had established a 
colony. He worked hard to build up the 
church and school. He did most of the car- 
penter's work himself. He also worked in 
the fields plowing and hoeing, and tried his 
best to get along. The congregation was of 
considerable size, but composed of people 

from almost all parts of the globe. The in- 
defatigable priest was too much inclined to 
have his own way, and commanded and ruled 
imprudently in many things not belonging 
to his office. The people were likewise very 
stubborn, and thus there resulted many 
clashes, until Bishop Fitzgerald saw himself 
forced to place the parish under the inter- 
dict. Tins only increased the mutual dis- 
trust and animosity. The people finally ap- 
pealed to the Archbishop of New Orleans. 
In that troubled period the Bishop sent me to 
Altus to preach a mission and to try to re- 
store peace. He also gave me the faculties 
necessary to reopen the church. Everybody 
attended and received the sacraments. At 
the conclusion of the mission a conference 
was held with all the men of the congrega- 
tion present, and the different complaints 
were laid before me for consideration. All 
agreed that no serious scandal had been 
given : that Father Ziswyler was a zealous 
priest, and that the source of the trouble was 
nothing but mutual misunderstanding and 
distrust. They promised to attend the church 
and obey the pastor, and thus the trouble 
ended. It is remarkable that Father Zis- 
wyler was well liked in his other missions. 
The good priest, who meant so well, died a 
few weeks after, on July 25, 1887. A corre- 
spondent from Hartman, Johnson County, 
wrote of him on July 28, 1887: "Is it really 
true that our much-beloved parish priest, M. 




B. Ziswyler, is dead? We, his parishioners 
of the Sacred Heart Church in Hartman, 
can hardly believe that we shall see him no 
more ; that we shall no more hear his beauti- 
ful sermons, and no longer enjoy his conver- 
sation; and still the fact that we assisted 
at his funeral, July 27, proves to us that it 
is really so. Well, dear soul, be resigned to 
the wise disposition of the Almighty, who 
has called His faithful servant to bestow 
upon him the reward for his faithful work in 
His vineyard. That this is a beautiful re- 
ward those can judge who had the good luck 
to be present at his death, and witness the 
sweet smile of the dying man, like a reflex 
of glory. The Rev. M. B. Ziswyler came to 
Arkansas eight years ago and settled in 
Altus, Franklin County, to establish a Cath- 
olic colony. In the midst of the forest, on a 
high rocky plateau, he built the house which 
was used in the beginning also as a church. 
Though of a weak constitution he trans- 
formed the woods around by the work of his 
own hands into a paradise. Through his 
tireless activity he succeeded in erecting a 
fine church, visible far away through the Ar- 
kansas Valley. The congregation of the 
Sacred Heart in Hartman was attended by 
him. It lies about twelve miles from his resi- 
dence, and he went there usually on horse- 
hack. Whenever he was not sick abed, bad 
weather could not prevent him from his visit. 
Several times during high water he had to 
swim with his pony through the swift creek 
at the risk of his life. True to his vocation, 
'A friend in need is a friend indeed.' He 
will live long in the hearts of many. R. 
I. P." 

After Father Ziswyler's death the congre- 
gation at Altus was given to the Benedictines 
ot New Subiaco. Under their administration 
a beautiful stone church and a large rectory 
were built. (To be continued) 
~<J>~ — : 

—If the Fortnightly Review fails in stim- 
ulating its readers to think for themselves — 
even to the point of occasional disagreement 
with its utterances — its purpose is not at- 


— The K able gram, a fraternal organ, says 
in its October (1920) number that "less than 
half the fraternal insurance societies in the 
United States are actually solvent." It would 
be interesting to know how many Catholic 
societies are among the solvent ones. 

—The Church of Our Lady of the Hundred 
Gates, in Paros, of which H. H. Jewell and 
F. W. Harluck give an elaborate description 
in their work under that title (Macmillan), 
contains a feature which is said to be abso- 
lutely unique, namely, a marble ciborium 
with beautiful early Byzantine columns and 
capitals. All other stone ciboria, Mr. Has- 
luck assures us, have disappeared from By- 
zantine churches, being replaced (as have 
also most stone screens) by gilded and 
painted wood. 

— There is nothing new under the sun. 
Dr. Thomas Ashby, the archaeological 
authority of the London Times, points out in 
the Literary Supplement of that paper (No. 
985), that the type of house found in the 
ruins of ancient Ostia (Italy), corresponds 
closely to the modern apartment house. 
Calza has lately published an interesting 
study of an important group of excavated 
houses belonging to the time of Hadrian, 
from which it appears that shops were built 
in blocks with a common fagade, four stories 
high, and with flats and apartments above. 
Can you imagine anything more modern? 

—A former member of the A. P. A. nar- 
rates his experience in that delectable so- 
ciety in the Christian Cynosure for January, 
pp. 280 sq. He says he joined the A. P. A. 
at Sterling, 111., nearly thirty years ago, be- 
cause he had been persuaded that a general 
massacre of Protestants by Catholics was 
close at hand. The following significant para- 
graphs of his confession are worthy of be- 
ing reproduced by the Catholic press: "We 
heard many wonderful things about Catholic 
preparations and threats — uttered or implied. 
I was then credulous, but now believe that 
nine-tenths of these 'scares' were manufac- 
tured in and by Masonic brains." "I cannot 
recall a single point in the A. P. A. lodge 

Wagner's Londres Grande Segars i* v** - i«m v» p f p p i* 


ire not strong segars. Ther 

rpHERE are heavy segars that are not strong segars. There is a big difference between 
- 1 - the words strong and heavy in applying them to segars. There are heavy segars, if they 
are properly blended; but a strong segar, made from strong tobacco, we would call a rank 
segar. What we mean by strong tobacco is coarse, crude tobacco, grown in a harsh climate, 
or tobacco improperly cured. Of course, any tobacco grown on improper soil, or soil that 
is improperly cultivated, cannot become good tobacco. In other words, you cannot make 
good leaf out of poor leaf by any method of curing; but you can make poor leaf out of 
good leaf by curing it improperly. 

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Matt. Wagner & Son 

58 North Pearl Street 
Buffalo, N". Y. 



January 15 

ritual or ceremony or 'grip' that does not 
clearly carry the Masonic brand." 

— The play "Mixed Marriage," by St. John 
Ervine, now running in London and New 
York and highly lauded by critics, is de- 
scribed as "an uncompromising appeal for 
the destruction of religious bigotry in Ire- 
land as the only possible solution of the 
Irish question." The heroine is a Protestant 
mother who tries to persuade her son to 
marry a Catholic girl against the will of his 
father, who (rightly) disbelieves in "mixed 
marriages." The whole thing is really nothing 
more or less than an uncompromising attack 
upon the Catholic position and should there- 
fore be disavowed and shunned by all loyal 
Catholics. We already have more mixed 
marriages than is good for the Catholic cause 
and the salvation of souls. 

— The Josephinum Alumni Journal sug- 
gests that some one write a life of the late 
Msgr. Joseph Jessing, founder and first rec- 
tor of the Pontifical Josephinum College and 
Seminary at Columbus, O. Father Jessing 
was an extraordinary man, and enough time 
has elapsed since his death, (over twenty 
years), to make it possible to review his 
life and deeds impartially. That they should 
be recorded for future generations goes 
without saying. The Journal announces that 
Dr. Och, the present rector, has worked out 
a plan for a life of the founder and will soon 
publish an appeal to all who knew Father 
Jessing personally, or who corresponded 
with him, to forward all pertinent materials 
to the editor of the Alumni Journal. 

— Nowadays there is hardly a subject. 
however abstruse, which does not find an or- 
gan interested in it. Every important "cause" 
has its own journalistic champions to advo- 
cate its principles, however absurd they may 
be; and there is even tolerance for the ad- 
vocacy of principles opposed to the public 

good in the eyes of the majority. Every wave 
of political or religious feeling finds an in- 
stant reflection in the press, and can be 
traced in the very titles of the newspapers 
and reviews founded in years gone by. "There 
is nothing new except what is forgotten," 
said her dressmaker to Marie Antoinette; 
and it is natural that historians nowadays 
should turn more and more to the files of 
periodicals in order to write the history of 
times gone by. 

— In the eighteenth century the stout old 
English Tory was wont to address his hom- 
age to his editor in verse, and sometimes 
thought the English language too weak for 
the compliments he wished to pay. Dr. John- 
son's ode "Ad Urbanum" (Sylvanus Urban 
was the pen name of Edward Cave, who 
edited the Gentlemen's Magazine) appeared 
in that magazine for March, 1738. The first 
two stanzas of it ran as follows : 

Urbane, nullis fesse laboribus, 

Urbane, nullis victe calumniis, 
Cui fronte sertuni in erudita 
Perpetuo viret et virebit; 

Quid moliatur gens imitantium 

Quid et minetur, sollicitus parum 
Vacare solis perge Musis 
Juxta animo studiisque felix. 

Cave, unlike most of his colleagues then 
and now. passed the last twenty years of his 
life "in affluence." 

— We are indebted to a correspondent of 
the Catholic Tribune (weekly ed., Vol. XXII, 
No. 1 141) for the information that the 
Latin Hymn to St. Michael, which we re- 
printed from a Diktat of the late Cardinal 
Fischer in our issue of Nov. 1st, 1920, is 
found in an old Luxemburg Kyriale of un- 
certain date and in several hymn books print- 
ed in that country since i860. The Luxemburg 
version has two strophes which are missing 
in our text, but lacks strophes III and IV. 
The Tribune's correspondent thinks that the 
words "protector sis Ger maniac'' point to 


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a German origin. A Cleveland Jesuit, by the 
way, has set the hymn to music and kindly 
dedicated the composition to the Editor of 
the Fortnightly Review, for which com- 
pliment we are duly thankful. 

— The Rev. Father Cordes, director of the 
School for Church Music anl organist of the 
Cathedral at Paderborn, Westfalia, Ger- 
many, writes to an American priest to in- 
quire, whether graduates of that school can 
secure employment in this country, as at 
present there is no hope for them at home. 
Pastors interested are requested to corre- 
spend with Father Cordes directly or through 
the Rt. Rev. Msgr. G. Heer, St. Mary's 
Church, Dubuque, la. 

— In calling attention to "the frivolity, 
sensuality, indecency, appalling illiteracy and 
endless platitudes of the American stage," 
Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent (Vol. 
XXI, No. 10) says : "There is more un- 
refined indecency in the higher class theaters 
to-day than was ever permitted by the police 
in the burlesque houses. The lower classes 
must be restrained in the vicarious exercise 
of their lower natures, apparently, but the 
wealthier classes may go the limit. The price 
of the ticket and the 'class' of the playhouse 
seems to make all the difference in the world 
between prohibited and permissible evil." 
This fact seems to be overlooked by a good 
many of our would-be reformers, who devote 
their activities to the cheap vaudeville houses 

and leave the so-called high-class theatres 
severely alone. Needless to say, the latter 
are much more difficult to reform than the 
former, because of the wealth and social po- 
sition of the public that frequents them. 

— Mrs. Asquith, whose autobiography is 
being so widely discussed at present, lacks 
the delicacy that marks the true lady. The 
way she invades the privacy of others is hard- 
ly less shocking than the manner in which she 
exposes her own personal and family affairs. 
Take this passage, for instance : "I lost my 
babies in three out of four confinements. 
These poignant and secret griefs have no 
place on the high-road of life; but, just as 
Henry and I will stand sometimes side by 
side near those little graves unseen by stran- 
gers, so he and I in unobserved moments will 
touch with one heart an unforgotten sorrow." 
"Secret" griefs, "unseen by strangers," "un- 
observed moments" — all to be had for a few 
dollars in a gaudily jacketed volume! 

— A pleasing sketch of the kind of stage 
play that held vogue in England before the 
Renaissance is given by Mr. Patrick Kirwan 
in "The Dawn of the English Drama" (Lon- 
don: Harding and More). The author shows 
the dramatic influence by which Shakespeare 
and his contemporaries were affected before 
the stage became completely secularized. The 
liturgy gave the first impulse to the drama in 
Christian England, and the Scriptures pro- 
vided a store of material for the construction 



January 15 

cf miracle and mystery plays, and also of the 
moralities, whilst from the old guilds com- 
panies of actors were formed. All this is 
lucidly explained by Air. Kirwan, who, by way 
of illustrating his commentary, prints in full 
one of the mystery plays from the Towneley 

-♦ ♦<£-•- 

Literary Briefs 

— "First Communion Days," by a Sister of 
Notre Dame, contains a new series of tales 
similar and equal to those which were so 
cordially welcomed about a year ago under 
the title "Stories for First Communicants." 
"With these sets of stories at hand," says 
Father W. Roche, S. J., in a brief preface, 
"one can face with some confidence the diffi- 
cult task of preparing little children of six 
and seven for the Sacraments." (Sands & 
Co. and B. Herder Book Co.) 

— A banshee, in Irish and Scotch folk-lore, 
is a fairy visitant, usually in the shape of an 
old woman, whose wailing foretells death. 
The banshee superstition belongs entirely to 
the Celts and has no corresponding feature 
in Scandinavian, Teutonic, or classic myth- 
ology. Sands & Co. have lately published a 
kind of popular handbook to the banshee, its 
nature, activities and appearances, with many 
stories from the present and the past ("The 
Banshee," by Elliot O'Donnell). The writer 
includes his own experiences with the O'Don- 
nell banshee. 

—The Rev. Charles A. Bruehl, of Over- 
brook Seminary, who does the book review- 
ing for the Salesianum, is not afraid to speak 
his honest opinion, even when there is ques- 
tion of the works of much-bepraised authors. 
In the current issue of that magazine (Vol. 
XV. Xo. 5) he expresses himself as follows 
on "Europe and the Faith." by Hilaire Belloc, 

whom we have repeatedly described as a 
vastly overrated writer: "Mr. Belloc's book 
will satisfy neither the historian nor the 
philosopher. It merely irritates. Call it 
scintillating, if you will, but it sparkles only 
with glittering generalities. We are in the 
clouds from begining to end and never touch 
anywhere the bedrock of historical reality. 
I do not know to what class of readers a 
book written in that strain could possibly 
be useful. It ends with the enigmatical 
dictum : 'The Faith is Europe. And Europe 
is the Faith.' 'Europe is the Faith.' Now 
what is that? A paradox, with an under- 
lying profound and esoteric meaning, or just 
plain nonsense. I have a shrewd suspicion 
that it verges, if it does not actually trespass, 
on the absurd. The book reminds one of the 
subjective constructions of history indulged 
in by the Hegelian school." . 

Books Received 

Social Reconstruction. By John A. Ryan, D. D., L. 

L. D., Professor of Moral Theology at the Cath- 

lic University of America, vi & 241 pp. 12mo. 

New York: Macmillan Co. 1920. $2.50. 
First Communion Davs. By a Sister of Notre Dame. 

Illustrated by Wilfred Pippett. 96 pp. 12mo. 

Sands & Co. and B. Herder Book Co. 1920. 75cts. 

Christian Marriage a Sacrament. By Rev. D. Mc- 

Bride, D. D., Professor of Canon Law and Moral 

Theology in St. Augustine's Seminary. 48 pp. 

16mo. The Catholic Truth Society of Canada. 

1920. (Pamphlet). 
The International Jew. The World's Foremost 

Problem, vi & 235 pp. 16mo. Dearborn, Mich.: 

The Dearborn Publishing Co. 1920. 25 cts. 

I.chrbuch der Dogmatik in sicben Biichern. Fur 

akademische Vorlesungen und zum Selbstunter- 

richt. Von Joseph Pohle, Doktor der Theol. u. d. 

Philos., der letzteren o. 6. Professor an der Uni- 

versitat Breslau, Hauspralat Sr. Heiligkeit. Erster 

Band. Siebte, verbesserte und vermehrte Auflage. 

xii & 483 pp. 8vo. Paderborn: Ferd. Schoeningh. 



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The Fortnightly Review 



February 1, 1921 


By Charles J. Quirk, S.J. 

I bring no flowers. Mother, costly, rare, 
To deck thy grave ; but at God's feet I lay 
Love-thoughts of thee which blossom into 
prayer ! 


A Criticism of "The Outline of His- 
tory" by H. G. Wells 

Henry A. Lappin, Litt. D., contributes 
to the Catholic World (No. 670) a 
lengthy criticism of "The Outline of 
History," by Mr. H. G. Wells, which 
is being wildly heralded as "the best 
presentation of universal history yet 
achieved by the mind of man," etc. We 
quote two passages from Mr. Lappin's 
review and hope they will lead our 
readers to study his scholarly article. 

"The merits of the work are, in fact, 
purely literary. As history it is pro- 
foundly negligible. Why is this so? Be- 
cause Wells started out on his huge task 
with certain preconceptions, theories 
and hypotheses — many of them, inci- 
dentally, hopelessly out of date — which 
have handicapped him from almost the 
first page and have drawn down over 
his vision a veil through which he sees 
the history of the human race, dimly, 
distortedly, and as in a glass, darkly." 

"Upon page after page of this extra- 
ordinary pot-pourri of history, fantasy, 
fiction, and prejudice, there stand out 
statements, insinuations and suggestions 
urgently requiring destructive criticism 
or outright refutation. But to do so 
would transcend magazine limits. The 
only adequate review of 'The Outline 
of History' from the Christian stand- 
point would be a rejoinder in two vol- 
umes of the same size by a group of 
experts of the calibre of men like Hilaire 
Belloc (?), Sir Bertram. Windle, and 
Father Herbert Thurston. A thoroughly 
scholarly and scientific counterblast of 
the kind is urgently needed. For, after 
all, the whole viciouslv aberrant modern 

intellectual attitude is set out and 
summed up in this 'Outline,' which is a 
veritable monument and display of the 
ruinous collapse and utter disintegra- 
tion of contemporary thought outside 
the Church." 

We have placed a question mark after 
Mr. Belloc's name because we consider 
him a romancer not much more reliable 
than Mr. Wells himself. For the rest, 
Mr. Lappin's suggestion is excellent, 
and we hope it will be promptly carried 
out by a group of competent scholars. 

Modern Science and Immortality 

A famous Berlin surgeon, Professor 
Karl Ludwig Schleich, has published 
two books : "Consciousness and Im- 
mortality" and "The Problem of Death," 
both of which develop the same thesis. 
Starting out from the cell theory, the 
author constructs a hypothesis of per- 
petual life based upon the phenomena 
of the microscopic chromosomes and 
nuclei. He maintains that the smallest 
organisms in us, the elementary forms 
of living matter from which our bodies 
are built, are indestructible, and live 
from generation to generation and be- 
ing to being, stamped with all the char- 
acteristics of our individuality. 

We shall hardly be reconciled to 
death by the problematic principle that 
our nuclear substance will survive us. 
Our main question, the future fate of 
our conscious personality, is not thereby 
answered. Still, it is an interesting fact 
that biological investigation should be 
turning in this direction. Hitherto, 
many naturalists, like Haeckel, have re- 
fused to admit hypotheses of this class 
to the realm of science. Now, as our 
biological knowledge grows, our in- 
vestigators find their discoveries leading 
them involuntarily into a field which 
the preceding generation would have 
repudiated, as worthy to be tilled only 
by "visionary parsons." 



February 1 

The Demoralization of the Press 

Mr. Walter Lippmann, in his latest 
book, "Liberty and the News" (Har- 
court, Brace & Howe), points out that 
the present breakdown in representative 
government is in large measure owing to 
the demoralization of our methods of 
informing public opinion. In three 
close-knit, well argued chapters, the 
author sustains his thesis, until the 
reader fully agrees that "the present 
crisis of western democracy is a crisis 
in journalism." 

Representative government depends 
for its success upon correctly informed 
lepresentatives, and they, in turn, upon 
a healthy public opinion. But the latter, 
"for this purpose, finds itself collected 
about special groups which act as extra- 
legal organs of government. There is a 
labor nucleus, a farmers' nucleus, a pro- 
hibition nucleus, a National Security 
League nucleus, and so on. These 
groups are continually at work upon the 
unformed, exploitable mass of public 
opinion." Each special group repre- 
sents a "cause," as opposed to every 
other cause, and hence the urge for 
propaganda. And yet "without protec- 
tion against propaganda, without stand- 
ards of evidence, without criteria of em- 
phasis, the living substance of all popu- 
lar decisions is exposed to every preju- 
dice and to infinite explanation. No 
wonder, too, that the protection of the 
sources of its opinion is the basic prob- 
lem of democracy." 

Mr. Lippmann is too capable a jour- 
nalist to be deceived regarding the ex- 
tent of the evil and the difficulty of its 
solution. He sees in its composite more 
than corruption. It is in part also a 
mistaken notion of our newspapers. 
"Since the war, especially, editors have 
come to believe that their highest duty 
is not to report, but instruct, not to print 
news, but to save civilization. Judged 
simply by their product, men like Mr. 
Ochs or Viscount Northcliffe believe 
that their respective nations will perish 
and civilization decay unless their ideas 
of what is patriotic are permitted to 
temper the curiosity of their readers." 
Hence the opinion of millions becomes 
or tends to become the opinion of one 

or two, or, at most, of a small group 
cf very fallible men. And yet the food 
of public opinion is facts, plain, unpre- 
judiced, unbiased, objective facts. The 
difficulty of the problem is in inverse 
ratio to the simplicity and triteness of 
its statement. 

Mr. Lippmann offers no panacea. 
The task, he says, "falls roughly under 
three heads, protection of the sources 
of the news, organization of the news 
so as to make it comprehensible, and 
education of human response." After 
reporting has been made a real profes- 
sion and not the refuge of the vaguely 
talented and uneducated, as at present, 
the author would have laws passed 
compelling articles to be signed and 
properly documented. The law of libel 
should be made more workable and sup- 
plemented by a Court of Honor, into 
which it might be possible to "hale the 
jingo and the subtle propagandist before 
a tribunal, to prove the reasonable truth 
of his assertion or endure the humilia- 
tion of publishing prominently a finding 
against his character." The establish- 
ment and further elaboration of insti- 
tutes of government research and "spe- 
cialized private agencies which attempt 
to give technical summaries of the work 
of various branches of the government" 
would seem to be necessary. To this 
end also the universities might be en- 

The author is not overconfident of 
the efficacy of his remedies. He realizes 
too well the complexity of the problem 
and is far too capable a journalist to set 
himself up as a reformer. "At any rate, 
our salvation lies in two things ; ulti- 
mately in the infusion and outlook ; im- 
mediately in the concentration of the 
independent forces against the compla- 
cency and bad service of routineers. We 
shall advance when we have learned hu- 
mility ; when we have learned to seek 
the truth, to reveal it and publish it ; 
when we care more for that than for 
the privilege of arguing about ideas in a 
fog of uncertainty." 

Mr. Lipmann does not perceive ap- 
parently, that the root of the evil lies 
deep down in the capitalistic system and 
cannot be removed while that system re- 
mains in control of societv. 




The Futility of War 

When we entered the world war, 
Allied delegations flattered our ears with 
the prophecy that we were helping to 
save humanity. Today it is evident that 
the world is worse off than it was be- 

An American statesman remarked the 
other day that "this period of our his- 
tory would be a bad time for the United 
States to get into another war, for we 
have not a friend among the nations of 
the earth." England, France, and Italy 
are bitter against us. Trade rivalries, 
braggadocio, and Irish sentiment have 
alienated England ; the enormous 
profits of the war with few of its at- 
tendant hardships have estranged the 
Continent. Moreover, France feels that 
we have not stood by her as we should 
have done. Even in South and Central 
America we are friendless because our 
aggressions in the Caribbean have made 
every nation regard us with suspicion. 

Among the European nations this con- 
dition is still more aggravated. France 
and England are at loggerheads over 
the terms of the peace treaty ! France 
insists, says the Nation (No. 2896), 
"that it got but little of the recompense 
it deserves for its martyrdom ; Italy is 
furious because the Treaty of London 
has not been lived up to ; and so it goes. 
No one is happy, no one grateful to any 
one else. The Central Powers are of 
course, still Ishmaelites ; Czechoslo- 
vakia, Rumania, and Jugo-Slavia are 
so distasteful of Hungary that they 
have entered into a new alliance against 
her." The meeting of the League of 
Nations at Geneva recently disclosed the 
fact that for the future there is to be a 
new cleft in the association of nations ; 
the smaller powers have aligned against 
the larger, which to some observers 
presages an early doom for the League. 

England has commenced to trade with 
Russia, but otherwise the Soviet Re- 
public is anathema among the nations. 
Japan is making preparations for a con- 
flict with America. The restrictions 
against the emigration of her subjects 
to America rankles unto hatred. China 
boycotts Japanese industries, while 
Australia draws the yellow color line 

more sharply than ever. "Hate, jealousy, 
bitterness, distrust, and anger are every- 
where," continues the Nation. "No won- 
der the Manchester Guardian declares 
that the world is worse off after the holy 
war to save humanity than it was be- 

Such is the status of world friend- 
ship two years after a war fought os- 
tensibly to rid the earth of Mars and 
bind all nations into a lasting and 
effective compact. Yet there is nothing 
new or strange in all this for him who 
knows how to read history aright. There 
have been holy wars ere this, against 
Russia, Napoleon, and the Moslem. But 
no lasting association came from any 
of them. The participants were soon at 
sword's points. France gave her help to 
us in the Revolution, and yet but seven- 
teen years elapsed before we were in a 
state of war with her. 

"No, lasting friendships are not 
forged on battlefields ; of this the proof 
is again the bitterness of the Canadian 
and Australian troops toward their 
British comrades. The nature of war 

forbids it Was this truth ever 

clearer than today? Is it not true that 
materially the victors are almost as near 
disaster as the vanquished ? Was it ever 
clearer that the moral dangers of war 
far outweighed all possible gains; that 
there are no spiritual profits to offset 
the contents of that Pandora's box of 
hatred, deceit, lying cruelty to innocents, 
and the murder, which the first shot of 
every war lets loose?" 

For the Christian the futility of the 
World War should have added sig- 
nificance. The Church's action toward 
the reign of peace among a family of 
nations in the days of her recognized 
authority, and the repeated efforts of 
the present Pontiff to induce the nations 
to submit their difficulties to arbitration 
during the war cannot but strengthen 
our determination to help hasten the 
day when it will be recognized that no 
international difficulty can possibly arise 
which it were not better to settle by 
conference and arbitration. 

—If you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after you have read them. 


February 1 

Radicalism and the Churches 

Ever since the beginning of the Euro- 
pean War, labor organizations, political 
parties, and even the churches have been 
busy in promulgating programmes of 
"reconstruction." The famous Recon- 
struction Programme of the British 
Labor Party, drawn up while the war 
was still on, became practically a model 
for all later documents of the same kind. 

The British Programme is frankly 
Socialistic, calling for a speedy national- 
ization of all wealth-producing indus- 
tries, a revolution in national finance, 
the surplus wealth for the common 
good, etc. 

As all social questions, and therefore 
the industrial question, too, are to a 
large extent ethical, some of the 
churches felt it their duty to issue dec- 
larations for the guidance of their 
members. The Catholic hierarchy of 
the U. S. sent forth their Social Recon- 
struction Programme in January 1919. 
It has met with practically universal ac- 
ceptance, and has been lauded as one ot 
the most progressive discussions of the 
industrial situation in our country. 
Though it contains "advanced labor 
doctrine,'' it has not been pronounced 
"radical" in the bad sense of that word. 

Not so, however, with the utterances 
of other churches. The Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America, 
representing more than thirty Prot- 
estant denominations, sent out a pro- 
gramme somewhat later than the Cath- 
olic bishops. It has been severely dealt 
with in some quarters. The whole num- 
ber for June 15, 1920, of Industry, a 
magazine published at Washington, D. 
C, is devoted to an attack upon that 
programme. The chief fault found with 
it is its "radicalism." The editor says 
that those responsible for the pro- 
gramme consulted only the wishes, or 
rather the whims, of labor unions and 
of organized labor, but failed to as- 
certain the rights of employers and of 
Capital. The writer in Industry asks : 
"If the Church [the Federal Council] 
did not consult employers before giving 
out this report, why did they not do so? 
How is such a statement an honest one, 

unless it is based upon the consensus of 
opinion of both parties to industry? In 
the attempt to win union men for the 
Church is it worth while to sacrifice 
the impartial attitude which the Church 
should hold toward both workmen and 
their employers ? It seems a pity that in 
the beginning of the career of the Fed- 
eral Council, its organizers were not 
farsighted enough to see the danger of 
espousing the cause of labor and of 
leaving employers alone as far as work- 
ing out any plan of co-operation with 
them is concerned." 

Criticising the attempt of the Federal 
Council "to interest as many organiza- 
tions as possible in the campaign for in- 
dustrial democracy," the writer in In- 
dustry concludes as follows : "Instances 
absolutely proving the unfortunate and 
practically premeditated failure on the 
part of the Federal Council of Churches 
to consult all parties in industrial rela- 
tionship, multiply beyond the limited 
space of this article. Enough has been 
quoted from the written and spoken 
words of the Federal Council's officials 
to show a lamentable bias toward one 

These criticisms seem to be justified 
when we recall the rather large num- 
ber of ex-ministers who have during 
the last two decades become prominently 
identified with pronounced radical 
movements in politics or in the field of 
applied sociology. We need mention 
only a few names like Walter Rau- 
schenbusch, George D. Herron, and B. 
I. Bell. Not all the work of these men 
is of a subversive kind, but the two last- 
mentioned have sponsored movements 
which, to say the least, are not con- 
sonant with Christian ethics. 

It is true that the Catholic Recon- 
struction Programme has also been sub- 
jected to criticism in the National Civic 
Federation Review (September 25. 
1920). But the criticism has been 
chiefly concerned with two points, in 
regard to which the widest difference of 
opinion prevails among social economists 
and students of labor problems — the 
legal minimum wage and compulsory 
social insurance. The charge of radical- 




ism has not been brought against the 
programme as a whole. 

And yet some of our soundest and most 
advanced thinkers in Political Economy, 
like Fr. Pesch, have not hesitated to 
defend principles of social and industrial 
reform which would have been pro- 
nounced dangerous and anti-social a 
few decades ago. One of the latest con- 
tributions to the subject drawn from his 
writings is frankly entitled "Christian 
Socialism — the Economic System of the 
Future."*) But Pesch's solutions, though 
they may not be acceptable to the ad- 
herents of an out-of-date capitalist 
regime, have been welcomed by the 
soundest representatives of different 
schools of economy. No one has ventur- 
ed to class him with the "Radicals." 

The question therefore suggests itself 
why, in a field in which it is so easy to 
go astray, our Catholic leaders have gen- 
erally avoided the cliffs which beset ev- 
ery one who ventures far out into the sea 
of social reconstruction. The answer is 
obvious. The eternal principles of Chris- 
tian right and justice and charity, which 
guided the pioneers of the Christian so- 
cial reform movement, like Ketteler and 
Vogelsang, Pope Leo XIII and Pere 
Antoine, are still alive today. They have 
preserved our thinkers from the errors 
of the system of unrestricted Individu- 
alism and of its ally, Capitalism — a 
system which now finds feeble support 
only from certain interested classes, 
whose "soc : al sen'se" has not yet been 
awakened. But they also prevented them 
from being captivated by a specious 
Radicalism, which would ultimately 
destroy the main pillars of social right- 
eousness and thus pave the way for the 
ruin of society. Along this safe "via 
media," along the lines of what Fr. 
Pesch and many others call "Solidar- 
jsm," must we do our share in building 
up a new and a better social order. 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S. J. 

Baron Rosen's Revelations 

Baron Rosen, in his book, "Forty 
Years of a Diplomat's Life," insists that 
the Revolution of March, 191 7, was a 
demand of the Russian masses for 
peace. The large newspapers of Russia 
refused to publish Rosen's articles. He 
appealed to Maxim Gorky, who printed 
his views in the Socialist paper, Novaya 
Zhisn, and thus won for their author the 
epithet of pro-German and Bolshevik. 

Rosen saw clearly that the only sal- 
vation for Russia from disruption and 
anarchy was the speedy conclusion of a 
general negotiated peace on the basis of 
the new democracy's formula of no an- 
nexations and no indemnities and in ac- 
cord with President Wilson's principles 
and with the German Reichstag resolu- 
tion of July 19, 1917. As a lover of his 
country and the old established order he 
worked for such a peace. But the intel- 
ligentsia of Russia and the influential 
and moneyed classes of all the Allied 
countries, like the militarists of Ger- 
many, were eager to have the war go on, 
and let it go on another year and three- 
quarters because they were callous and 
found it a good thing. 

*) "Der christliche Sozialismus — die 
Wirtschaftsverfassung der Zukunft," nach 
Heinrich Pesch, S. J., dargestellt von Hein- 
rich Lechtape. B. Herder, 1920. 

Four Eclipses in 1921 
In 1921, there will be four eclipses, 
two of the sun and two of the moon. 
The first, on April 8, is an annular 
eclipse of the sun. It is called annular 
since the moon will be at the time so far 
from the earth that it cannot entirely 
cover the sun's disk, but leaves an annu- 
lus or ring of light all around its edge. 
The annular form will be visible in the 
north of Scotland and along the coast of 

Following closely, a total eclipse of the 
moon comes on April 21-22. It will be 
visible in North and South America, 
and westward. A total eclipse of the 
sun occurs on October 1. The track of 
the shadow crosses the South Shetland 
Islands, but for most of its course 
traverses only the watery wastes from 
near Cape Horn to the South Pole. The 
partial eclipse of the moon on October 
16, though visible in New England, will 
be best seen in Europe and Africa. 



February 1 

The Ku Klux Klan 
An Eastern subscriber writes : 
In writing to you to renew my sub- 
scription, may I not call your attention 
to a secret society which at present is 
assuming immense proportions in the 
Eastern States. It is the society known 
as the Ku Klux Klan, having for its 
head Col. ( ?) William J. Simmons, 
known as the "Imperial Wizard." The 
headquarters of this Society are in At- 
lanta, Ga. ; its membership is a matter 
of deep secrecy. The members take a 
"real oath with a serious purpose." 

Col. Simmons, a former Methodist 
preacher, has graciously told us at least 
this much about his new secret society, 
which will be of benefit to our Catholic 
people : "Only American citizens who 
believe in the Christian religion and owe 
no allegiance of any degree or nature 
to any foreign government, political in- 
stitution, SECT or PERSONS, arc 
eligible to membership." 

It is easy to see that the new secret 
society of the Ku Klux Klan is anti- 
Catholic in its very nature and un- 
American in its principles — if we know 
what American principles are at all to- 
day ! 

It would be well for us to watch and 
see who are the men that are joining 
this "Klan" in our midst. I trust the 
Fortnightly Review, which is always 
on the alert, will soon give us the real 
facts about the Ku Klux Klan. 

D. L. S. 

The Ku Klux Klan, which is now 
planning active invasion of the North, 
is not merely anti-Negro, says The Na- 
tion (No. 2898). It "is anti-Catholic. 
anti-Jew, and anti-agnostic as well. In 
the North we need not take too seriously 
the attempt to transplant from another 
age and clime this night-blooming 
poisonous weed. It will not thrive here 
in the light of publicity. In the South, 
its brutal lawlessness, its violation of 
every real tenet of the Americanism to 
which it falsely lays claim, should evoke 
the prompt action of the Federal author- 
ities. To the Klan may be laid the re- 
cent murder and burning of men, 
women and children in Florida because 

a few colored citizens attempted to ex- 
ercise their constitutional right to vote. 
The attempted northward extension of 
the order is merely another symptom of 
the intolerance and hatred which inevit- 
ably follow the passions loosed and ac- 
centuated by the war. No right-thinking 
American can regard the Klan as aught 
but the antithesis of everything decent 
for which this countrv stands." 

The Business Depression. 

Six months ago we were told that the 
country lacked production and that this 
alone was the cause of all our miseries. 
To-day it is apparent that we are suf- 
fering from a severe dose of overpro- 
duction. Several millions of unemployed 
lack the necessaries of life in the midst 
of plenty. The farmer with bountiful 
crops is poor and in many cases reduced 
to straits because of the natural wealth 
which he cannot exchange for money. 
Meanwhile the country has too much 
gold and hence dare not trade with 
Europe in terms of gold. On the other 
hand it must not accept goods which 
will be brought into competition with 
our own overstocked markets. 

Such are the contradictions of eco- 
nomics. Mr. Garet Garett, in the New 
Republic (Vol. XXV, No. 317), entitles 
them "Alice Economics" and believes 
that "Current economic notions may be 
represented by a series of Mad Hatter 
riddles. Thus : Q. Why is everybody 
ruined? A. Because the country is rich. 
— Q. How shall the country impoverish 
itself again in order that the people 
may prosper again? A. We must sell 
our surplus abroad to people who can- 
not pay. — Q. That is lending. When 
the foreign countries pay us back we 
shall be truly rich? A. No, indeed. We 
cannot afford to let them pay us back, 
for we should then be worse off than 
ever. We have already too much of our 
own. That is why we are ruined." 

And yet by such economic paradoxes 
we continue to be ruled. 

The causes are supposed to be a sur- 
plus of food, materials, machines and 
men. Merchants and manufacturers 
blame the consumer ; the consumer turns 
on the producer, distributer and specu- 




lator, while the farmer flays the Federal 
Reserve Board. The latter points to 
the conditions of the inflated credit, but 
labor says that it is a capitalistic move 
to liquidate wages. 

There is unquestionably an element 
of truth in all these accusations. It 
would be particularly interesting and 
instructive to know just how much of 
this depression has been forced upon us 
by the employing class who vowed 
drastic action ever since labor began its 
ascendancy. That a portion of it at 
least has thus had its origin cannot be 
doubted when we recall the threats of 
such men as Gary and Grace. Every man 
in daily contact with industrial ex- 
ecutives has heard similar threats re- 
peated sufficiently to convince him that 
the present situation has not been 
brought about solely by the operation of 
economic laws. 

The fact remains, however, that we 
are in a "mess," of which few if any can 
give a reasonably adequate explanation. 
We are forever trying to excuse the re- 
sults of a system which we somehow 
always take for granted. Not one of the 
four proposals to alleviate the present 
distress is more than a superficial 
prophylactic. A mere statement of them 
is sufficient proof of this, namely. 

"That the Federal Reserve Board 
shall repent and make credit once more 
abundant and cheap, and see to it that 
nobody, — particularly nobody who tills 
the soil, — is obliged to sell for less than 
the cost of production ; that the govern- 
ment and banks shall cooperate to lend 
foreign countries enormous sums to 
spend for that surplus of American 
goods which they want but cannot buy 
for lack of money ; that foreign com- 
modities now coming into competition 
with American products shall be barred 
out by high tariffs, and that immigra- 
tion shall be restricted, not on political 
grounds, but because we have tempo- 
rarily a surplus of labor." 

Aside from the fact that some of 
these proposals are in effect contra- 
dictory, it is obvious that they are mere- 
ly temporary. There is nothing about 
any one of them, or about all taken col- 
lectively, that gives any assurance 

against future periods of surplusage. 
And this, in the last analysis, is the 
cause of depressions, aside from famine 
years. We are ever just on the verge 
of an extended span of good times. 
Hardly has the underproduction which 
has given us temporary prosperity, been 
fully realized, before we are in the 
midst of our own ruinous plenty. 

This is the natural result of a system 
of unlimited competition, business for 
profits only, and isolated industrial 
groups. There is a riot of production 
without restraint during the fat years, 
in which the sole object is the maximum 
of profit. Competitive Capitalism will 
have nothing of cooperative effort 
among manufacturers of like products 
to assay the market and carefully plan 
for future production. We are doomed 
to periodic recurrences of lean years un- 
til cooperation not only exists within in- 
dustrial groups, but among all groups 
producing like goods. K. H. F. 

Teachers not Appreciated 

To the Editor : 

Rev. Albert Muntsch, S. J., in No. 1 
of the F. R., has an article headed 
"Lack of Inspiration in the Teaching 
Profession." It may be that the public 
is unappreciative and gives no en- 
couragement to those who teach our 
children. Only those who have made 
the experience know the hardships of 
the teaching profession. It is a rough 
sea, — parents, children, and the public 
at large have to be placated. This is no 
easy undertaking, still, as the Rev. 
author suggests, "There is a vast body 
of men and women who are in the work 
for sheer love of it ; they neither think 
of nor receive pay." Needless to say, 
they are the Catholic teaching orders. 
FViend, their task is difficult, pray for 
them, respect and love them. They do 
more for the real welfare of our country 
than all blatant reformers. 

(Rev.) Raymond Verximoxt 
— <S>*~. 

— Yon are interested in the advertisements 
of others that appear in the Review. Don't 
yon think others would he interested in 
yours ? 


February 1 

Danger to the Freedom of the Press 

No less an authority than Don C. 
Seiz, says in a notice of George Henry 
Payne's "History of Journalism in the 
United States" (Appleton) in The 
Freeman (Vol. II, No. 45) : 

"Mr. Payne assumes that liberty of 
the press has become accepted as an 
undisputed fact in the U. S. because of 
its place in the Constitution and its own 
insistence and persistence. In this I 
think he is mistaken. The voluntary 
censorship exercised by the newspapers 
during the World War went far beyond 
the needs of the situation. The press 
was supremely silent upon many things. 
That it meant to be patriotic is true, but 
that it feared repression from threaten- 
ed law is truer. The legislation pro- 
posed by the Attorney General of the 
U.S. was most drastic and in violation of 
all our traditions. In contrast with the 
tone of the newspapers during the Civil 
War period they were abject and de- 
faulted in their duty as enlighteners of 
the public. I say this was the result of 
fear far more than of patriotism and I 
believe that it would even now be poss- 
ible by amendment to remove the guar- 
antee from the Constitution should some 
William Jennings Bryan start the move- 
ment. Legislation, invidious and re- 
straining, operating through the Post 
Office Department, iniated by this 
gentleman, has long been on the statute 
books. It would take but little effort to 
expand the restriction and embarrass 
editors still more. Legislators do not like 
criticism and they make the laws, while 
the American voter has come to regard 
liberty only as an abstraction.'' 

The Sorry Story of the "Red" Raids 

We do not yet realize how brutal our 
Red raids were, nor how many innocent 
foreigners were caught in their toils. 
Perhaps the report on "The Deportation 
Cases of 1919-1920," just issued by the 
Commission on the Church and Social 
Service of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, may 
serve the useful purpose of correcting 
newspaper misinformation. It repeats 
the sorry story revealed in Judge Ander- 

son's decision last June, of complete 
scorn of legality by the sworn agents of 
the law, of illegal invasion of homes, il- 
legal seizure of property, indiscriminate 
arrests, maltreatment, provocation, im- 
prisonment incommunicado — result- 
ing in at least one instance in the deport- 
ation of a Russian who belonged to only 
one organization in the United States, 
and that a Methodist church ! 

"This report," says The Nation (No. 
2898), "lifts another corner of the veil 
which has hidden the activities of gov- 
ernmental agents provocateurs in pro- 
moting Red activities. Fortunately some 
of the men who plied this disgusting 
trade have already been sickened by the 
lies which they were forced to tell and 
the newspapers published ; hence the 
nauseating truth may soon become 



A Model Catholic Club-House 
We are indebted to a friend in Buffa- 
lo, N. Y., for a folder describing the 
St. Mary's Lyceum of that city, which 
is truly called "Home of Catholic Ac- 
tivities," as it is fully equipped for lit- 
erary pursuits, athletic training, social 
and dramatic entertainments, etc., for 
the Catholic men and women of that 
city. There is a splendid library with 
many books on the shelves, and some 
50 newspapers and magazines on the 
tables ; an auditorium with a seating 
capacity of 1,000 and a stage 45 by 60 
feet ; a triple bowling alley in the base- 
ment ; a large pool and card room ; a 
gymnasium, 42 by 60 feet, the best in 
the city, hrge enough for basket-ball 
and indoor baseball ; a swimming pool, 
28 by 38 feet, with ten showers, hot or 
cold, and so forth. 

The structure is fire-proof and can 
accommodate eight different parties or 
gatherings, with three thousand per- 
sons, at the same time. St. Mary's 
Lyceum is a veritable "Catholic Y. M. 
C. A.", a Catholic club,- house of the 
most modern kind. Its privileges are 
open to all Catholics, men, women, 
boys, and girls, for a small annual fee. 
Twenty-eight Buffalo parishes are now 
represented in the membership. 



In the light of the recent letter of 
Card. Merry del Val discouraging Cath- 
olic membership in the Y. M. C. A., St. 
Mary's Lyceum and similar Catholic 
club-houses assume added importance, 
and it is to be hoped that they will 
be more generously patronized than 
heretofore. Many of our Catholic people 
frequent club-houses, do what you will 
to keep them at home, and if we do not 
provide Catholic club-houses for them, 
they will go to non-Catholic ones, where 
they are always in danger. 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

( Twenty-fourth Installment) 

Chapter xii 


As our church and schools were doing well, 
and everything was progressing nicely, we 
now became objects of envy and jealousy 
to the. bigoted people of the sects. Their 
preachers spoke frequently about "popery" 
and its pretentions, about Catholicity in for- 
eign countries, its frivolity and infidelity. 
They pointed scornfully to infidel France, 
immoral Italy, impoverished Spain, and the 
horrors of the Inquisition. I admonished my 
people to keep quiet and avoid controversy. 

To give the reader an idea of those days, 
I will report one example, our experience 
with our Methodist brethren. They held a 
conference for Northeastern Arkansas, at 
Portia, in 1887. The proceedings were taken 
down by stenographers and printed in the 
Portia Free Press. Every stenographer re- 
ceived a copy for himself. The preachers did 
not know that one of the stenographers, Dr. 
Rew, was a convert to Catholicism. He sent 
his report to some trusty friends in Poca- 
hontas ; another was sent to the editor of 
the Nezv Adam, a Catholic newspaper which 
had been established in the city of Memphis 
by that big-hearted yellow-fever hero, Father 
William Walsh, then pastor of St. Bridget's. 
With that report the following article was 

"Pocahontas, Ark., May 30, 1887. In upper 
Arkansas Catholics are very scarce. For the 
last seven years, Rev. Eugene Weibel, alone, 
has had charge of this district, comprising 
40,000 square miles, nearly one-third of the 
State. He visits Catholic families from 
Thayer, Mo., down to Memphis, Term., has 
two mission churches, one at Pocahontas, 
the other at Jonesboro, and is now building 
another in the Walnut Ridge district. Father 
Weibel is a foreigner. He was ordained in 
Switzerland and, coming here seven years 
ago, he could not speak the English lan- 

guage, which was a great drawback to him. 
His health in the swamps has been greatly 
impaired. Considering all this, this quiet 
little man has proven a formidable barrier 
to the army of Methodist preachers in the 
same district. As an instance, a Methodist 
conference was held last week at Portia,, 
seventeen miles distant from here. At this 
conference the preacher from this place re- 
ported that his mission was in imminent 
danger. Being asked if there was whiskey 
there, he replied, 'No, no whiskey, but worse, 
a great deal worse; we have the Catholics 
there, and a Catholic school, which is patron- 
ized by Protestants also.' I could not be- 
lieve that our preacher would express him- 
self in this way, as he knows our priest never 
interferes with Protestants and very seldom 
preaches in English. Here is in substance 
what the Portia Free Press, of the 27th, 
contains as the report of our preacher,. 
Maynard : 'The financial condition of the 
Pocahontas circuit is very poor. There is no 
money in the country, and all plans to raise 
it fail. Yet the District Conference should 
meet there next time to devise some means 
to oppose the progress of the Catholics'. 
Another brother, Arnold, from Walnut 
Ridge, is reported in the same paper as say- 
ing: 'Pocahontas [the Conference] 
badly, to offer a substantial check to the 
Catholics.' Now, is it not ridiculous to see 
these preachers afraid of the Catholics, who 
have one frail, sickly, foreign priest for 
40,000 square miles, while their number may 
be called legion? Have they really nothing 
better to do than 'to check the growth of 
these Catholics'? I know Father Weibel has 
expressed himself repeatedly that he took 
pleasure in the growth of every denomina- 
tion, not because of their errors, but on ac- 
count of their faith in Christ, and because 
they share with us the belief in the chief 
truths of religion. He has further expressed 
himself that at the present time all Christian 
denominations ought to make common cause 
in destroying our 'common enemy', infidelity,, 
and in doing that we have no time to fight 
and quarrel with each other. Any one but 
slightly acquainted with Father Weibel must 
acknowledge that he seems to have no care 
save the spiritual and temporal welfare of 
his flock, and never meddles with or troubles 
himself about the Protestants. Finally, I 
would like to ask our Methodist brethren 
themselves, who are here in Pocahontas, 
whether they really think the Catholics are 
so bad and dangerous? I know they would 
be obliged to answer no. For it is a fact that 
the Catholics of Pocahontas (a congregation 
of about 500 souls) are quiet citizens and 
zealous Christians, who flock regularly every 
Sunday to their church, send their children 
to school and catechism, live in peace with 
their Protestant fellow-citizens, are seldom 
heard in our courts, and do not like to make 
debts. Our Protestant fellow-citizens have 
always been on friendly terms with us, and 




during the seven years since the congrega- 
tion has been organized, not one serious 
trouble has occurred, and it is to be hoped 
that the same harmony will always exist. 
The preachers should be angels of peace in- 
stead of bringing about dissensions. The 
same harmony, to my knowledge, also exists 
between the Catholics and Protestants at 
Jonesboro, where Father Weibel has also 
built a church." 

Both Pocahontas and Portia papers took 
notice of this article. The Rev. Mr. Thorn- 
burgh, leader of the Arkansas Methodists, 
and Brother Maynard, Pastor of Pocahontas, 
denied having said anything derogatory to 
the Pocahontas Catholics. They evidently 
had no idea that reports of the Portia con- 
ference had been sent to others than preach- 
ers. The truth of the article in the New 
Adam was called into question by both the 
Portia Free Press and the Randolph Herald. 

The Free Press wrote : "Brother Thorn- 
burgh of the Telephone, in answering our 
article of some two weeks ago, what was 
said by our Brother Maynard before the 
M. E. Conference in reference to the Catholic 
church at this place, comes out in quite a 
lengthy article, in which he puts the question 
of veracity, if there be any, upon the Portia 
Free Press, and says its report of the Con- 
ference was very meagre artd incorrect. 
Thinking the Free Press capable of taking 
care of itself, we leave that question to the 
attention of Brother Morgan ; and as to 
that portion of Brother Thornburgh's ex- 
planation of the sayings of Mr. Arnold and 
Mr. Freeman we care not. All we desired 
was to have the facts concerning the remarks 
of Mr. Maynard, and when boiled down to 
its substance, here is what Bro. Thornburgh 
says about Mr. Maynard : 'We did not hear 
Mr. Maynard say the Catholics were worse 
than whiskey, or anything like that, in- 
dicating that he thought so ; no one said 
that. I did not hear him say he wanted 
means devised to oppose the progress of the 
Catholics; I don't think he said it. About all 
that was said in reference to the Catholics 
was by Brother Maynard, who said they were 
awakening some interest, and he wanted the 
District Conference to go there so the 
Methodists could get up some enthusiasm 
also. I think Mr. Maynard spoke in a com- 
plimentary way of the energy and faithful 
performance of church duties by the Catho- 
lics of Pocahontas. I legitimately inferred 
from what he said that he had no desire 
to tear them down, but wanted the Methodists 
to keep pace with them. The report of the 
conference as contained in the Free Press 
was very meagre and incorrect, and but little 
can be gained from it." 

The Randolph Herald, of Pocahontas, had 
the following article: "Below we publish a 
letter written from Pocahontas to Adam, 
a Catholic journal published at Memphis. 
Tennessee. We publish the communication 
with the hope that the true inwardness of the 

facts in the case may be brought forth. The 
correspondent makes some serious charges 
against Mr. Maynard, which Mr. Maynard 
says are incorrect. He says he never uttered 
one word concerning the devising of means 
to oppose the progress of the Catholics. This 
brings out the plain and unmistakable ques- 
tion of veracity between Mr. Maynard and 
'Silvestris,' Adam's Pocahontas correspondent. 
We leave the matter wholly in the hands of 
those conversant with the facts. Brother 
Thornburgh, of the Telephone, was secretary 
of that conference and is therefore in a po- 
sition to speak knowingly, and we shall ex- 
pect to hear from our neighbor through his 
Teleplwne. As for ourselves, we cannot but 
think Mr. Maynard has been misunderstood. 
We have known him a long time and regard 
him as an honest, upright, Christian gentle- 
man, and as such he could not say that the 
Protestant element at his place was in any 
danger, or that the Catholic element was 
making or attempting to make any inroads 
upon the Methodists. Father Weibel, so far 
as we have knowledge, attends strictly to 
his priestly duties, preaches Christ and Him 
crucified, and never descends into the dirty 
cesspool of proselytizing." 

(To be continued) 



— The Rev. C. Van der Donckt, of Poca- 
tello, Ida., informs us that he knows of two 
good Belgian organists now in this country, 
who are looking for positions. Their names 
and addresses are: Mr. J. Valckemaerc, c. o. 
Belgian Bureau, 431 West 47th Str., New 
York City, and Mr. Paul DeVriendt, c. o. 
Mr. L. Messlin, Blackfoot. Ida. 

— We have all noticed how often it happens 
that unexpected persons are mentioned just 
before they appear. The remark, "Talk of 
the devil," is almost as commonplace and ir- 
ritating as that about the smallness of the 
world. An explanation is suggested by the 
Saturday Review. It is that "their personal 
emanations have made us instinctively aware 
of their approach." 

— The Fortnightly Review is one of the 
very few American Catholic periodical pub- 
lications that have not raised their subscrip- 
tion price during the past two or three years. 
We have met the enormously increased cost 
of production by admitting more advertising 
to our pages. This we shall probably have to 
continue to do for some time to come, for at 
present, though print paper has declined 
somewhat, the general cost of publishing still 
remains at about 100% over the pre-war 
figure. If there are any considerable number 
of subscribers who would prefer to pay a 
higher subscription price (say $3.50 or $4 a 
year) rather than see so many advertisements 
scattered through our pages, we should like 
to hear from them. 




— Playing with Latin sometimes produces 
pretty results. The so-called Tripos Verses, 
now given up at Cambridge, used to provide 
some excellent humor for the educated. One 
survival which we welcome yearly is the Ep- 
ilogue of the Westminster Play, which al- 
ways contains apt chaff of the current world 
in Latin elegiacs. This year we find the "tell- 
us heroibus apta" and "rerum nonne haec 
ipsissima margo"? The ex-soldier and the 
char-lady abuse each other neatly about 
work. He complains : 

"Panem ex ore rapit jamdudum femina," 
and she replies : — 

'"Aut operari opus est, aut reperire virum." 

— There have been so many demands on 
charity of late that we hesitate to call atten- 
tion to the needs of the modest little fund 
from which we have been wont to defray 
part of the expense of sending the F. R. to 
poor missionaries, charitable institutions, in- 
fluential non-Catholics, public libraries, etc., 
etc. To keep up this work of charity and 
Catholic propaganda unaided is beyond our 
means, and unless generous friends help, as 
they have always done when the matter was 
brought to their notice, quite a number of 
copies sent out gratis to addresses where they 
do much good, will have to be discontinued. 

— According to the American Daily Stand- 
ard, Chicago's new "Christian daily," which 
is clean and "preacherly," but otherwise en- 
tirely undistinguished, clergymen will be able 
to continue to travel for half the usual rail- 
road rates. Early last year it was announced 
that after Dec. 31, 1920 clergymen would not 
be privileged in any way above the rest of 
the traveling public and that their special per- 
mits would expire as soon as the old year 
glided into the new. Official information now 
has it that, in the Central States at least, 
all clergymen and religious workers can again 
obtain special half-fare permits, provided they 
fill out the new blanks which are about ready 
for distribution. 

— There is a great deal of talk about the 
educational value of the "movies", and, at the 
same time, about the necessity for a higher 
standard of English. How the two demands 
are to be combined it is difficult to see in the 
face of the "words with a punch" that are 
being introduced to the public through 
an Australian firm. The words have so 
much "'punch" that they require a gloss- 
ary, and the glossary explains that "bon- 
zar" expresses excellence, "derry," aver- 
sion, "cobber," a boon companion, "coot," 
a person of no account, and so forth. If these 
words are to be popularized, the sooner some 
protection is organized for the English lan- 
guage against "punoh", the better it will be. 

— Speaking of the transmission of news 
between the nations of the earth., and urging 
improved facilities for it. a cable company 
official states : "Think of it as a peace meas- 
ure, a great public utility." Very good in- 

deed! Think of it as a public utility such as 
the business of supplying one of the staple 
foods to the nation. But soft! the food 
supply has pure food laws requiring a decla- 
ration as to adulteration. Are the news sour- 
ces willing to label the news they send out, 
in conformity to the concept of news as a 
public utility, which, as a matter of fact, it is? 
Are they, for instance, willing to attach to 
various items such labels as these : "Contains 
but a trace of truth" ; "Artificially colored" ; 
"99 per cent adulterated" ; or "14 per cent 
pure bosh," and so on? 

— John Burroughs says in a recent essay: 
"I like the English habit of naming houses ; 
it shows the importance they attach to their 
homes. All about the suburbs of London and 
in the outlying villages I noticed nearly every 
house and cottage had some appropriate des- 
ignation, as Terrace House, Oaktree House, 
Ivy Cottage, or some Villa, etc., usually cut 
into the stone gate post, and this name is put 
on the address of the letters. How much bet- 
ter to be known by your name than by your 
number! I believe the same custom prevails 
in the country .... It is a good feature. A 
house or a farm with an appropriate name, 
which everybody recognizes, must have an 
added value and importance.' The admirable 
custom here recommended was or is by no 
means exclusively English, as readers of F. 
W. Riehl know. 

— We are pleased to welcome the new offi- 
cial organ of the Society of the Divine Word, 
Our Missions, published monthly at Techny, 
111., at $1 a year. The magazine is excellently 
printed and handsomely illustrated and in 
every way promises to serve its purpose well. 
That purpose is to spread a knowledge of, 
and obtain a larger co-operation for, the mis- 
sionary work of the Society, which is con- 
ducted with so much self-sacrifice and zeal 
for souls in both hemispheres. Our Missions 
is ably edited by Father Bruno Hagspiel, S. 
V. D., the same who, within less than six 
years, has made the Little Missionary (for 
children) one of the best and most widely cir- 
culated missionary magazines in America. We 
hope he will succeed as well, nay even better, 
with this new venture, which has a still 
broader field and greater possibilities. 

— The Salesians at work in this country 
have lately received eight new recruits, six 
priests and two lay brothers, from Europe. 
These zealous missionaries are carrying on 
the work of their founder. Ven. Don Bosco, 
in America. They have high schools for boys 
at Xew Rochelle, X. Y.. and Ramsey, N. J. 
At the former place they publish a monthly 
magazine, the Don Bosco Messenger, which 
has just entered on its tenth volume and in 
its enlarged and improved form deserves a 
larger circulation than it has so far attained. 
Readers of Kooh's Moral Theology, adapted 
into English by the editor of the F. R., may 
have noticed that author's predilection for 
Ven. Don Bosco and the frequent quotations 



February 1 

Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. 
The text lays down solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these principles, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been highly recommended by experts and members of the hierarchy and clerg-y who have made 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post, free 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

he makes from his pious sayings and writings. 
Don Bosco was undoubtedly ne of the most 
enlightened apostles of Catholicity in the 
nineteenth century, and his work is bound 
to grow. We are glad to have a number of 
his zealous sons among us in America and 
bespeak for them the good will of our 

— We see from the San Francisco Exam- 
iner, of Jan. ioth. that, on Jan. gth, "for the 
First time in San Francisco a mortuary chapel 
was dedicated with services embracing faiths 
of various denominations. The services were 
opened by Father Joseph McQuaide of 
Sacred Heart. The Rev. C. S. S. Dutton, 
pastor of the First Unitarian Church, made 
the dedication. Rev. William Kirth Guthrie 
of the First Presbyterian Church delivered 
the prayer, the lesson was read by Dr. Fred- 
erick W. Clampett of the Episcopal Church, 
and Father Joseph McQuaide delivered an 
address. A large audience representing many 
creeds and denominations attended the serv- 
ices." The Examiner calls this curious cer- 
emony "a four-creed dedication." We won- 
der how the Catholic ecclesiastical authorities 
regard it and whether corresponding changes 
will be made in the "Rituale Romamim." 

Literary Briefs 

• — "Twenty Cures at Lourdes Medically 
Discussed," by F. De Grandmaison de Bruno, 
translated by PP. Hugo G. Bevenot and Luke 
Lard, O.S.B.. has a short preface by Sir 
Bertram Windle, in whose scientific judg- 
ment we have great confidence. He claims 
no more for ' Dr. Grandmaison's argument 
than this : "The case now stands for the 
verdict of the Medical Faculty, and it will 
be hard for them to argue that the instances 
brought under their notice in this book can 
be explained in terms of ordinary clinical 
experience." (B. Herder Book Co.). 

—"The Palace Beautiful, or the Spiritual 
Temple of God," by the Rev. Frederick A. 
Houck, is a sequel to the same author's "Our 
Palace Wonderful." In the latter Father 
Hauck gives a charmingly clear condensation 
of our knowledge about the earth; here he 
devotes himself to the task of developing 
the latent powers and infused virtues of the 
soul. The idea of an architect and builder 
i? skilfully carried out: Faith, the founda- 
tion; hope, the superstructure; charity, the 
unitive principle and ornament; Jesus Christ, 

the divine exemplar ; the Blessed Virgin and 
the Saints, the models and advocates of the 
"Palace Beautiful." The style is pleasing and 
interspersed with many apt quotations, par- 
ticularly from the Summa of St. Thomas. 
The book is excellently adapted for spiritual 
reading. (Fr. Pustet & Co., Inc.) 

— In his new book, "The Ecclesiastical 
Year," Father John Rickaby, S. J., gives us 
some contemplations on the deeper meaning 
and relations of the seasons and feasts. The 
purpose is to introduce a little freshness into 
monotonously familiar subjects. In this the 
author succeeds admirably, and his volume 
not only offers fresh material for sermons. 
hut likewise stimulating, instructive, and 
helpful matter for spiritual reading. We are 
pained to see Dr. Rauschen cited as "Rausch" 
and Fr. Odilo Rottmanner, O. S. B.. as 
"Rottermann." Fr. Rickaby quotes Latin, 
Greek, and German writers in the original, 
without a translation, which shows that he 
writes for learned readers. These will find 
he book very attractive and belpful. (Joseph 
F. Wagner, Inc., New York.) 

— Since Bardenhewer-Shahan's "Patrol- 
ogy" went out of print, a year or two ago, 
we lacked a good manual of this important 
branch of ecclesiastical science for seminary 
use and private study. The want is now 
supplied by an authorized English translation 
of J. Tixeront's "Precis de Patrologie," just 
published by the B. Herder Book Co. In 
fact, we think this "Handbook of Patrol- 
ogy" is better adapted to the use of Ameri- 
can students than Bardenhewer's more com- 
prehensive, but also much duller book. In 
the art of writing text-books the French 
excel the Germans. We have gone over this 
handbook very carefully and find that it con- 
tains all the information needed by the aver- 
age student in concise and readable form 
and in good English. We, therefore, recom- 
mend it unreservedly to those in need of a 
good text-book of Patrology. 

—We are indebted to the Rev. Gilbert P. 
Jennings, for a copy of a beautifully illus- 
trated description, by Anne O'Hare Mc- 
Cormick, of "St. Agnes Church, Cleveland, 
O.," of which he is the pastor. The Church 
of St. Agnes is architecturally one of the 
most beautiful in the U. S. It was erected 
and furnished at a comparatively moderate 
expense, under the direction of Mr. John 
T. Comes, of Pittsburgh, who designed every 
detail from the building itself to the candle- 
sticks on the altar. It is complete in every 




particular, which is a good thing, for no one 
else has a chance to mar the harmony which 
is its chief beauty. Miss McCormick's book is 
worthy of the edifice it decribes, and we 
cordially recommend it to the attention of 
all who love distinguished church architec- 
ture and wish to see what a truly competent 
artist can do with relatively small means. 

—"Ex Umbris. Letters and Papers Hith- 
erto Unpublished of the Fathers Lacordaire. 
Jandel, Danzas. Edited by Fr. Raymund 
Dcvas, O.P." contains a number of original 
documents, in English translation, concerning 
the well-known controversy over the restora- 
tion of the Dominican Order in France. It 
throws new light, at least as far -as the gen- 
eral reader is concerned, on the life and char- 
acter of Lacordaire. Fr. Devas has some 
pertinent remarks in his foreword regarding 
disputes between saints. His book shows 
that even saintly men give and receive some 
very hard knocks upon occasion. It also 
gives our own Father V. F. O'Daniel, O.P.. 
a clamorous opportunity to square himself 
with historical Truth, for he is charged with 
publishing "the very reverse" (of the truth) 
in his life of Charles H. McKenna. (To be 
obtained from the Editor, Hawkesyard, 
Rugeley, Staffs, England). 

— In "Synopsis Additionum et Variationum 
in Editione Typica Missalis Romani facta- 
rum, Proposita a Francisco Brehm. Sacer- 
dote," (Fr. Pustet Co., Inc.) Father Brehm, 
the liturgical editor of Pustet & Co., gives 
a compendium of the rubrics which, in future, 
will regulate the celebration of the sacrifice 
of the Mass. Brehm's synopsis shows that 
the revision of the text is comparatively in- 
significant ; of greater importance is the gen- 
eral reform of the rubrics ; these have been 
adapted to the decrees of the S. Congrega- 
tion of Rites issued within the last eight 
years, and to other regulations which are 
entirely new. In every instance Father Brehm 
points out the difference between the old 
rules and the new. The present revision, how- 
ever, is only interimistic ; a radical reform 
of both the Breviary and the Missal will be 
made in the future. But not many of the 
present readers of this review will live to 
see these liturgical books perfect. — F. G. 

— There has long been controversy respect- 
ing the relation between the "Didache" or 
Tenching of the Apostles, which first came to 
light some thirty years ago; a Jewish ethical 
manual called "The Two Ways," of which 
the compiler of the "Didache" appears to 
have made use; the imaginative theological 
work, probably of the middle of the second 
century A.D.. known as the "Shepherd of 
Hennas," and the work known as "The Epis- 
tle of Barnabas." Dr. J. Armitage Robinson 
undertakes to show in his book "Barnabas. 
Hennas, and the Didache" (London: S. P. 
C. K.) that "Barnabas" was the author both 

of the Epistle and of "The Two Ways" 
(which is described in the closing section of 
the Epistle) ; that Hennas knew "The Two 
Ways", in its original form, and that the 
"Didache" borrowed the "Two Ways" from 
Barnabas and recast it. The writer of the 
"Didache," Dr. Robinson contends, endeav- 
ors to present a picture of the way in which 
the Gentile churches were Ordered by their 
Apostolic founders. 

—"The Inferno of Dante," translated by 
Eleanor Vinton Murray (Boston : The Merry- 
mount Press) presents the Italian text with 
a parallel rhymed translation. She says in 
her preface : "No literary work, however 
simple or unimportant, can be translated 
into an alien tongue without' losing some- 
thing innate, personal, and vital which the 
original alone can express." She quotes Henry 
Adams's saying that "the whole Trinity, with 
the Virgin to aid, has not the power to 
pardon him who would translate Dante or 
Petrarch." An added difficulty is the fact 
that tcrza rima is essentially an Italian form, 
adapted to a language rich in ryhme sounds. 
The feminine rhymes that abound in Italian, 
says the translator, scarcely exist in English. 
Yet heroic blank verse loses too much of the 
original. Lyric quality and beauty of form 
are sacrificed to correctness. This is her plea 
for her rhymed version. She likens the iter- 
ant ryhme to a tolling bell and endeavors to 
recapture the significant relation of the 
original form to the mighty theme. Not 
always successfully. Inversions press, often 
the phraseology exhibits meagreness. but the 
attempt is at least praiseworthy and sugges- 
tive, even though many of us will, after 
a somewhat interested perusal, return to the 
unryhmed versions of J. A. Carlyle, C. E. 
Norton, etc. 

—From the Catholic Truth Society, Lon- 
don, we have received another collection of 
their up-to-date and serviceable penny and 
twopence pamphlets. We have spoken so 
often in praise of these timely publications 
that it is not necessary to repeat words of 
commendation. Such apparently insignificant 
leaflets as "Usual Prayers" and "Benediction 
of the Most Holy Sacrament" are really a 

/~^>T CDPVMCM who desire to have manu- 
ILfcKtjiMfclM scripts prin ted at reason- 

able cost, can save worry by corresponding with the 
old reliable printing house 

The Jos. Berning 
Printing Company 

Established 1S53 

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"multum in parvo" for Catholic layfolk. 
These few pages contain just what men need 
to refresh the memory, to answer some ques- 
tions, and to furnish food for wholesome 
thought. Again, "How shall they preach un- 
less they are sent," contains some pertinent 
comment on Romans X, 15. "Devotions to 
St. Peter" is self-explanatory — containing 
short prayers and petitions to the Prince of 
Apostles. "A Child's Colloquy with Jesus 
;t Holy Communion" may be used by teach- 
ers in talks on the Blessed Sacrament. 
"Prayers for Confession and Holy Com- 
munion," containing a brief examination of 
conscience will, when it becomes known, find 
its way into many a layman's pocket. It is 
what many people have been looking for. 
"Why Protestants Should approve of Con- 
fession" is an open letter "to all who profess 
and have a love for Jesus and His Truth." 
(These pamphlets, which, by the way, will be 
useful for passing along to Protestant 
friends, may be secured from the B. Herder 
Book Co., St. Louis, Mo.). 

Books received 

Father Allan's Island. By Amy Murray. With a 
Foreword by Padraic Colum. x & 240 pp. 8vo. 
New York: Harcourt, Brace & Howe. 

Roap. English Key to Ro, the World Language. 
By Rev. Edward P. Foster, A. M. 32 pp. 32mo. 
Waverly, W. Va.: The Ro Language Society. 

Photogravure Souvenir of the Golden Jubilee of 
St. Catherine's Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. By the 
Rev. George A. Metzger. In two parts, profusely 

A Commentary on the New Code of Canon Law. 
By the Rev. P. Charles Augustine, O.S.B. Volume 
VI: Administrative Law (Can. 1 154 — -1551). xiv 
& 617 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book Co. $3 net. 

Ted. A Play for Boys in Three Acts. By Rev. P. 
J. Carroll, C.S.C. 32 pp. 16mo. South Bend, Ind. : 
School Plays Publishing Co. (Wrapper). 

Pardon and Peace. The Last Chronicle of an Old 
Family. By H. M. Capes. 223 pp. 12mo. Sands & 
Co. and B. Herder Book Co. $2.25 net. 

Elements of Economics. By Lewis Watt, S. J. (C. 
S. G. First Text Books— No. 4). 48 pp. 16mo. 
Oxford: Catholic Social Guild. American agent: 
B. Herder Book Co. (Wrapper). 

Sermons and Notes of Sermons. By Henry Ignatius 
Dudley Ryder. Edited by the Fathers of the Bir- 
mingham Oratory, xvi & 280 pp. 12mo. Sands 
& Co. and B. Herder Book Co. $1.50 net. 

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Thus, by means of this Course, every two years both, clergy and laity, while being kept 
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February 15, 1921 

Theocentric Beauty* 

By Lewis Drummond, S. J. 

Loyola College Montreal. 

The hidden marvels of the snow, 
Which now our strongest lenses show, 
Were relished with the Maker's zest 
In aeons of Thine active rest 
Before poor groping, blundering fools 
Ascribed them to blind "Nature's" tool- 
Yet few e'en now are human eyes 
That grasp the dazzling Arctic skies 
Or read the snows of Polar waste. 
Unread save by a Godward taste. 
The finest regions of this earth 
Are filled with men of little worth, 
Whom all Thy glories do but irk. 
Because the splendor of Thy work 
Is hid from their benighted ken. 
They know not that they are Thy men. 

Nay, all the angel hosts keen-eyed, 
Now soaring low, now high, now wide, 
To gaze upon Thy wondrous deeds, 
A trillionth of Thy cosmic meads 
Could not survey nor gladly find 
But hints of how Thy boundless mind 
Fbngs beauty o'er Thine orbs awheel. 
Which fullv Thou alone canst feel. 

What is the Meaning of: "Lead us not 
into Temptation"? 

In Bishop Challoner's annotations to 
the Douay and Rhemish translation of 
the Bible from the Latin Vulgate are 
very interesting, if not always lucid and 
satisfactory, explanations of many 
things "hard to be understood." 

For instance, commenting on the thir- 
teenth verse in the sixth chapter of St. 
Matthew, that is, on the words. "Lead 
ns not into temptation," Bishop Chal- 

* "In a handful of snow there might be 20,000 
crystals, no two of them alike, except as beautiful 
variations of the hexagon." — London Answers, 
quoted in The Gazette, Feb. 10, 1920. 

"People have tried to explain the beauty of flow- 
ers on biological grounds, but you cannot thus ex- 
plain the beauty of the sun and mountains or the 
beauty of the sunset sky. This beauty has no utili- 
tarian object. It is manifestly the rejoicing of the 
Creator in His work. Why should the sun rise in a 
blaze of glory and set again in the most gorgeous 
colors? Not for any reason except rejoicing in 
beauty." — Sir Oliver Lodge, interviewed bv the 

. V. Times. Jan. 25, 1920. 

loner and, indeeed, most of the annota- 
tors of the New Testament whom we 
have consulted, tell us that the appeal 
to God to "lead us not into temptation," 
means : "Suffer us not to be' tempted 
beyond our strength" or "to be over- 
come by temptation." 

How they can venture to take this 
freedom with the Latin word "inducas" 
(Greek ciscnegkes) is beyond our un- 

When we read in St. Paul (1 Cor. I, 
13) that "God will not suffer us to be 
tempted above what we are able to 
bear," and in St. James (I, 13) that 
"God is not a tempter of evil, and He 
tempteth no man," we are satisfied that 
God does not and cannot positively and 
directly lead us into temptation to sin. 

But is there not a sense in which our 
Heavenly Father may be said to lead 
sinners into temptation indirectly, as 
when St. Paul informs us (Rom. I, 24) 
that "God gave them up to the desires 
of their heart, unto uncleanness, to dis- 
honor their own bodies among them- 
selves," when he tells us {ibid., I, 28). 
"God delivered them up to a reprobate 
sense, to do those things which are 
shameful," and when he says (2 Thess. 
II, 10), "God shall send them strong 
delusions that they shall believe a lie," 
and (Rom. I, 26), "God delivered them 
up to shameful affections." Here we 
find that God in punishment for their 
iniquities, "delivered the ungodly to tin- 

Do we not read in Jeremias XIII, 13 : 
"Thus saith the Lord : Behold, I will 
fill all the inhabitants of Jerusalem . . . 
with drunkenness and I will abandon 
them to sin." Do we not also read (2 
Paralip. xviii, 21 : "I will go out and 
be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his 
prophets. And the Lord said : Thoti 
shalt deceive, and shalt prevail ; go out 
and do so." Did not David pray (Ps. 
xxv) : "Abandon not my soul. O God, 



February 15- 

tc the wicked, nor my life to men of 
blood" ; that is, he begged of God not 
to punish him for past sins by exposing 
him to greater crimes. The Almighty, 
to punish the disobedience of the Jews, 
abandoned them to their own evil de- 
sires and allowed them to be deceived 
by false prophets and lying oracles, 
which they had consulted in direct vio- 
lation of His commands. A striking 
example of this puishment is recorded 
in the third book of Kings, Chap. 22, 
where God abandons Achab, King of 
Israel, to his desires, permitting him to 
be deceived by a lying spirit. Here is 
what we read in this extraordinary 
chapter, verses 21 and 22: "And there 
came forth a spirit, and stood before 
the Lord, and said : 'I will deceive him.' 
And the Lord said: 'By what means?' 
And he said : 'I will go forth, and be a 
lying spirit in the mouth of all his 
prophets. And the Lord said : 'Thou 
shalt deceive him, and shalt prevail : go 
forth, and do so.' " 

Is not this in entire accord with what 
St. Paul says in his second letter to the 
Thessalonians ( II, 10) : "God shall send 
them the operation of error, to believe 
a lie"? (See also St. John XII. 40, 
Exodus IV, 21). 

Everywhere we are confronted with 
the fact that the language of Holy Writ 
appears to make no distinction between 
the permissive and the positive will of 
God, and this is especially noticeable in 
Romans IX. 18, where we read: "God 
hath mercy on whom he will : and 
whom he will, he hardencth." Theolo- 
gians and Catholic commentators on the 
Epistle to the Romans inform us that 
the meaning of this and similar passages 
occurring in the Old and Xew Testa- 
ments is that "God permits sinners to 
harden themselves by their own per- 
versity, or to remain hardened by the 
corruption of their nature." 

There is a limit, humanly speaking, 
to the patience of God, so that a time 
comes in the life of a wicked" man when 
God gives him over to his evil ways, to 
punish him for his repeated sins. 

"Divine Justice," writes the great 
Bossuet, "avenges sin by other s : ns." 

We are of the opinion that "Lead us 
not into temptation" means, in the lan- 
guage of St. Paul, that God give us 
not up to "the desires of our hearts" 
by withdrawing His "grace" from us, 
leaving us a prey to our appetites and 
passions, and thereby "delivering us 
o^er to a reprobate sense" or "abandon- 
ing us to shameful iniquities," in pun- 
ishment for our persistence in sin. 

In the sublime prayer taught to the 
Jewish multitude, Our Lord instructs 
the people to pray to their Heavenly 
Father for help and spiritual strength 
lest, in His anger, He would abandon 
them to their appetites, which would 
lead them into the same excesses and 
shameful sins committed by their 

YVe understand the various meanings 
of "temptation" so often met with in 
Holy Writ, but here we must obviously 
deal with the word only in its rigorous 
sense, as tending or leading to the com- 
mission of sin. If we twist the plain 
English "lead us not," into "do not 
permit us," or "suffer us not," then we 
may take any liberty we please with the 
language of the Old and Xew Testa- 
ments, precisely what all heretics have 
done and are doing, as Ward, in his 
"Errata," conclusively proves. 

In the Old Testament the phrase 
"countenance of God" or "face of the 
Lord" is often used for His love, favor, 
or good will, as we read in Daniel IX, 
17, and in Psalms IV, VI, and XXL, 6. 
Xow, in asking God not to lead them 
into temptation, the Jews begged Him 
not to withdraw from them His coun- 
tenance or face, or, as we would say, 
His "grace"; for if left to themselves, 
unassisted by God, they would surely 
fall into more grievous sin and in the 
end be "delivered up to a reprobate 
sense." The withdrawal of God's 
friendship meant leaving them to their 
fallen nature, and by this withdrawal 
He, constructively or by an easy met- 
onymy, — that is, a figure of speech by 
which the secondary cause is taken for 
the first, would be leading men into 

(V. Rev.) W. R. Harris 




The Shame of the Peace Treaty 

Nothing more pathetic has reached 
this country since the World War 
closed, than the heart-rending stories 
of misery and want in Austria, with 
countless thousands of little children 
as the innocent victims. And what is 
the reason for the wretched state of 
these people? The integrity of the 
Austrian nation has heen violated by 
the Treaty of Versailles. The aliena- 
tion of the territory belonging to her, 
has left her stranded, little more than 
a political and business capital, like a 
head bereft of its body. Moreover, the 
country is not merely unable to pay 
the interest on its vast debt, but unable 
to pay its running expenses. Its cur- 
rency has been inflated until it is worth 
only about one percent of its face 
value. Austria is unquestionably in a 
deplorable plight. 

The Treaty of Versailles has been 
the cause of all this. So far as Austria 
is concerned, it is a monstrous injus- 
tice, the work of men blind to facts, the 
juggling of children w : th the blocks of 
other people's destimes. Austria is a 
standing condemnation and reproach 
of what was done at Paris. Austria 
was not only dismembered and ruined, 
but. worse still, a huge indemnity was 
imposed after taking from the people 
the power to pay it. Even the means 
of living were taken from them. To 
all appearances, Austria was rendered 
impotent, in order that she might be- 
come a prey to be divided among the 
powers who went into the war "to 
make the world safe for democracy."' 
What has democracy done for Austria ? 
The people sadly admit, and keenly 
feel, not what democracy has done for 
them, but what the so-called democracy 
of England and her associates has done 
to them. Are we not coresponsible for 
the sad state of these stricken people? 
Let us strike our breasts and admit our 

It was in our power at Versailles to 
insist that the reasons that actuated us 
to enter the war. "to make the world 
safe for democracy,*' be lived up to. 
We lost our opportunity and left Eng- 

land and her associates have their way. 
The policy that is now being followed 
in unhappy Ireland was the policy of 
the Peace Conference, and the results 
of that policy are the same in all coun- 
tries affected. Democracy and the 
"rights of small nations" have no place 
in that policy. Austria stands out as 
a terrible example. She is ruined, and 
her people are almost beyond recovery. 

What are our duties to this country? 
Since a nation, like a man. does not live 
unto itself, but is a part of a great 
vital network of relationships, some- 
thing will have to be done about 
Austria. As we are responsible for 
her condition, justice requires that we 
exert every effort to rehabilitate her. 
There are several millions of people to 
reckon with. They are little different 
from other human beings. They can- 
not live unless they have work, and 
clothing, and shelter, and food, and 
order, and these are impossible if their 
public life fails to function. Econom- 
ically it is doubtful whether Austria 
can survive if left in its present political 
status, even should temporary help be 
provided. For the present, money, 
food, and clothing should be sent from 
America into the homes of the weak, 
emaciated, and starving victims of con- 
ditions over which they have no con- 
trol. Then, the government itself 
should be rehabilitated. The proposed 
Austrian loan of $250,000,000 is a 
highly important step towards the 
accomplishment of this end. Unless 
both of these things are done, or some- 
thing equally efficacious, it is not diffi- 
cult to foresee what the end of that 
unhappy country will be. 

F. Jos. Kelly 

Detroit Seminary 

— A writer in Issues of To-day (Vol. I. 
No. 15) warns against Burton Holmes, who. 
he says, in his lectures, indulges in venomous 
flings at the Germans. Tims, in a lecture on 
Alsace-Lorraine, he glorifies the presence 
of barbarous black troops on the Rhine as 
a lesson deserved by Germany for wanting 
"a place in the sun."' Fair-minded Americans 
will not patronize such propagandists who 
sow hatred among nations. 



February 15 

"Art for Art's Sake" 

Honest, sensible people are getting 
very tired of the insistent preachment 
of some rampant rhetoricians, seconded 
by the canting twaddle of their easy, 
silly prey, that art exists for art's sake, 
and that the morality or immorality of 
the subject treated by the artist is of no 
possible consequence, if but the treat- 
ment be artistic. 

There is a grain of truth in this say- 
ing, — just enough to make the fallacy 
dangerous. The truth is that even an im- 
moral subject can be made the ground- 
work of high and noble artistic effect, 
as we find in Dante's terrible picture of 
crime and its awful consequences. The 
Gretchen tragedy in "Faust/' the mur- 
der of Desdemona in "Othello," the 
comic escapades of the thieving judge 
in Kleist's "The Stolen Jug," are but a 
few examples from the realms of the 
drama. In the department of painting 
and sculpture the same rule holds good, 
though not in the same proportion. 
Some of the numerous representations 
of the Crucifixion of our Lord are true 
works of noble art, although the event 
treated is the murder of the Incarnate 
Son of God. 

However, it is not so much in the re- 
presentation of crime, but rather, in the 
shameless treatment of the human body, 
that modern painting and sculpture 
claim to achieve their greatest triumphs 
as "art for art's sake." "To the pure all 
things are pure," they will tell you with 
a sneer, when you find fault with their 
uncalled-for representations of the nude. 

The appeal is illegitimate because it 
calls upon the sexual instinct to heighten 
the artistic effect and merely succeeds 
in prostitut : ng art. It is not the love of 
art, but sex obsession, that moves these 
so-called artists. True art is always 
reverent, and unveils no more than ne- 
cessary, and that only for some high 
purpose. The delight in the nude for its 
own sake is the curse of modern art. 
Here artistic treatment is but a delusion 
and a snare. Sex obsession as such is a 
disease and its treatment pertains to the 
neurologist and the physician. 

Vet even the favorite theme of mod- 
em novelists and poets, the relation of 

the sexes, as love, pure or impure, se- 
duction and the ever-present triangular 
problem, are susceptible of truly artis- 
tic, because, at the same time, moral 
treatment, as is evidenced by iNIanzoni's 
"Promessi Sposi," Tolstoi's "Anna Ka- 
renina," and Godfrey Keller's "Romeo 
and Juliet of the Village." Yet these 
and similar artistic triumphs were not 
produced on the principle of art for 
art's sace, which so often means no 
more than nastiness for the sake of 
nastiness ; but rather under the moral 
law and sanction which God has in- 
scribed upon the tablets of the heart. 
Like everything else in creation, art 
must serve the purposes of the Creator, 
the Great Artist of the Universe, if the 
expression may be permitted. All beau- 
ty, as well as all truth and love and 
goodness come from Him. To Him all 
things that are. must render their 
tribute of praise by reflecting some ray 
of His beauty, goodness, love, and 
truth. The artist who ignores this prin- 
ciple may give us a spurious imitation, 
but never a true work of art. 

And what is the good of such unsub- 
stantial phantasmagorias? If art exists 
for art's sake, why should any sane man 
or woman take the least interest in it? 
Our life is too brief and too valuable 
for such a burrowing game amid the de- 
cadent, infectious books, pictures, and 
statues that seek to hide ulcerous naked- 
ness under the meretricious veil of art 
for art's sake. "They are all," as Tol- 
stoi says, "the productions of people 
suffering from erotic mania. And these 
people are evidently convinced that, as 
their whole life, in consequence of their 
diseased condition, is concentrated on 
amplifying various sexual abomina- 
tions, therefore, the life of all the world 
is similarly concentrated." 

In life we shun the company of the 
morally foul and filthy, even if their 
outward bearing be that of a gentleman 
or lady. "Owl to owl, crow to crow," 
says the proverb. Let those that are 
morally corrupt feed on the festering 
lilies in the ditch. "Otir young men and 
maidens," says Dr. Brownson, "cannot 
associate, even in the pages of a novel, 
with rogues and villains, the licentious 



and debauched, without having their 
imaginations more or less tainted and 
their sensibility to virtue more or less 

Besides, a fatal perversion of the true 
view of life is caused by these swarming 
realists, symbolists, sentimentalists, and 
love-anarchists. Realism is the great 
battle-cry of most of the art for art's 
sake artists. To paint men and women 
as they are, and society as it is, is their 
claim; but to paint the badness of men 
and women and the corruption of so- 
ciety is their usual practice. 

To quote Dr. Brownson once more : 
''It is a great mistake to assume that 
love is fatal, and that a man or a woman 
cannot control his or her affections, or 
prevent them from straying where they 
are forbidden. Satan has never broached 
a more damnable heresy than this of our 
sentimentalists, that love is fatal and 
uncontrollable." (Vol. 19, p. 557.) 

And yet the great mass of our novels, 
and plays, and vaudevilles, and film- 
abominations are based upon this 
"'damnable heresy." 

The great art of man, the art of arts 
to which all men have been called, is the 
development into full beauty and per- 
fection of the image of God that has 
been impressed upon the soul of every 
child of Adam, of every man that 
cometh into the world, — God's likeness 
that has been blurred but not obliterated 
by that awful destroyer, sin. Any art 
that proves itself helpful in the pursuit 
of this highest universal art, is true art ; 
anything called art that proves a hin- 
drance in this pursuit is false and 
merits the contempt of all. No matter 
how glittering its form, it is a serpent 
of hell, and its sting is moral death. 


A Correction 

To the Editor:— 

In justice to Mr. Peter W. Collins 
( so long as you have given Mr. Knapp's 
attack upon him in the Nation and the 
quotation which Mr. Knapp says is 
from a speech of Mr. Collins) I think 
you should' state the fact that Mr. Col- 
lins, in a letter to the Nation of later 

date, explicitly denies that he ever said 
what Knapp attributes to him, to wit, 
that Socialists should be "so handled 
that in a few minutes they will be scur- 
rying into holes and corners to hide, or 
seeking hospitals to have their wounds 
doctored." Knowing Peter W '. Collins 
as I do, I can not conceive of his utter- 
ing any such bloodthirsty opinions as 
those. The Catholic Sentinel, from 
which you quoted, failed to say that 
the man who criticized Collins criticized 
also Bishop Wehrle. I suppose it was 
respect for the episcopal purple which 
made the Sentinel keep Bishop Wehrle 
out of the lime-light, but a layman has 
a right to his good name as much as a 
bishop, and it argues a certain lack of 
courage in a paper to pick out one for 
criticism and leave the other untouched. 
No matter how people feel about the 
K. of C. and its campaigners against 
Bolshevism and Socialism, they ought 
to play fair. 

Dexis A. McCarthy 


The White Race in the Tropics 

At the last Australasian Medical 
Congress, held at Brisbane, a subcom- 
mittee reported on the effect of the 
tropical climate upon the white race. 

Its conclusion was that with proper 
precautions, white settlers may thrive 
in hot climates better than is generally 
believed ; but that under present con- 
ditions, their health in tropical Austra- 
lia is deteriorating. 

Neurasthenia causes 25 per cent of 
the invalidity; but climate is not the 
sole reason for this. Nervous diseases 
are partly owing to changed conditions 
of living. Their increased frequency 
where white and colored races live in 
contact, whether in the torrid or the 
temperate zone, is ascribed to the fact 
that under such conditions, the whites 
— especially white women — do not 
perform the usual amount of physical 
labor, or take in its place sufficient 
physical exercise. 

The Congress also stressed the im- 
portance of a proper diet in the tropics 
and blamed the excessive use of alco- 
hol for part of the present evils. 


February 15 

General Von Biilow on the Marne 

The data for the solution of the riddle 
of the Marne, 1914, are rapidly accum- 
ulating. We have had, it is believed, 
the views of von Moltke in the anony- 
mous pamphlet entitled "Die Schlach- 
ten an der Marne," published by Mitt- 
ler in 1916, and immediately suppressed 
by the censor ; the Third Army story 
by Major-General Baumgarten-Crusius, 
and the compiled French accounts by 
Babin, Le Goffic, and others ; and now 
we have the authoritative military nar- 
rative of Generalfeldmarschall von 
Biilow, the Commander of the Second 
Army and the senior of the three Ger- 
man army commanders concerned in 
the battle ("Mein Bericht zur Marne- 
schlacht." Von Generalfeldmarschall 
v. Biilow; Berlin: Scherl). It is signed 
by him as "written in December, 1914," 
and covers the operations of the Second 
Army from the opening of hostilities 
until the close of the Battle of the 
Aisne. Drawn up as a military docu- 
ment, it is practically a war diary, giv- 
ing the intelligence of the enemy ob- 
tained, appreciations of the situation, 
the orders received and issued, and the 
movements, etc., that ensued. 

The principal impression left by von 
Biilow's story is that the German Su- 
preme Command. (O.H.L.) were unable 
to control the "Millionenheer" that they 
had set in motion ; as he says sadly on 
September 8 in one of his very few 
personal touches : — "I no longer reck- 
oned on help from O.H.L." When the 
situation on the Marne got desperate 
they merely put the First Army under 
him, and told him to issue the necessary 
orders to get it to the Aisne. They 
further divested themselves of respon- 
sibility by throwing at him the Seventh 
Army, so that, throughout the Battle 
of the Aisne, he was commanding not 
only his own army, but two others as 
well, without any means of intercom- 
munication except by wireless and 
motor-car, and without a separate staff. 
Tt has often been stated that von Kluck 
was under the orders of von Biilow 
during the whole period of the initial 
operations until the Aisne, but it now 
appears that this was not the case. On 

August 27 he was made independent 
of the Second Army, and remained so 
until September 10; and during those 
critical days he practically ignored 
O.H.L.V orders. So much so that the 
First Army, instead of being echeloned 
behind the Second Army to protect the 
right flank of the advance from forces 
near Paris, was actually echeloned for- 
ward of it, and "its left Corps (IXth) 
pushed itself completely in front of the 
right Corps (Vllth) of the Second 
Army." Then came General Maunoury's 
attack from the West, and von Kluck 
hustled back to meet it. At first he 
left two corps behind (Tilth and IXth), 
handing them over to von Biilow's com- 
mand on the evening of September 6, 
to cover his right. But not for long; 
within 24 hours von Kluck sent the two 
following messages : — 

At io:io a.m.— "Ilnd, IVtli and IVth R. 
Corps heavily engaged west of the Lower 
Ourcq. Where are Illrd and IXth? What 
is the situation there? Reply urgent." 

At 11:15 a.m. — "Assistance of Illrd and 
IXth Corps on Ourcq is urgently necessary 
{dringend erforderlich). Enemy considerably 
reinforced. Send Corps in direction La 
Ferte Milon and Crouy." 

The removal of these corps uncovered 
the right flank of the Second Army 
and was the cause of the subsequent 

Von Biilow takes the whole respon- 
sibility for the withdrawal from the 
Marne on September 9, mentioning, 
however, that the representative of 
O.H.L. (Lieut.-Colonel Hentsch) was 
in agreement with him. There was a 
gap of 30 miles, when von Kluck had 
got all his corps back, between the 
inner flanks of the First and Second 
Armies, covered only by cavalry divi- 
sions, and into it, as von Biilow shows 
on a sketch map. were pressing the 
left of Franchet d'Esp^rey's army and 
the whole of the British Expeditionary 
Force. He states his case as follows: — 

"In these circumstances the probability of 
the break-through of strong enemy 'forces 
between the First and Second Armies had to 
be reckoned with, unless at the la c t moment 
the First Army decided to retire eastward 
and to regain touch with the Second 
Army. If it did not do so, and the enemy 
got over the Marne in rear of the First 
Army, there was the danger of the First 



Army being fully enveloped and driven west- 
ward. When early on the gth September the 
enemy [that is the British] crossed between 
La Ferte sous Jouarre and Chateau Thierry, 
there was no doubt whatever that the retreat 
of the First Army was unavoidable both on 
.strategic and tactical grounds, and that the 
Second Army must also go back in order 
that its right flank should not be completely 
turned. . . . This decision was no light one 
for the Second Army, as it was everywhere 

O.H.L. approved of the decision on 
Sept. 10, at 1:15 p. m., and emphasized 
it by issuing the following order: — ■ 
"The First Army, until further orders, 
is placed under the commander of the 
Second Army." They added at 5 :45 
p. m. : — '', Second Army will go behind 
the Yesle, left flank at Thuizy. First 
Army will receive directions from the 
Second Army. Third Army, etc." Von 
Billow thereupon ordered von Klttck 
hack to the Aisne "to connect with the 
right of the Second Army at Braisne 
on the Vesle." This order, owing to the 
attacks of the British, he was unable to 
carry out ; lie was driven back north- 
wards, still leaving a huge gap between 
the inner flanks of the two German 

Reinforcements were hurried to the 
vital point — Landwehr Brigades, the 
VUth Reserve, XVth, Xllth, and 
XYIIIth Corps and cavalry — and the 
gap was stopped with only a few 
minutes to spare. Still the situation 
remained most critical, and preparations 
were made to fall back to the La Fere 
line. In face of Franchet d'Esp^rey's 
attacks the right of the Second Army 
was. on September 14. in grave danger ; 
its flank corps, the Yllth. "had put in 
its reserves up to the last battalion." 
Both sides were, however, exhausted. 
Yon Biilow states that the infantry of 
the First. Second, and Seventh Armies 
was only two-fifths of its original 
strength, and that O.H.L. issued in- 
struction- "to exercise the greatest 
economy in the expenditure of ammu- 
nition." Throughout the battle of the 
Aisne. the First Army gave little assist- 
ance, and von Biilow had to send von 
Kluck definite orders on the 15th. for- 
bidding an offensive westwards, for he 
was attempting, as on the Marne, to 
carry out the role assigned to him. flank- 

protection by attacking. On von Bit- 
low's own evidence, von Kluck would 
appear to be by far the greater com- 
mander of the two. and with more of 
the Foch spirit about him than any other 
German general : von Biilow saw defeat 
before he was beaten. 

Among other, interesting revelations 
in the book, we are told that O.H.L. 
could get no definite news as to what 
was happening at Liege in the early 
days of the attack on that fortress. At 
6:5 p.m., on August 7, a motor trans- 
port officer reported at Aachen : — 
"General von Emmich has got into 
Liege with a brigade." At 6:15 p.m., 
a private telegram from Emmich to his 
wife passed through : "Hurra — in Lilt- 
tich!" Then Ludendorff came back and 
reported, but was unable to return on 
the 8th. owing to fire from the forts : 
and communication with von Emmich 
was broken again ; it was not restored 
until noon on the 10th. 

The reason for the non-execution of 
O.H.L. orders of August 28, 1914, for 
the First Army to march on the Lower 
Seine and the Second Army on Paris, 
is explained by von Biilow. The Sec- 
ond Army, when engaged with General 
Lanrezac at the battle of Guise, had to 
ask assistance from the First, which 
closed in, and eventually, on the 30th, 
began crossing the Oise between Com- 
piegne and Chauny, moving in a south- 
easterly direction, in the hope of en- 
veloping the British and the left of the 
French armies. "O.H.L. concurred in 
the measures planned." 

Thus [says von Biilow] O.H.L.'s instruc- 
tions for a march in a south-west direction 
were abandoned for good, and the Third 
and Second Armies wen' given a due south 
direction. These instructions were of the 
very greatest importance. Apparently O.H.L. 
were not aware at this time that as early as 
the 2Qth large detainments of enemy trocps 
had taken place at Amiens, Mareuil. Mont- 
didier. and Rove, and that the right of the 
First Army had been attacked near Villers 

That they were not informed and that 
these forces were ignored for some days 
was the great mistake of von Kluck. 


— We are always ready to furnish such 
back numbers of the F. R. as we have in 


February 15 

The Boy Problem 

To the Editor: — 

In response to my article on "The 
Uses and Abuses of Sport," in the 
first January number of the Fort- 
nightly Review, a Redemptorist Fa- 
ther asks my opinion on Fr. Rothen- 
steiner's paper, "The High Tide of 
Crime" in the same issue, and adds : 
"I think that, in general, he is correct ; 
but it seems to me, he is subjecting 
himself to attack, because many of our 
criminals, sad to say, have been edu- 
cated in the parochial schools." 

Here we are brought face to face 
with a fact which we know to be true, 
not from hearsay, but from personal 
investigation. We called the attention 
of the readers of the F. R. to this de- 
plorable fact several years ago in our 
ser'es of articles on the Boy Problem, 
and when one priest raised an objection, 
another very efficient pastor of Men- 
asha. Wis., recognizing the situation, 
placed the blame upon the management 
of some parochial schools, i. c, those 
which somehow furnish a high percent- 
age of delinquents and criminals. The 
young element of certain nationalities 
and schools is very much in evidence 
in the courts and detention homes, 
whilst from other parochial schools of 
the same cities, — not only one city, — 
not a single pupil has ever been haled 
into court. 

Lately I spent some time in the bovs' 
court of a mid-Western metropolis, 
and found the "lock-up" in the rear of 
the court room, formerly called "bull 
pen," fairly crowded. Catholic inves- 
tigators, officers, and the secretary of 
the court, an old friend of mine, were 
unanimous in declaring that "the prob- 
lem is getting beyond control." A very 
efficient and conscientious Catholic in- 
vestigator told me of some very serious 
evils h e had seen, — things we dare not 
describe, tlrngs which we know existed 
years ago, but which are only now com- 
ing to the surface. 

I am not a pessimist, but I departed 
from that place with the conviction 
that the situation is well nigh hopeless. 

I also had the pleasure of meeting 

the managers of a psychopathic labora- 
tory. They maintain that criminality 
is a result of low mentality. But Stohr- 
Kannamiiller, in their handbook of 
Pastoral Medicine (Herder, 1900), de- 
clare that the excessive practice of 
secret vices is the cause of all kinds of 
psychological rather than physiological 
disorders. It is immaterial, too, 
whether the propensity to commit those, 
secret sins is inherited or acquired, or 
both. The psychological result is the 
same. Now, in its annual report, 
this laboratory attributes the commis- 
sion of crime, either entirely or partial- 
ly, to dementia praecox, which is a 
form of insanity. It is plain that the 
constant and excessive practice of cer- 
tain vices must result in mental and, to 
some extent also, in physical wreckage. 
Logically, then, we would have the fol- 
lowing : Low morality, as Father Peter 
called it, is the cause of low mentality, 
and secret crime will, in the end, result 
in the commission of all kinds of 
crimes of violence. 

That, fundamentally, a lack of ap- 
plied practical religion is to blame, can 
not be denied ; and that a godless edu- 
cation cannot improve matters, but 
must make them worse, is also un- 
doubtedly true. So far we agree with 
Fr. Rothensteiner. But it seems to us 
that he places too much of the respon- 
sibility for the existence of these un- 
fortunate and alarming conditions upon 
the wretched so-called system of public 
education and not enough upon the 
home and criminally neglectful parents. 
If things continue the way they have 
been going for quite a number of years, 
some of us may live to witness the 
complete demoralization of society. 
Fr. A. B. 

Trying to Maintain the Status Quo 

The American Constitutional League 
of Wisconsin publishes semi-monthly 
The A. C. L. Forum, which has for its 
avowed purpose the furtherance of "an 
educational movement in behalf of 
progressive Amercanism and in oppo- 
sition to revolutionary radicalism." The 
general committee is composed of man)' 



of the State's most prominent and 
wealthiest citizens, whose main inter- 
est, for the most part, is the mainten- 
ance of the status quo, — i. c, of things 
as they are. This is clearly evident 
from their twelve-page "Forum," which 
is distributed free of charge. 

Perusal of the second issue, for Jan., 
1921. leaves no room for doubt as to 
the meaning of the terms "progressive 
Americanism" and "revolutionary radi- 
calism" in the minds of the A. C. L. 
The fear of change in any form what- 
ever has gripped the hearts of thus mem- 
bers to such an extent that they dis- 
regard a whole world of facts. Capital- 
ism is a real and terrible evil. To ignore 
its existence is dangerous ; to strive for 
its preservation invites disaster. The 
activities of the A. C. L. do not make 
for "progressive Americanism," but for 
a terrible resentment on the part of the 
victims of Capitalism, which, it is to be 
feared, will break forth in destructive 
violence and may overwhelm society. 

To what extent will the Church 
suffer in such an upheaval, when prom- 
inent dignitaries are among the mem- 
bers of the general committee of so 
reactionary an organization as the A. 
C. L. of Wisconsin? — is a question 
that fairly forces itself upon the clear- 
visioned observer. F. 


The Washington Post quotes former 
Senator iMartine, of New Jersey. a> 
saying in an interview : 

"With sentiment in opposition to na- 
tional prohibition rapidly crystallizing, 
due in a large measure to the dismal 
failure of the enforcement of the law, 
I believe that the time is near at hand 
when it will requ : re only proper lead- 
ers to bring about a drastic modifica- 
tion, if not the repeal, of the Volstead 
act. So long as the law is upon the 
statute books it should be enforced to 
the letter. But the un-American spirit 
of the act is becoming more and more 
irksome every day and the autocratic 
powers conferred by it are doomed to 
annulment. The people of this country 
are convinced now that bigotry dictated 
the law and that moral cowardice was 

responsible for its being foisted upon 
them under the guise of a war measure. 
The people are likewise convinced that 
it is impossible to create morals or man- 
ners by legislation or to repeal human 
nature by an act of Congress. The use 
of spirits was never considered an .evil 
until a comparatively recent date, and 
its abuse by a few, magnified by 
reformers, is responsible for the farce 
which we are now witnessing." 

These facts were known to Catholics 
from the start, but we do not often see 
them published in the daily press, nor 
find men of prominence brave enough 
to voice them. I. McG. 

The Passing of the Private Library 

It is no good imagining that writers 
and manufacturers of books are going 
to work for a pittance or at a loss in 
order that the everyday young man may 
consume more bottled "beverage" and 
a greater supply of chops. Consequent- 
ly, unless the world is really anxious to 
experiment in mental starvation, it had 
better awake to what has been expressed 
as the passing of the private library. 
Schemes, such as "Buy a book a 
week," will wither like the green bay 
tree, because they are exotic, and be- 
cause so many booksellers, being what 
it is usual to describe as human, will 
work off their surplus stocks on the un- 
suspicious, thus converting a potential 
book-buyer into a wild patron of the 
"movies" and the restaurant. Still the 
passing of the private library has to be 
stayed, in the interests of the publishers 
and the book-sellers even more than of 
the reader. The reader may indemnify 
himself in a measure by a subscription 
to the lending library, but every unneces- 
sary lending library means a diminished 
sale for the publisher and the bookseller. 
Such diminished sales can, however, 
have but one ending, disaster to the pub- 
lishing business, and so to the interests 
of all those concerned for books and 
education in every one of their many 
phases. Such a disaster would herald 
a return to the days of the patron, and 
the rebirth of Maecenas in the twentieth 
centurv is unthinkable. 


February 1 

Religion and Politics 

It has been time and again contended 
that politics has not and should not 
have anything to do with religion. This 
opinion, if correct, would mean that it 
is quite immaterial whether a govern- 
ment bases its transactions upon Christ- 
ian or atheistic principles. Bishop 
Wehrle, of Bismarck, N. Dak., makes 
this plain in his pamphlets written 
against the tendency of the Nonpartisan 
League to introduce State Socialism 
into the North-West. The Bishop right- 
ly declares that it is a right as well as 
the duty of h's people to vote, and that 
in voting, they must obey the dictates 
of both reason and conscience, because 
failure to do so would help godless 
politicians to acquire a power which 
they would surely use against the 
interests of religion, and, consequently, 
against the welfare of society. 

For this reason it is not commend- 
able that Catholic papers, weekly or 
daily, proclaim their complete indepen- 
dence of politics. While a large num- 
ber of voters : s sufficiently instructed 
to vote intelligently and conscientious- 
ly, very many draw their information 
from doubtful, not to say tainted 
sources, and thus often ignorantly vote 
.against the interests of religion. They 
have a right to look to the Catholic and 
Christian press for correct information 
,-nd leadership, and that press ought to 
be conscious of the fact that godless 
politics will result in deviltry. 

Fr. A. B. 


Idolatry of the Constitution 

The American Constitutional League, 
of Wisconsin, as part of its programme 
of Americanization, recently conducted 
an essay contest, in which the writers 
were to explain why the particular prin- 
ciples of government embodied in the 
Constitution of the United States were 
the best. This has become more than 
a fad. It has become an efficient means 
for propaganda, in which the schools, 
both public and private, are made 
ready tools. Any class or organization 
with some partxular predilection, pro- 
viding it is sufficiently "orthodox" in 

its standpat and obstructionist policies, 
can find this a ready means for the 
propagation of its doctrines. Thus the 
American Constitutional League is 
"Americanizing'' Wisconsin by abetting 
prevailing superstitions ! One of these 
is the absolute perfection of our Con- 
stitution. There is already far too much 
blind idolatry of this document. If the 
American Constitutional League spent 
its time advocating needed constitution- 
al reforms, it would be doing a real 
service to our country. We need, for 
instance, to abolish the obsolete elect- 
oral college and the postponement of 
the presidential inauguration four 
months after the election, by which our 
government is left without an effective 

Let us not forget, too. that the pres- 
ent system of representation is unjust 
and' should give way to proportional 
representation as instituted, for exam- 
ple, in sections of Canada. 

Some day, also, we shall probably 
realize the folly of geographical instead 
of the logical classification by functions. 
But ere that the inanity of "American- 
ization" as carried on by dyed-in-the- 
wool obstructionists will no doubt have 
become apparent. Meanwhile some of 
our parochial schools will continue to 
garner the highly questionable recogni- 
tion of numbering among their students 
winners of such silly contests. 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(Twenty-fifth Installment) 

In another article the Portia Free Picss 
denied absolutely that anything had been said 
about checking or opposing Catholics in 
Pocahontas. Then "Sylvestris"' sent a letter 
with a printed report to Brother Bolan, 
editor of the Rcuidolph Herald in Pocahontas. 
Here follows part of that report : "District 
Conference for the Xewport District of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. South, met at 
Rev. George M. Hill, P. E. George Thorn- 
burgh was elected secretary: the hour of 
meeting for morning was 6 to 9 o'clock: to 
adjourn at 10:45. I" the afternoon they meet 
at 2:30 o'clock and adjourn at 5, preaching 
every day at 11 A.M. and 7 P.M. — Walnut 
Hill Circuit, Brother Arnold. Condition 
good. Eight new members received ; church 



attendance on the increase; prayer meetings 
at all points ; plenty of good workers ; family 
prayers frequent; preacher's salary raised 
by assessment; plan works well; general 
collection raised by a cotton patch devoted 
to that purpose; preachers do the work in 
the patch and the Lord makes the cotton. 
Here a motion was made and carried to sus- 
pend the regular proceedings and decide 
upon the place to hold the next conference. 
Tacksonport's claims were that it was the old 
"stamping-ground of Methodism. Now the 
members were growing luke-warm. The 
members were mostly ladies, but the delegates 
would he well entertained. Walnut Hill 
offered plenty of pure water. Come ye to the 
waters, with free conveyance from the rail- 
road. The Pocahontas people needed" it bad- 
ly to offer a substantial check to the Catho- 
lics : Smithville demanded it on account of 
superiority to entertain the delegates. — 
Pocahontas circuit. Brother Maynard. Spir- 
itual condition bad; three prayer meetings; 
no class meetings; family altars few; have 
three church houses ; parsonage and 40 acres ; 
financial, some assess, some collect ; stewards 
have little love for their work ; no plans for 
the general collections, have eight appoint- 
ments, church attendance good; seldom have 
the sacrament for the lack of wine; one 
prayer meeting, etc. Financial condition poor ; 
there is no money in the country, yet the 
district conference should meet at Pocahontas 
the next time to devise some means to op- 
pose the progress of the Catholics." 

Thereupon Brother Bolan of the Ran- 
dolph Herald published the following article 
concerning the "question of veracity", exon- 
erating "Silvestris." but trying to shift the 
responsibility upon the reporters. However 
several hundred preachers had received that 
printed report, and in case they had found it 
incorrect, they ought to have had it corrected. 

Bolan says : "In our last week's issue we 
published a letter written by 'Silvestris', the 
Pocahontas correspondent to Adam of Mem- 
phis. 'Silvestris' stated in that letter that 
Rev. Mr. Maynard, the Methodist preacher 
from the circuit, did say before the Methodist 
district conference, which met at Portia last 
month, that he desired the next meeting 
of the conference to take place at Poca- 
hontas, 'to devise some means to oppose the 
progress of the Catholics'. We also stated 
that Mr. Maynard denied uttering one word 
concerning such a project, and we further 
stated this denial brought about a plain 
question of veracity between Mr. Maynard 
and 'Silvestris' which exonerates her from 
all question of veracity. Mr. Maynard is 
shown by the report as having alluded to the 
very subject that he emphatically says he 
did not mention; and whatever there may be 
of error must lie in the reporter who re- 
ported the work of the convention for pub- 
lication in the Free Press of Portia." 

The Conference was actually held the next 
year at Pocahontas. Long before it met, big 

preparations were made. The regular theme 
of preaching for a time was about the super- 
stitition and dangers of the "Romish" 
Church. The poor Catholic servant girls in 
Protestant families suffered most, as all 
those calumnies were thrown at them. I had 
quite a time to keep everybody quiet. The 
Sunday before the beginning of the con- 
ference I asked our congregation for the 
love of Christ to leave our defense to God. 
I could see no good in quarreling; besides. 
we were too few in number, compared with 
the others, and a person should not make 
a fist if he has no hands. I told them it was 
better that we were thought to be simple, 
patient sheep, than to provoke dissension and 
troubles. I repeated again and again: "If the 
Lord is with us, we are strong, even though 
the whole world be against us. Our help is 
in the name of the Lord." 

Finally, the day of the conference came. 
Almost every house had one or more preach- 
ers as guests, and the hotels were crowded. 
The ministers were firmly determined to do 
their best to stem the progress of Catholicity. 
The conference started with a great show of 
power. It was to last two weeks, but was 
closed suddenly after a week. What was the 
reason? A gentleman, named Hirsch, who 
had a preacher in his house, drove him away, 
threatening to shoot him if he would return 
and pay any more attentions to his wife. 
The conference took the preacher to task, 
but he denied any guilt and refused to leave 
the conference. The ministers, fearing 
trouble, made an end of their convention, 
but unfortunately for them this did not end 
the Hirsch episode. 

The said preacher, who lived at Black 
Rock, sent a letter for Mrs. Hirsch, his 
hostess, to a Miss Fisher, requesting the 
latter to hand it to Mrs. Hirsch. He said it 
contained some spiritual matters, but knowing 
the jealousy and suspicion of her husband, 
he judged it best not to send the letter di- 
rectly. Miss Fisher, very curious to know 
what those "spiritual matters" might be,, 
opened the letter, in which the preacher de- 
clared his ardent love for Mrs. Hirsch and 
proposed to meet her at Ravenden Springs, 
sixteen miles west of Pocahontas, where he 
had regular appointments. He told her she 
might inform her husband that she needed 
the water cure at that resort. Miss Fisher 
gave the letter to the Pocahontas Free Press , 
which published it. Thenceforth we had 
peace and the preachers, compromised in that 
campaign against the Catholic Church, re- 
mained quiet. 

This is but one instance of what happened 
almost in every town in Arkansas after the 
establishment of a Catholic church. A regu- 
lar campaign of lies very often used to fol- 
low. Frequently the people pretended to be- 
lieve such stories as that of "Maria Monk." 
in their hearts most of them admired the 
Catholic Church. Every man or woman that 
leads a pure and exemplary life is a constant 





Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing foity-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. |- 
The text lays down solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these irinciplet>, as I 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been highly recommended by experts and members of the hierarchy and clerjry who have made I 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press j 

Price $1.00, post free 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

reproach to those of lower character, and 
if they cannot discover any real defect, they 
usually call such a person "stuck up.'' Human 
kind has suffered from the envy of the evil 
one and is prone to that vice at all times. If 
envy was a fever, says an Italian proverb, 
everybody would be sick. 

(To be continued) 



— A dog tethered to a tree will twirl round 
and round until he cannot move. A man 
with a fixed idea twirls round and round 
his pet prejudice until, intellectually speak- 
ing, he is tied fast. He is worse off than the 
dog, in that he does not even wonder sadly 
what has happened to him. He doesn't know 
anything has happened. 

— Dr. Thomas C. Hall, the eminent Am- 
erican scholar, formerly of Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary, New York, has been appointed 
extraordinary professor of philosophy in the 
University of Goettingen, of which he is a 
graduate. Ur. Hall was a friend of Theodore 
Roosevelt and a classmate of Woodrow 
Wilson, but opposed America's entry into the 
war, for which attitude, of course, he was 
becomingly abused. 

—The Catholic Citizen (Vol. 51. Xo. 9) 
says it is "not prepossessed by a disposition 
within our ranks which would favor the de- 
signs of bigotry to exclude Catholics from 
teaching in the public schools." But what 
about the consistency of adult Catholics 
teaching in schools from which Catholic chil- 
dren are excluded by the law of nature and 
of the Church? The problem is a difficult 
one that cannot be disposed of by one of the 
Milwaukee lawer-editor's facile ipse di.vit's. 

— Apropos of the Hymn to St. Michael re- 
cently reproduced in this journal, Father 
Athanasius, O, S. B„ of Conception Abbey, 
calls our attention to an article by Dreves in 
the Stiminen aus Maria-Laach, 1901, pp. 297 
sqq. It appears that the hymn was first 
printed, but without the line "Protector sis 
Germaniae," in Jesuit song-books published 
on the lower Rhine. The old melody, given 
bv Baumker, came from France via the 
Netherlands. It is pleasant to see the interest 
taken by many of our readers in even the 
minor topics treated or mentioned in the 
P. R. We thank Fr. Athanasius for his in- 

— A correspondent of the American Daily 
Standard, Chicago, quotes a preacher as 
saying that "a Christian cannot live a sanc- 
tified life while he sits with his nose over 
a garbage can every day." The garbage can 
is the average daily newspaper, and the com- 
parison is as true as it is graphic. He who 
reads and patronizes a sensational news- 
paper becomes a partaker of other men's sins 
and endangers his own morals. "Can a man 
walk on coals and his feet be not burned?" 
Would that at least Catholics, who are. or 
should be, the salt of the earth, fully realized 
this truth and lived up to it! 

— While America is trying to forget the 
war with its horrors and disgraceful con- 
clusion, Great Britain is sending over agents 
who are trying to fill otir young generation 
with hatred. In a circular announcing a lec- 
ture tour of Major Arthur de Bles, late 
British administrator of Cologne, we read, 
inter alia: "It is -necessary that our people, 
especially the coming generation, be made to 
realize the danger of forgetting the war and 
the lessons it taught us." And : "I hope 
every schoolboy in this country will have 
the opportunity of hearing your marvellous 
story," etc. 

—St. John Berchmans Church, Chicago, has 
a new set of windows which are worth 
going a long way to see. They contain mo- 
saic .paintings, composed of hundreds of 
gems of opalescent glass, put together so as 
to form rich and delicate, soft and brilliant 
tableaux in manifold colors. There is a pe- 
culiar lustre in the glass that makes it ap- 
pear pearl-like. The deep colors used for the 
garments and draperies look like downy 
velvets. There are two novel features in re- 
ligious iconography in the great windows of 
the transept, namely, a large host with the 
glorified Saviour and the Deluge with a rain- 
bow in seven colors. A pamphlet with a full 
description of the windows can be had from 
the pastor. Rev. Julius E. DeVos, Logan 
Bl. and Maplewood Ave., Chicago, 111. 

— M. Henri Bourassa. in an article on 
"La Presse et la Famille," in Lc Devoir, of 
Montreal, says he is not impressed by the 
argument of those who, to excuse the ab- 
sence of a vigorous Catholic daily press, 
point to the many exterior manifestations 
of the faith in our churches and upon special 
occasions. These manifestations, he says, 
going hand in hand as they do with a con- 
stant and rapid perversion of conscience and 
with a growing degradation of public and 




private morality, and especially of the homely 
virtues of our ancestors, present a phenom- 
enon that is disquieting rather than con- 
Soling. "There is such a thing as an abuse 
of grace and a deadening of conscience in 
nations as well as individuals. Christ Himself 
has judged and condemned those who honor 
Him merely with their lips." 

— The University of Louvain, in a circular 
letter of which we have received a copy, asks 
it.; American friends to aid it in resurrecting 
its famous pre-war Revue d'Histoire Eccle- 
siastique. The names of those who help will 
be published on the first page of the first 
number of the new series as well as in the 
general index for 1900 to 1014 and in the 
volume of "fitudes d'Histoire Ecclesiastique", 
projected for the fifth centenary of the 
founding of the University, in 1925. The 
Revue was one of the foremost periodicals 
of its kind, perhaps the leading historical 
review of the Catholic world, and we hope 
that those of our readers who are able and 
interested in the subject of Church history, 
as every cultured Catholic ought to be, will 
aid in re-establishing it for the good of the 
Catholic cause, which has altogether too few- 
magazines of this kind. 

— One has to read the German-language 
newspapers or The Nation to get the testi- 
mony given before the American Committee 
of One Hundred which is inquiring into the 
Irish question. Thus Lord Mayor O'Cal- 
laghan, of Cork, read a letter from Thomas 
Hales, who was taken from his home by 
British soldiers at midnight and carried to 
a guard-room, where his teetli were knocked 
out, after which : "Finally the officer in com- 
mand said: 'We'll make him talk. Bring the 
tongs.' A number of tongs were brought 
and were applied to my finger nails in such 
a manner as to twist them loose. Blood 
spurted from my fingers. Under the torture 
I lost consciousness and all sense of pain," 
etc. This nail-tearing process fits in well with 
the returning popularity of witchcraft, lynch- 
ing and Ku Klux Klanism. 

— The Harry Wilson Agency, 330 S. Ven- 
dome Str., Los Angeles, Cal.. offers a sub- 
stitute for the discontinued Catholic Direc- 
tory "List of American Catholic Periodical 
Publications" in its trade circular for 1921. 
which contains a fairly complete roster of 
the Catholic magazines and newspapers pub- 
lished in English in the U. S., with the ad- 
dition of two or three foreign-language 
periodicals. Mr. Wilson, as our readers 
know, is a convert from the Episcopalian 
ministry and has founded his agency for the 
purpose of providing work for converted 
Protestant ministers, by which they may 
earn a livelihood for themselves and their 
families. His agency has the approbation 
of the Bishop of Los Angeles and can be 
unreservedly recommended to all who are 
in the habit of ordering their magazines and 
newspapers, secular as well as religious. 

through a subscription agency. The Belleville 
Messenger has called attention to a few er- 
rors and omissions, which will no doubt be 
corrected when a new edition is called for. 

—The Rev. Charles Bruehl, D. D., of Over- 
brook Seminary, who conducts the "Book 
Reviews" department of the Salesianum, 
says in Vol. XVI, No. 1 of that excellent 
quarterly: "It is the duty of the reviewer 
to save his readers' money by warning them 
against the purchase of such books as will 
not repay the outlay made in their acqui- 
sition. This is a duty not pleasant to per- 
form nor likely to bring him the gratitude 
of author and publisher. Yet it is not right 
to foist books on the public that are in- 
ferior in quality and that cause the buyer 
a financial loss and a waste of time." The 
occasion for these remarks was the Rev. 
Owen A. Hilll's, S. J., "Ethics" (already 
mentioned in the F. R.) , which Dr. Bruehl 
says, is "a poor piece of work and decidedly 
unworthy of a scholar." It is surprising the 
Jesuit censorship does not prevent the pub- 
lication of such books. 

— There has been some talk in the Am- 
erican Catholic press lately of the need of 
an authentic history of the movement known 
as Cahenslyisrn. An eminent ecclesiastic has 
written up the affair, but will not publish 
the result of his researches during the life- 
time of Cardinal Gibbons, for reasons not 
difficult to divine. The Echo lately mentioned 
Dr. Frederick J. Zwierlein as a fit man to 
throw light on the subject, but the Reverend 
Doctor informs us that Bishop McQuaid, upon 
whose biography he is engaged, had hardly 
anything to do with Cahenslyisrn, so-called, 
and speaks of it only once in a letter, written 
after he had received a telegram from in- 
terested parties in Rome. Bishop McQuaid, 
like the good and prudent shepherd that he 
was, let the "language question" settle itself 
in his diocese and lauded the German Cath- 
olics to the skies because of their zeal for 
parochial schools. 

— Beginning with the January issue, the 
Catholic Historical Review, of Washington, 
ceases to be a magazine devoted wholly to 
American Catholic history and launches out 
into the wider field of general Church his- 
tory. We regret to learn that the Rev. Dr. 
Peter Guilday, who founded the Reviciv 
and raised it to its high level of scholarship, 
has retired from its editorial management. 
He is a first-rate scholar and a fearless 
lover of truth, and it always gave us great 
pleasure to second his efforts on behalf of 
Catholic truth and justice. His able pen ought 
not to grow rusty now that it is no longer 
wielded in an editorial capacity. As for the 
Revieiv, it will henceforth be devoted to the 
general history of the Church, from the be- 
ginning to the present time, and if it con- 
tinues to maintain the high standard set by 
Dr. Guilday, we have no doubt it will in 
course of time become a fit pendant to the 
Louvain Revue d'Histoire Ecclesiastique. 



February 1 

Wagner's Londres Grande Segars w \*™ -- ^ ^ w* i» i e " i he w 


(~)CR segar leaf is bought by skilled leaf buyers, who devote their entire time and attention 
^-' to that particular occupation; and there always is an expert, a man skilled in his own 
particular line, who handles the segar until it finally reaches the smoker. Segar men are 
born, not made. It seems that they are endowed by nature with a discriminating taste; for 
without a discriminating taste, there is no inherent success. It takes skill and knowledge of 
leaf to blend tobaccos together so as to produce a fine, aromatic smoke. Vet some folks say 
that a really fine segar is not good. The segar is all right, but either their taste is off, or 
they do not like that particular blend of leaf. Smoking is like eating. If we should eat beef- 
steak every day, we would get tired of it. The same in smoking. We should change our 
blend or combination once in a while. Then our taste will come back to our old particular 
blend, which we like. 
Ifin <tl On Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Monev Order or N.Y. Draft— if not satisfactory 
IUU""4> /.Oil pack and return by Parcel Post. Money & Postage refunded by return mai 

ffi 50--S4.00 

Kstabli-hed i£ 

Matt. Wagner & Son 

58 North Pearl Street 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Literary Brier's 

— Our valued contributor, the Rev. John E. 
Rothensteiner, has had a limited number of 
copies of the paper on "The Flathead and 
Nez Perce Delegation to St. Louis, 1831— • 
1839," which he contributed to the St. Louis 
Catholic Historical Review, struck off in 
pamphlet form. (Amerika Press, St. Louis, 

— In "Father Allan's Island. - ' Miss Amy 
Murray presents with charm and insight the 
wonder tales, the simple faith, the folk music, 
and the color of the daily lives of the in- 
habitants of the tiny isle of Eriskay. The 
book incorporates some thirty representative 
folk-songs with music. Padraic Colum, in a 
foreword, praises especially the author's 
dramatic style. (Harcourt, Brace, & Howe). 

— Wilhelm Wundt's entire library, one of 
the most valuable private collections in 
Europe, has been placed in the hands of 
Alfred Lorentz, an antiquarian of Leipzig. 
It is expressly stipulated that the books shall 
not be sold to buyers living outside of Ger- 
many or intending to leave Germany. Wundt 
died September 2, 1920. 

—Father Henry Ignatius Dudley Ryder's 
"Sermons and Notes of Sermons," which 
have been edited by the Fathers of the 
Birmingham Oratory (Sands & Co. and B. 
Herder Book Co.), must be accepted for 
what they profess to be : discourses, not pre- 
pared for special occasions, but preached in 
the ordinary routine of parochial work. They 
are distinguished principally by a happy 
knack of illustration and analogy. 

— Fredrika Bremer's letters, 1,486 in num- 
ber, have been collected, edited, and published 
by P. A. Xorstedt & Sons, Christiania. Many 
of them are of immediate interest to Am- 
ericans. Fredrika Bremer, it will be recalled, 
spent two years in the U.S. (1849—51), and 
on her return to Sweden wrote "Homes in 
the New World" (1853). Her best works 
have been translated into nearly all European 
languages. She died in 1865. 

Books Received 

Geschichte der Piifstc scit dem Ausgang des Mitt el- 
alters. Mit Benutzung des papstlichen Geheim- 
archivs and vieler auderer Archive bearbeitet von 
I.udwig Freiherrn von Pastor. Achter Band: Ge- 
schic.ite der Papste im Zeitalter der katholischen 
Reformation und Restauration: Pius V. (1566 — 
1572). xxxvi & 676 pp. 8vo. Freiburg i. B. : 
Herder i\- Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book 
Co. $7.40 net. 

Auffallende Erscheimmgett an dem Christusbilde 
j "ii Limpias. Yon Prof. Dr. Freiherr von KleisL 
Dritte, erweiterte Aufl. 160 pp. 16mo. Illustrated. 
Kirnach-Villingen (Baden), Germany: Verlag dev 
Waist nanstalt ( Schulbriider). M. 7. (Wrapper). 

The Seminarists' Symposium, 1919 — 1930. Edited and 
Issued by the St. Thomas Literary and Homiletic 
Society of St. Vincent Seminary, Beatty, Pa. 
Vol. II. Press of the Pittsburg Observer. 

A Year with Christ. By William J. Young, S.J. 
208 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book Co. $1.60 net. 

Psychology and Mystical Experience. By John How- 
lev, M.A., Professor of Philosophy, Galway. x & 
275 pp. 8vo. B. Herder Book Co. $2.50 net. 

.1 Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions for 
all Sundays and Holydays of the Year. Based on 
the Teaching of the Catechism of the Council of 
Trent and Harmonized with the; Gospels and 
Epistles of the Sundays and Feasts. Prepared 
and Arranged by the Rev. Cfaas. J. Callan, O.P., 
and the Rev. John A. McHugh, O.P., Professors 
in the Theological Faculty of Maryknoll Semi- 
nary, Ossining, X. Y. Dogmatic Series: Vol. I. 
xvi & 506 pp. 8vo. New York: Joseph F. Wag- 
ner, Inc. $3.50 net. 

A Case of Demoniacal Possession. 32 pp. 16mo. 
Xotre Dame, Ind. : Ave Maria Press. (Wrapper). 

Chiistus in seiner Priie.y istenz und Kenose nach 
Phil. II, 5-8. 2. Teil: Exegetisch-kritische Unter- 
suchung von Heinrich Schumacher, Assoc. Prof, 
der neutl. Exegese an der Catholic University of 
America in Washington, D. C. Von dem Bibel- 
institut zu Rom preisgekront. xv & 423 pp. 8vo. 
Rome: Press of the Pontifical Bible Institute. 



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March 1 

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The Fortnightly Review 



March 1, 1921 

'Go, Show Yourselves to the Priests!" 
(Luke XVII, I4-) 
By Eugene M. Beck. S.J., 
St. Louis University. 

Upon the blinding Salem way 
Ten outcast lepers waiting stood — 

A constellation of dismay — 
Boldened to instant hardihood. 

For brightly, through their sad disgrace. 

The Master's fame had pierced to them, 
And they were eager for His face 

And fain to touch His garment-hem. 

The dreadful flesh outshone the sands; 

Slow were their huddled forms and lean 
But they, uplifting piteous hands, 

Cried : "Master, Thou canst make us clean !' 

Who said — His words were urgent-sweet— 
"Go to the priests, and as they say, 

So be it done!" (for it is meet 
That they who bind, shall take away.) 

So runs the tale. . . . 

This may ye know 

There is no wound, however deep. 
But may be healed, if ye would go 

To them that Christ's succession keep. 

"Controlling" Dreams 

Mary Arnold-Forster, in an interest- 
ing volume of psychological "Studies 
in Dreams'' (Allen & Unwin, London), 
tells how by exercises in concentration 
and suggestion she succeeded in "con- 
trolling" her dream states, switching off 
bad dreams and inducing good ones. 
She says : 

"I tried repeating this formula to my- 
self from time to time, during the day. 
and on going to bed, always in the same 
words — 'Remember, this is a dream. 
You are to dream no longer' — until, I 
suppose, the suggestion that I wanted 
to imprint upon the dream mind became 
more definite and more powerful than 
the impression of any dream.. . .For a 
time after this secret had been fully 
learned, this would always awaken me 
at once ; nowadays, the formula having 
been said, I do not have to wake, though 
I may do so, but the original fear 

dream always ceases. It is simply 
"switched off," and a continuation of 
the dream, but without the disturbing 
element, takes its place and goes for- 
ward without a break." 

The astonishing docility of the 
"dream mind" in obeying the conscious 
suggestions of the author tempted her 
to go further and to induce pleasant 
dreams by the same means. The dream- 
er "wished" to dream a certain dream, 
and the dream came, not at once, but 
generally within a few days. A hundred 
years ago people would have called this 
witchcraft, nowadays we call it auto- 
suggestion ; but whichever name we give 
it the process remains inexplicable, and 
we can only see in it the moulding to 
its desire by the conscious of the un- 


The Ethics of Dress 

Our attention has been called to an 
article on "Dress," by Eric Gill, in the 
December Blackfriars. The author, 
whoever he may be, contends, seemingly 
in all seriousness, that "vanity and per- 
sonal conceit are as much the right and 
proper accompaniment of the male 
among human beings as among ani- 
mals" and that "among women. . .vani- 
ty is ipso facto vicious — a sign of degra- 
dation, a proof of departure from the 
divine plan, the fruit of irreligion and 
sexual abnormality and abandon." 

Of course, Mr. Gill does not prove 
his thesis. No one could prove such an 
absurd contention. But why should a 
serious and ordinarily well-conducted 
magazine like Blackfriars print such 
rubbish ? Has the Chestertonian mania 
for paradoxically poisoned even the 
Catholic magazines of England? 

As for the ethics of dress, the reader 
will find it briefly explained in Dr. A. 
Koch's "Handbook of Moral Theol- 
ogy," English edition, Vol. Ill, pp. 27 


March 1 

How One Parish Pays Its Debt 

St. Ann's congregation, of Mil- 
waukee, has demonstrated the value of 
organization. The congregation consists 
of about 800 families, mostly laborers. 
Most of the parishioners own their 
homes, but only a few have more than 
that. The parish was organized in 1894, 
in a new district, only partly platted. 
The first building erected was a com- 
bination church and school. The school 
sisters at first lived in the combination 
building, and the parsonage consisted 
of a "duplex flat" on wooden under- 

Father August B. Salick, who took 
charge of the newly organized parish, 
was known as "the school-pastor," and 
as such "made good." The school at- 
tendance showed a steady and healthy 
growth, so that the Sisters were soon 
crowded out ; their quarters being con- 
verted into school rooms. About fifteen 
years ago, although greatly in need of a 
new church, a new school was built, a 
three-story building, and a few years 
later, a new and substantial parsonage 
was erected. 

At the beginning of the World War 
it was decided to build a new church, 
and in order to raise the necessary 
money, the men of the congregation, 
being well organized, undertook a 
"drive," the first of its kind, unless the 
writer is mistaken. While the men 
visited the members of the congrega- 
tion, the women and children made a 
novena under the leadership of the 
pastor. The first drive resulted in about 
$55,000. The War made building pro- 
hibitive, and so work was postponed. 
About two years ago, another drive was 
made, which resulted in $35,000. Backed 
by St. Ann's Union, a federation of all 
the societies of the parish, a bazaar was 
conducted in 1920, which netted the 
congregation over $18,000. Building 
operations on the new church were be- 
gun in the early fall of 1919, but owing 
to almost insurmountable difficulties, 
incident to the World War, the building 
progressed slowly. Yet the people kept 
right on gathering and contributing 
funds. The new church will be dedi- 
cated this spring, and although it will 

cost about $150,000, the indebtedness 
will be only about $30,000. 

The congregation is determined to 
wipe out the indebtedness in a very few 
years, in order to save interest money 
and apply it to the school, to make it 
the best school in Milwaukee. To ac- 
complish this, a Debt Society was or- 
ganized along new plans, and the sys- 
tem, after being in vogue one year, is 
successful beyond expectations. 

For the benefit of those who may 
want to inaugurate a similar plan, per- 
mit me to briefly describe the plan of 
St. Ann's. 

First of all, members enroll volun- 
tarily, although asked by friends to do 
so. Each member pays one dollar a 
month. Members, after being enrolled, 
receive from the secretary's office 12 
envelopes, bearing the roster number 
of the member, with a letter instructing 
them to drop the envelope with a dollar 
in the collection box, and to urge friends 
and relatives to join the Debt Society. 
The envelopes are turned over to the 
treasurer of the society, who credits the 
members, who are identified by the 
roster number on their pay-envelopes 
if they neglect to write their name and 
address on the envelope. The president, 
vice-president, treasurer, and secretary 
hold monthly meetings to discuss mat- 
ters pertaining to the welfare of the 

During the first year, the society col- 
lected $2,500, but it must be borne in 
mind that many members joined only 
in October, November, or December, 
1920. The total membership, at this 
writing, is 327. The increase from 
January 1st to February 1st was 28, 
and the prospects are that the member- 
ship will reach the 400 mark by March 

At the beginning of the second year 
of membership, each member receives a 
statement, showing the amounts paid 
during the several months of the first 
year, and, attached to the statement, a 
private mailing card, addressed to the 
secretary, with the request to get some 
relative or friend to sign the card and 
to drop it in the nearest mail box. In 
this wise the 299 members of the first 



year become solicitors for the society, 
and so far they have done excellent 

A membership of 1,000 is the slogan, 
and this number will be attained, be- 
cause the people of St. Ann's realize 
that their debt, if unpaid, will double in 
20 years at 5%, and they fully under- 
stand that it is wiser and better to spend 
the money for school purposes than to 
pay interest. 

St. Ann's Union, which constitutes 
the great organization of the parish, 
consists of all societies within the par- 
ish. Each society, whether large or 
small, is represented by two delegates, 
who meet monthly around the council 
table. Whatever the congregation under- 
takes, has the fullest support of this 
Union. The societies, in turn, give 
entertainments for the benefit of the 
church fund, and these entertainments 
are supported by the affiliated societies. 

In any Catholic national organization, 
the individual parish must represent the 
unit, to be effective. It is comparatively 
easy to reach the pastors of the congre- 
gation, but is difficult to reach the in- 
dividual members and obtain results — 
action. It will be seen that in St. Ann's, 
this can be accomplished without delay 
through the Union or local Federation 
of societies. 

It may seem strange that the people 
of St. Ann's do not stand behind their 
pastor, but they do stand around him, all 
giving him their support, all working 
hand in hand with him, all realizing 
that they constitute one large family 
with him, one that has no enemies 
among the neighbors (Protestants), but 
has been setting a pace, and, because of 
the great harmony and co-operation 
that exists among the members, has 
shown to other denominations that at 
least one of the prejudices harbored 
against Catholics is unwarranted. 

J. M. Sevenicii 


— It is encouraging to see Catholic society 
women fighting the birth control propaganda, 
and some of the resolutions passed by them 
are very creditable indeed. But when one is 
admitted to the homes of some of these 
women and sees the size of their families, 
one cannot help wondering whether they 
practice what they preach. 

A Word With Our Critics 

This is the twenty-eighth year of the 
Fortnightly Review, and there has 
not been one among the preceding twen- 
ty-seven in which the little magazine has 
not been criticized for two contradic- 
tory reasons, namely, first, because it 
was "too much Preuss" and, secondly, 
because the editor did not write enough 
himself, but gave too much of his space 
to contributors who were his inferiors 
ill scholarship and literary talent. Curi- 
ously enough, the month of February, 
1921, brought us the same complaints 
from widely different sources. 

We wish to say again, what we have 
said so often before, that we do the 
best we can under difficult conditions ; 
that we are compelled to engage in much 
other literary and journalistic work to 
make a living; that the Fortnightly 
Review is a labor of love and not a 
business 'undertaking, and should be 
judged as such ; that "too much Preuss" 
is apt to displease some readers ; that 
the editor is not enough of a genius to 
make an absolutely "one-man" magazine 
sufficiently interesting to a sufficient 
number of readers; that some, if not 
all, of our esteemed contributors, are at 
least the equals of the editor in knowl- 
edge and literary ability, and that we 
could not possibly satisfy everybody, 
no matter how hard we tried. 

And so, remembering what an old 
Jesuit professor of ours used to say : "Do 
your best, and angels can't do better," 
we shall continue to give our subscribers 
as readable and worth-while a journal 
as we know how. If we can interest a 
sufficient number sufficiently to induce 
them to continue their support and to 
supply the lacunae constantly made in 
our subscription list by death and other 
inevitable causes, we shall continue to 
edit the F. R. to the best of our ability ; 
but if the number of active supporters 
should at any time in the future fall 
below a certain minimum figure, we 
shall discontinue the magazine. We can't 
give our labor gratis and add money 
besides. The Review must continue to 
"pay its way," as it has done for twenty 
vears, or die. 



March 1 

The Socialization of the School 


In an age when most institutions are 
appraised by their "social value," it was 
to be expected that the school would not 
escape the "socializing" process. And 
this process is going on apace. Several 
bulletins of the Bureau of Education 
are devoted to a discussion of ways and 
means for increasing the social value of 
the schools. One of them (No. 28) is 
entitled, "The Extension of Public Edu- 
cation — A Study in the Wider Use of 
School Buildings." It lists about three 
score of various "activities" that are 
now carried on in the public schools 
in various parts of the country, outside 
of "school hours." 

The sub-title of the Bulletin just men- 
tioned defines the purpose of socializing 
the school ; it is, to make "wider use" 
of the school plant. The object is praise- 
worthy, as it aims to secure maximum 
results with minimum outlay. But once 
this enthusiastic game of "socialization" 
has begun, it is hard for some fiery ad- 
vocates to keep within the boundaries 
of prudence and common sense. They 
want the State, through the school, to do 
anything and everything for the child 
and for those who come to the socialized 
school. In other words, the fearful 
danger of State Paternalism — and the 
danger is fearful because it strikes at 
fundamental liberties — is scarcely con- 
sidered by some enthusiasts. 

This is no pet objection of old fogies 
opposed to "educational progress." It 
has been voiced very strongly by those 
who are most ready to welcome reforms 
in our schools. Thus, a writer in The 
Nation (June 29, 1916) refers to the 
growing menace of Paternalism in al- 
lowing the schools to encroach upon the 
duties and the privileges of the home. 
"The duties of the home." he says, 
"have, in fact, been more assumed by 
the school. That the movement in this 
direction has meant a great gain for the 
children of the poor, no one can doubt ; 
nor question the fact that it hastens the 
process of assimilating the most hetero- 
geneous of populations. We have been 
particularly struck by the amount of 

space given in the programme to the 
care of backward children. The crippled, 
the blind or deaf, the mentally defec- 
tive now have the advantage of special 
schools so organized as to render them 
efficient men and women. All this de- 
sire to democratize education represents 
a magnificent service, and one that must 
have a telling effect upon future gener- 
ations. Its merits shine forth so clearly 
that one hesitates to point out any pos- 
sible drawbacks which it may have. Yet, 
it seems certain that the generous mo- 
tive which strives to bring the functions 
of the home to the homeless is tending 
to relieve parents of all sense of re- 
sponsibility in the instruction of their 
children. The more the schools under- 
take, the more the parents shirk. The 
result is bound to be a leveling of minds 
and manners. However desirable may 
be the all-around attention given to 
children of the poor, this extreme 
democracy in education is sure to defeat 
itself unless the schools can count upon 
the cooperation of parents. At present 
the schools are, with the best intentions 
of the world, in much the same position 
as the clergyman who, when he might 
be interpreting Holy Writ, is telling his 
congregation how they should vote." 

Nor does the danger lie merely in 
taking away from parents "all sense of 
responsibility in the instruction of their 
children." For "the emphasis placed in 
the programme on 'social values' may 
signify an entirely mischievous concep- 
tion of what a school can attempt — 
for who shall lightly say what the social 
values of any community are?" 

Still the movement toward "wider use 
of school buildings" suggests so many 
ways of developing the work of our 
parochial schools that it would be un- 
wise not to adopt its more commendable 

( Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S. J. 

— Father V. Cathrein, S.J., has written a 
little treatise on humility that, unlike so 
many others of its kind, strongly appeals 
to the modern man by its good sense and 
logicalness. No one can read it without 
deriving profit, therefrom. ("Die christliche 
Tugend der Demut. Ein Biichlein fur alle 
Gehildeten": B. Herder Book Co.) 




The German Indemnity 

After months of secret meetings, the 
Allied Premiers have finally decided 
upon the indemnity to be paid by Ger- 
many for her part in the war. And what 
an indemnity? The conditions stagger 
the imagination, they spell ruin for a 
prosperous nation, let alone a nation 
that has weathered a four years' war 
against the greatest possible odds. Had 
Germany demanded a like indemnity 
from France in 1870, there would have 
been no France to-day, to be a party to 
such unreasonable conditions as those 
imposed upon Germany. Generations 
yet unborn in that unhappy country will 
be reduced to want and pgverty in order 
to meet this extortionate demand. It is 
an advantage unjustly taken of a de- 
feated foe. Justice and reason are 
thrown to the winds, and greed and hate 
have usurped their place. For a period 
of nearly fifty years, according to the 
agreement entered into by the Allied 
Supreme Council, the German people 
must pay in reparations alone, from two 
billion to six billion gold marks annual- 

This is the price set upon defeat. This 
is the sort of thing that an unsuccessful 
war brings to an unsuccessful nation. 
Irrespective of the fact that a great in- 
justice is being done to a brave people, 
and innocent victims, the generations 
yet to come, Premier Lloyd George has 
said : "Germany must pay to her utmost 
capacity. It is to Great Britain's interest 
as well as to the interests of France 
and Belgium that Germany pay to the 
last farthing."' It is by the orders of this 
same "liberty-loving gentleman" that 
the Irish people, craving for indepen- 
dence from cruel England, are being 
shot down by British soldiery, and their 
property destroyed. The story of how 
Germany was made to pay to the vic- 
torious powers will bring the blush of 
shame to coming generations when his- 
tory is written and the true facts of the 
late war are made known. One of out- 
distinguished Senators, who saw 
through the machinations of the Allies 
in imposing this staggering indemnity, 
said that the sum put on Germany and 
"the method of payment is deliberately 

arranged to prevent Germany from get- 
ting any aid from any country other 
than her own war creditors, thus keep- 
ing Germany in increasing debt to the 
Allied countries." 

The levy of such colossal reparations 
upon Germany cannot but be viewed 
with alarm. If Germany during the next 
forty-two years is going to be obliged 
to raise and pay to the Allies for repara- 
tions and indemnities a sum approxi- 
mately $50,500,000,000, economists ex- 
press grave fear of the consequences 
resulting from the condition which of 
necessity will arise within the German 
nation, in order to make possible the 
raising of this stupendous sum. It will 
be necessary, of course, for Germany 
to raise, through taxes and other meth- 
ods, sufficient sums of money to run its 
government and provide for the cus- 
tomary expenses of the country during 
the forty-two year period. So $50,500,- 
000,000 really does not represent the 
sum which the government will be ob- 
liged to raise in the next half a cen- 
tury. The staggering sum demanded of 
Germany is not only a menace to 
Europe, but also to the United States 
in an economic way. To Germany itself, 
to a people to whom the world owes per- 
haps more than to any other nation for 
her civilizing influence upon the human 
race, it means ruin and spells disaster. 
A reaction is not impossible that will 
shake the universe. 

(Rev.) F. Jos. Kelly 
— <s>*~. 

— Sir Oliver Lodge, in his preface to "The 
Earthen Vessel: A volume dealing with 
Spirit-Communication Received in the Form 
of Book-Tests," by Pamela Glenconner (John 
Lane), describes the phenomenon known as 
"book-tests" as "part of a scheme devised 
by those who are communicating with us 
'from the other side' to get messages through 
in a way that cannot be attributed to any 
ordinarily recognized variety of subconscious 
activity on the part of the medium, nor to 
telepathy or mind-reading between the 
medium and the person who is receiving the 
messages." The method is for the medium 
to convey as from some one "on the other 
side," the exact particulars as to the where- 
abouts of a book, and as to a passage in the 
book which is to be taken as a message to a 
living person. Full particulars are given of 
nearly 30 such tests. 



March I 

The Catholic Social Year Book 

The Catholic Social Year Book, now in 
its 1 2th year (published by the Catholic 
Social Guild, Oxford, England) has be- 
came more "scientific," and also more 
practical and useful to all Catholic so- 
cial workers with every issue. The five 
chapters of the 1921 edition bear the 
suggestive headings: "Foreign Mis- 
sions," "Propaganda at Rome," "Or- 
ganisation," "Sanctification and Chari- 
ty," "Social Action and Education." 
An introductory essay covers the field 
of "Catholic Organisation in England." 
One point made in this paper, which has 
often been referred to in the F. R., has 
impressed us. It is "The Problem of 
the Leakage — Boys' After-Care." Some 
years ago we discussed in this Review 
the problem of the leakage in as far as 
it concerns the Church in America, on 
the basis of Rev. John H. Wright's 
pamphlet, "How to Stop the Leakage" 
(C. T. S.) In the present work we read : 
"Those who know conditions best are 
those who take the most pessimistic 
view [italics ours]. It is a conservative 
estimate to say that half the children 
who leave our elementary schools give 
up their religion by the time they marry. 
Father Wright says that the leakage, is 
greatest among those who leave the ele- 
mentary schools and during the ages 
between fourteen and twenty." The 
present writer is strongly of the opinion 
that had these lines been written by the 
Editor of the Fortnightly Review, 
he would have received letters of protest 
(probably anonymous), calling him a 
"croaker." But now we might as well 
do what we can to save souls from the 
wreckage, both in England and in the 
United States. A. M. 

History of a Teaching Community 

It is a matter for rejoicing for all 
those interested in the history of the 
foundation and the pioneer efforts of 
our teaching sisterhoods, that the num- 
ber of monographs telling that interest- 
ing story is on the increase. 

One of the latest additions to the 
list is a fine volume on the early history 
and the development of the educational 

and hospital work of a community of 
Franciscan Sisters whose schools are 
numerous in Wisconsin and Iowa. The 
record is published under the title : 
"Our Community — The Origin and the 
Development through Seventy Years of 
the Congregation of the Sisters of the 
Third Order of St. Francis of the Per- 
petual Adoration, La Crosse, Wiscon- 
sin, 1849 — 1919." 

The book is all the more noteworthy 
because it is written "by a member of 
the community" and published at St. 
Rose Convent, La Crosse, Wise, the 
motherhouse of the community. It is, 
therefore, entirely a "home product," 
and the excellent make-up of the vol- 
ume, the clear print, and the fine por- 
traits speak well for the quality of work 
done at the Convent press. 

The teaching of domestic science has 
always been held in high esteem by the 
Sisters and now their Domestic Train- 
ing School, St. Angela's Institute, at 
Carroll. Iowa, takes high rank. For "to- 
day students not only from the adjacent 
States, but even from the remotest parts 
of the Union are enrolled at St. An- 
gela's." _________ 

The Democratization of Industry 

The Amalgamated Clothing Workers 
of America, according to a news report, 
propose to operate the clothing industry 
themselves. To quote their secretary : 
"The clothing industry is ours. The em- 
ployers may own the factories and the 
tools, which we are not taking away 
from them. We are not going to permit 
the employer to determine where his 
factory is to be, nor how many hours 
we shall work." 

The article "Democratizing Industry" 
in the February 1st number of the F. R. 
points in the same direction. The writer 
in the Irish Theological Quarterly, as 
there quoted, does not agree with all 
the doctrines or proposals of the Rev. 
Dr. John A. Ryan. What the workers 
are entitled to have in strict justice is 
a fair wage. We should like to ask: Is 
the employer bound in justice to grant 
his workingmen a participation in the 
management of his business? Is he ob- 
liged in justice to accede to the wishes 




of the men regarding collective bar- 
gaining? In other words, to give them, 
in addition to a fair wage, a share of 
the net profits? When these questions 
have been answered and settled, there 
arises another, viz. : Is it expedient, is 
it prudent, to do so? 

A number of years ago I averted a 
threatening strike on the part of a cer- 
tain printers' union. The men contended 
that, in consequence of the increased 
cost of living, they were entitled to an 
increase in wages. The master printers 
agreed to arbitrate, and the representa- 
tive of the union, whom I considered a 
moderate Socialist, proposed that I (a 
priest) be appointed sole arbitrator. 
This caused a commotion among the 
union members, who evidently believed 
that the Church was capitalistic in sen- 
timent, and, because of this, the priest 
would decide against them. However, 
I was appointed, and after a full week's 
study and comparison of figures, de- 
cided in favor of the men, simply be- 
cause the cost of living had indisputably 
gone up. When the spokesman of the 
union delivered the vote of thanks, I 
said to him : "I was in justice bound to 
decide in favor of the men, who based 
their demand on the increased cost of 
living. But suppose the cost of living 
is reduced and the bosses insist upon 
a reduction of wages, what are you go- 
ing to do?" To which he answered: 
"We will never consent to that. W'e will 
keep what we have and try to get 
more." These sentiments are heard 
everywhere. Capitalism is selfish, and so 
is Labor. The party which happened to 
be in power has ever taken advantage of 
its position and tried to beat the other, 
and vice versa. If all the demands of 
the men are to be conceded, the em- 
ployer can construct and equip the fac- 
tory and turn the concern over to the 
men, and he is through with it. Is that 
fair, is it just? 

Democratization of industry is under- 
stood by radicals to mean nothing less 
than socialization, and it is clearly a 
dangerous experiment. B. 

Encouragement or Criticism? 

To the Editor: — 

The fairness and the encouragement 
which the F. R. extends to new periodi • 
cals is but one of the many notable fea- 
tures in its columns. After all, every 
Catholic periodical aims to further the 
teachings of Christ, directly or indirect- 
ly, and in so far is worthy of encour- 

Not infrequently a bitter criticism in 
the columns of a recognized Catholic 
periodical has been the death-blow to an 
enterprise which might have helped the 
cause of Christ. 

A Catholic periodical is a silent mis- 
sionary which brings peace and comfoit 
to its readers. A missionary priest 
would never think of criticising the 
work of a brother missionary, who per- 
haps is less talented than himself, and 
thereby discourage that brother mis- 
sionary in his holy zeal. Why, then, 
should one Catholic periodical criticise 
another to such an extent as to discour- 
age publication ? As co-operation is the 
keynote of success in nearly all enter- 
prises, why cannot co-operation be used 
to encourage new Catholic periodicals ? 

J. J. B. 
Mikvaukee, Wis. 

—If you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after you have read them. 

[The Fortnightly Review tries to be 
benevolent in criticising its Catholic 
contemporaries, yet there are occasions 
when severity becomes a duty. As the 
Buffalo Echo pointed out the other day, 
tiie defunct Intermountain Catholic, of 
Salt Lake, Utah, for instance, had no 
raison d'etre because it was conducted 
as a "yellow" rather than as a Catholic 
journal, and, especially during the war, 
sowed dissension among its readers and 
showed a woeful lack of ordinary Chris- 
tian decency, not to say charity. No or- 
dinary flaw can neutralize the good that 
even "the humblest Catholic paper does ; 
but such a vitiating vice as habitual lack 
of charity or tendentious sensationalism 
is apt to render even the most preten- 
tious Catholic paper worse than useless. 
Editor. 1 



March 1 

G. K. C. 

It is becoming- increasingly evident 
that recognition and profits come to 
him who panders to the modern craze 
for the abnormal and bizarre. Mr. Gil- 
bert K. Chesterton has turned upon the 
happy expedient of attaining this end 
by the means of paradoxes. This has 
the advantage at least of leaving the 
audience in a befuddled state. After 
Mr. Chesterton, who is at present visit- 
ing this country, had lectured to a 
Boston audience on the "Perils of 
Health" the other day, his hearers were 
undecided as to the conclusion to be 
drawn from what he had said. The 
Transcript remarked that "it is, per- 
haps, not unreasonable to assume that 
it would not be safe to draw too sweep- 
ing conclusions from his remarks, and 
that he is not in opposition to all forms 
of that activity which, on this occasion, 
gave his powers of satire and ridicule 
full play." The same paper quoted 
from T. P. O'Connor, as "the best de- 
scription of Chesterton" the following: 
"He is brilliant in argument and in- 
sight, but the trouble is that he does 
not know anything. He is a Tremend- 
ous Trifler. He is the Prime Minister 
of Fairyland. He has written the best 
book on Dickens of our time. His orth- 
odoxy is famous, but it is heterodox 
to the orthodox. He believes in mira- 
cles, and therefore entrusts himself to 
hansom cabs. He is your lightning ex- 
cogitator and will contradict your pre- 
conceived ideas on whatever subject 
any lady or gentleman will be good 
enough to write on a slip of paper." 
After completely mystifying Boston on 
the question of its public health, he put 
New York into a state of coma with 
absurdities, paradoxes, and a sprinkling 
of truth concerning the "Ignorance of 
the Educated." As reported and criti- 
cized, it is hard to see just what the 
audience went away with from the 
lecture. Except for having had re- 
called to memory Artemus Ward's 
dictum that "it isn't so much people's 
ignorance that does harm as it is their 
knowing so many things that ain't so," 
they can have had but little intellectual 
reward. Nor will Chesterton be classed 

as a humorist for suggesting that 
Slovene is the female of Slovak and 
for provoking some mirth on the sub- 
jects of the missing link and the his- 
tory of prehistoric man. As Francis 
Hackett remarks in the New Republic : 
"With such material as this one needed 
a greater sense of spontaneity than 
Chesterton's slow pace permitted. His 
was a conjuring trick in which one saw 
the wheels go round. His natural pace, 
one felt, was ever so much faster. . . . 
The result was unfortunate. It was as 
if each champagne bubble turned into 
a soap bubble, and took a minute to 
burst." It was not entirely futile, how- 
ever. In commenting on Patrick 
Henry's saying : "Give me liberty or 
give me death," Chesterton wisely re- 
marked that "if Patrick Henry could 
arise from the dead, and revisit the 
land of the living, and see the vast 
system and social organization and 
social science which now controls, he 
would probably simplify his observa- 
tion and say, 'Give me death.' " It is 
not probable, however, that the Chest- 
erton cult in America will receive an 
added impetus from his visit. Compe- 
tent Catholic critics, moreover, have 
before this pointed out this erratic En- 
glishman's philosophical weakness and 
the danger in following him as a guide. 

The Labor Movement 

No one can predict with certainty 
what will be the result of the present 
campaign of the masters of industry 
against labor organizations. Time 
alone, however, will be sufficient to make 
the uncertain certain if American labor 
continues in the future as it has in the 
past. This view is confirmed by a 
pointed editorial in the Freeman (Vol. 
II, No. 47) as follows: "Labor has had 
a fine high-priced lesson. . . . We now 
say, what we have repeatedly said, . . . 
that as long as Brother Gompers and 
his ilk are allowed to run at large, be- 
fuddling the mind of labor with their 
insistence upon trade-unionist issues — 
hours, wages, and conditions of labor 
--labor will continue to get what it has 
now gotten, to get it good and hard, 
and get it in the same place, /'. c., in the 




neck. A little while ago, labor came 
the nearest in its whole history to being 
able absolutely to dictate its own terms 
and get them ; and it stuck to standard 
trade-unionist terms. Then the employ- 
ers did what they can always do under 
these circumstances : — they began to 
create a labor surplus. Caught in the 
sweep of a labor surplus, trade-union- 
ism now looks like a wreck of a box- 
car. Hence we should think that labor 
would be ready to pry its mind off the 
issues of trade-unionism and begin to 
think of a way to make impossible the 
creation of a labor-surplus in order 
effectively to prevent a recurrence of its 
present plight." 

All of which applies equally to the 
vast majority of Catholic sociologists 
and Catholic programmes of social 
reform. There is still great concern 
over the ethical aspects of labor organi- 
zations, hours of work, and rates of 
pay. This is like putting the ambulance 
at the foot of the hill and neglecting to 
guard the hill itself. Questions of 
wages, hours, etc.. will adjust them- 
selves automatically once the wage 
system is abolished and adapted guilds 
established. But little is heard of this. 
We are too busy justifying unionism 
on the basis of Catholic teaching 
regarding self-evident organizations of 
laborers, whereas we should be busy 
expounding and detailing the doctrine 
of an equitable distribution of wealth. 

To be sure, it is necessary, during a 
period of transition, to obtain as much 
of social justice as possible. But the 
fact remains that we are, for the most 
part, content to strive for measures that 
can never be more than mere palliatives. 
All the more because labor is obstruc- 
tionist, must we lead the way to the 
new order, though it require that we 
fear not the word "revolutionary," nor 
be unwilling to suffer the pangs of the 
birth of a new era. F. 

— The Christian Cynosure (Vol. 53. Xo. 10 I 
prints a letter from the secretary of the Vice- 
President-elect, in which it is stated that Mr. 
Coolidge "is not a Mason, but holds them 
[the Masons], in high esteem as a patriotic, 
God-fearing association." 

The Degrading Spectacle of Protestant- 
ism During the War 

"Never in the history of Christian- 
ity/' says The Statesman (Toronto, 
\ ol. IY, Xo. 2), "has there been wit- 
nessed a more degrading spectacle than 
that presented by the Protestant 
churches of this land, in the servile sub- 
jection of things spiritual to things ma- 
terial, when during the war they drove 
Christ from the pulpit and elevated 
Caesar. Where shall men look for mod- 
erating and kindly influences, in days of 
terror and bloodshed, if not to the 
temples erected for the worship of the 
Prince of Peace? What humanizing 
agency is left to mitigate the horrors of 
war, if the ministry of healing and re- 
. conciliation vacates the altar for the 
shambles? Protestantism had a special 
mission to fulfil when war broke out, in 
emphasizing the spirituality of the con- 
flict and in lifting the eyes of humanity 
from the sordid and dehumanizing 
slaughter on the battlefields to the 
crowning achievement for which men 
fought — the defeat of War and the 
triumph of Peace. But Protestantism 
was in the grip of blind leaders, who 
had failed so tragically in neglecting the 
only preparations for war which Chris- 
tian churches can make — the spiritual- 
izing of the agencies of war as the 
strongest safeguard against war's bru- 
talizing tendencies. Empty churches, 
vulgar advertising, and, finally, a frank 
abandonment of the whole position in 
doctrine and morals — these are the 
Dead Sea fruits that Protestantism 
reaped through its ungodly alliance with 
the State." 

Coming from a Protestant journal, 
this testimony is truly remarkable. As 
a Catholic journal, the F. R. will add 
that, unfortunately, in the U. S. as well 
as in Canada, some Catholic priests 
and bishops, too, failed to rise to the 
occasion during the war, though the 
grand old Church, in her chief re- 
presentative, Pope Benedict XV, con- 
stantly preached charity and peace. 

— How about th'at new subscriber you 
promised to send us last year? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 



March 1 

Regulating the Coal Industry 

According to the Boston Herald's 
summary of the Calder Bill for the 
Regulation of the Coal Industry (see 
Literary Digest, Vol. 68, No. 6), its 
main provisions are as follows : "A 
licensing system of all operators and 
dealers in order to enforce the report- 
ing of accurate figures; the authoriza- 
tion of the President to fix maximum 
prices, commissions, and margins over 
the whole or any part of the United 
States, whenever emergency threatens 
cither unreasonable prices or shortage 
of supply or imperils the public health; 
the authorization of the President to 
deal in coal and control its production, 
movement, and distribution, so that the 
government and not those self-inter- 
ested shall operate the coal industry in 
time of emergency." This proposed 
piece of legislation also provides for a 
tax on brokers' sales. Federal access to 
all records and documents, and cessa- 
tion of profiteering through subsidary 
concerns. It is believed that by the use 
of existing governmental agencies such 
as the Federal Trade Commission, the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, and 
the Geological Survey, no new bureau 
will be needed. 

The measure, however, does strength- 
en bureaucracy, State absolutism, and 
State Socialism, of which sort of thing 
we have already more than enough. As 
soon as any business or industry be- 
comes so unmanageable as to jeopard- 
ize the national welfare (according to 
this theory of government), the State 
should interfere. In its general out- 
lines it can be ethically justified, but is 
it economically and politically sound ? 

The coal industry is no worse than 
the average big busines: ; it has been 
brought to the attention of the public 
forcibly because its mismanagement 
caused sharp suffering to many. Must 
we, then, permit ourselves to be com- 
pletely bureaucratized before we realize 
the fallacy of this diluted form of 
autocracy? Even its beneficiaries admit 
that the coal industry has broken down 
completely, as every capitalistically con- 
trolled business in the end necessarily 

must. The final and lasting solution 
lies along the lines of guild control and 
ownership. Yet though this plan is 
essentially Catholic in tradition and 
spirit, it finds little place in a detailed 
way in Catholic reconstruction program- 
mes. We are still content, for the most 
part, trying to bolster up Capitalism. 
H. A. F. 

The Efficiency Craze 

It is refreshing to see the increasing 
number of voices that are adding their 
hew and cry against the efficiency bun- 
combe that has been parading about in 
scientific clothes during the past decade. 
In the house organ of The Eastern 
Tube and Tool Company, Brooklyn, 
X. Y., "The Ettco" by name, the edi- 
tor engages in a few rounds quite dis- 
astrous to "Taylorism" in the January 
number (Vol. I, No. 5) of this little 
magazine. His sense of humor prompts 
him to ask, among other questions, why 
"it is possible to select 5,000 or 10,000 
men, who are satisfactory supermen, 
asses enough to be crazy to work in 
some particular factory, wherein they 
will find great joy in the fact that their 
cerebrum is slanted at 23 degrees 6 min- 
utes 3 seconds from their right shoulder 
blade, and therefore they are able to 
do 67 y> % of a job better than if 
33 % % of that same job was made of 
green cheese and elephant tusks." 

This persiflage is not as ridiculous as 
it sounds, as those with experience will 

But more directly the author vainly 
searches for the "correct thinking part 
of Taylorism, which so blatantly and 
destructively insinuates the horrible 
doctrine that man is subordinate to the 
machine. Do you think that the thou- 
sands of sorely needed machines to be 
created are for the betterment of other 
machinery or for the betterment of 
mankind? .... It [Taylorism] was 
founded on selfishness — not for human- 
ity's sake. Little near-seeing men be- 
came so impregnated with the idea that 
machinery was greater than the flesh 
and bones contained in the overalls be- 




side it, that they clear forgot that man 
built that very machinery." 

Production to-day is startlingly in- 
efficient. Capitalists for good reasons 
will not look to their system as the first 
cause but foolishly insist on making 
human motions in production more 
scientific. In addition such "incentives" 
as premiums, bonus payments, etc., are 
used. The real incentive, however, is 
utterly lacking in modern industry. 
Until co-partnership again exists, men 
will foolishly attempt to prop our tot- 
tering production system by such soul- 
killing expedients as "scientific man- 

A New Horace 

In a slender volume"Q.Horatii Flacci 
Carminum Librum Quintum a Rud- 
yardo Kipling et Carolo Graves Anglice 
redditum, et variorum notis adornatum 
ad fidem codicum MSS. edidit Aluredus 
D. Godley" (R. Blackwell; Oxford) 
are presented "the newly-discovered 
Odes", fifteen in number, edited by that 
ripe scholar, the Public Orator of Ox- 

In a Praefatio which Horace himself 
would have loved for its felix curiositas, 
the editor tells the story of the MSS. of 
the book, mysteriously latent for so long. 
It is much as we should have supposed. 
Codex P is in the Grosspaniandrmnpina- 
kuthek somewhere in Baden, Codex T 
(XlVth Century) in the Trentunoset- 
tembre Museum at Padua, and another 
(W) of the same family was in the Li- 
brary of Cavendish College, Cambridge 
— but no one knows whither it went. 
The editor was anxious to consult an 
inferior MS. in the Poshworth library 
at Market Poshworth; but the Master 
of Poshworth rudely refused, and the 
copy made by a neighboring clergyman, 
the Vicar of Boosting Parva, was of 
little use, for the poor man was no 

Our admiration for Horace, as the 
poet of the Augustan age — or of any 
Augustan age — is greatly enhanced by 
his prophetic appreciation in this Fifth 
Book of the life and thought of our 

own day. It needed a prophet indeed 
to write such lines as these: — 
spes oritur melioris aevi 
cum navitarum pervigilantium 
curis levatis, merce domestica 
pastum per infernos tumultus 
Rondda feret Protheroque Flaccum. 
(ix. 49-52;. 
Or these: — 

vineas subter nihil hie nocentes 
siccus accumbes, recinesque mecum 
Lloydii potare merum vetantis 
iura Georgi. (xii, 45-48). 

. Strangely prophetic, again, is our 
Horace in Ode XIV, where he describes 
the "noises" of "a mood Corybantic," 
the exact counterpart, it would seem, of 
what our moderns mean by "jazz." 

The Latinity of the text as presented 
reflects credit on the scholarship of the 
editor and his "big three." In the ap- 
paratus criticus, a most valuable ad- 
junct of the book, there are the usual 
discrepancies between those who know, 
those who think they know, and those 
who know that they know. 


Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

{Twenty-sixth Installment) 

Chapter Xiii 

In those days the school question and the 
language question were burning topics of dis- 
cussion, but regarding the parochial schools 
there was not the same understanding and 
union among Catholics as now. I often 
wrote, while riding on trains, to Catholic 
papers in defense of the Catholic schools. 
I quote from an article in the New Adam 
of the South, then our nearest Catholic news- 
paper, in order to show how we had to fight 
at that time: 

'"In order not to appear a 'Cicero pro domo' 
I mention that I am not a German, but that 
free Switzerland is my native country, that 
before coming to the United States I worked 
immediately after my ordination for several 
years in France — Belfort, Delle, and Grand- 
villars, exclusively French communities. 
Nevertheless, the calumnies against the Ger- 
man clergy make my blood boil. I have, 
besides an Irish and a French station, a 
German mission, which I tried to American- 



March 1 

ize all at once, about two years ago, by 
abolishing the German and introducing the 
English catechism for all the children. As 
I had also some Irish children in that mis- 
sion, and hearing the German children con- 
versing mostly in English, I thought it best 
and easiest to instruct in English alone. But 
in two months I found it was best to teach 
the German children in German, and the 
others in English, although my common 
sense told me that it was harder for me. I 
found out that these children, though con- 
versing easily in English, were very slow to 
understand the English catechism, whilst they 
seemed quick to learn it in German. This 
seems strange, but it is quite natural. Those 
children have good Christian parents who 
can speak only German. Their pious mothers 
speak to them about God and the holy truths 
of religion, and ever since they began to 
understand, mother and father take it as a 
pleasant duty upon themselves to repeat the 
catechetical lessons with their children in the 
evenings. But if these children bring along 
an English catechism, the pious mother and 
the Christian father, who do not understand 
English, cannot help the priest. If such is 
the case with children, it is surely quite 
natural that the older people, who have emi- 
grated from Germany, where they were in- 
structed in their holy religion, cannot under- 
stand an English sermon, although they may 
be able to converse about daily affairs. There- 
fore, it is a charity and a duty for the pastor 
of a congregation where such people live, to 
teach and to preach in German if he can do 
it. If the public schools were based upon 
religion, the Catholics could be satisfied with 
them. In Switzerland, the Catholics are by 
far in the minority, nevertheless, a great 
many of the public are taught by 
nuns and Sisters. The lay teachers, who are 
regular graduates taken from the teachers' 
seminaries, are also religious men. Catholics 
and Protestants have their separate teachers' 
seminaries. Every teacher in the Catholic 
schools is required to be a practical Catholic 
and to be able to teach the catechism. Every 
morning he has to lead his class to Mass, and 
from the church to the school, where the 
class is always opened and closed with prayer. 
The first lesson in the morning is always 
devoted to the catechism or the Bible His- 
tory. Once every week the priest has to ex- 
plain the catechism. The Protestant schools 
have Protestant teachers and are taught their 
own religion. The public schools of Ger- 
many and Austria are managed the same way. 
It is not astonishing, then, that the Catholics 
are satisfied with those schools. But not 
only the Catholics, but also the believing 
Protestants in those countries would detest 
schools without religion as the surest means 
to undermine religion and good morals, and 
to lead to infidelity and anarchism. The 
'fear of the Lord is the beginning of wis- 
dom,' and mere reading, writing, and arith- 
metic, as taught in our public schools, does 

not make the children any better. It is not 
the ignorant, but well-instiucted but godless 
young men, who make the greatest crimi- 

I wrote many similar articles in those days 
for different Catholic newspapers, English, 
German, and French, in defence of the true 
religion and its institutions. 

A good many intelligent and well-meaning 
Catholics, even priests and bishops, did not, 
however, realize the necessity of parochial 

When Mother Hyacinthe, from Racine, 
Wis., visited Pocahontas, in the summer of 
1887, she found the country so wild and so 
different from any other she had ever seen, 
that she would not take the school for an- 
other year. Father Gleissner and I wrote to 
many convents, describing the place truth- 
fully, with its isolation and poverty and ask- 
ing for Sisters. There was no other Catholic 
institution near Memphis. From everywhere 
the answer was negative. Finally the Right 
Rev. Abbot Frowin, of Conception, Mo., gave 
us some encouragement. He told us of sev- 
eral convents where we might get Sisters, 
but in case they should all decline, he said 
he would send us some. Father Gleissner 
and I wrote to all the communities desig- 
nated by the Abbot, but every one declined. 
Xone had the courage to start a home in 
such a poor, wild, and unhealthy country. 
Therefore the venerable Abbot finally sent 
us four Benedictine nuns from Clyde, Mo., 
to start a convent at Pocahontas, under 
Mother Mary Beatrice Renggle, O.S.B., at 
present jubilarian and senior of the commu- 
nity of Maria Stein in Jonesboro. 

On their way from Kansas City these- 
Sisters met the famous Redemptorist mis- 
sionary, Father Enright. He inquired where 
they were going. When told that they were 
going to Arkansas, he said: "Why have you 
not taken coffins along with you?" The Sis- 
ters arrived on December 14, 1887. Mother 
Beatrice had been one of several Sisters sent 
from Europe to establish the convent at 
Clyde near Conception, Mo. Coming from 
the mother house in Rickenbach, Switzer- 
land, she learned the English language so 
fast that after nine months in this country 
she passed her examination as a public- 
school teacher in the city of Maryville, Mo., 
at a public test, together with a number 
of American candidates. W'hilst a num- 
ber of the latter failed, she made a 
splendid showing and received her diploma. 
After that she taught in the schools of Mary- 
ville and Conception. She was highly quali- 
fied to take charge of our schools and to 
establish a new community. With her came 
Sister Mary Agnes, O.S.B., a very zealous 
religious. She was an expert in embroidery 
of all kinds, and had been teaching in that 
capacity in several communities throughout 
Switzerland and Germany. 

{To be continued) 




NOTES AND GLEANINGS a P° et t° co »i ure U P infinities unless he has 

made adequate preparation for keeping them 
n control when they appear." 

— Chesterton's New Witness says (No. 423) 
that "England to-day has no foreign policy; 
she has only foreign politicians," and these, 
he intimates, are demagogues and tools of 
the plutocracy. 

—Much of what we have lately heard in 
condemnation of "secret diplomacy" is true 
enough, but would be far more effective if 
it were not urged by men who prefer to 
work through secret societies. 

— By a decree of the Holy Office, published 
in the Acta Apostolicac Sedis of Dec. 17th, 
Tommaso Gailarati-Scotti's Life of Antonio 
Fogazzaro, of which we gave some account 
in the F. R. of Sept. 1, 1920, has been placed 
on the Index of Forbidden Books. 

— The nativistic spirit of the American 
Legion is cropping out in a number of States, 
among them Arkansas, where Legion mem- 
bers have had introduced into the legislature 
a bill which would prevent the circulation of 
all foreign-language newspapers, periodicals, 
pamphlets, circulars and other printed mat- 
ter (including books), unless the text is 
accompanied by a translation of the contents 
into English. This bill, if it became a law 
and were strictly enforced, would also affect 
the liturgical books of the Catholic Church, 
which are in Latin, and therefore is anti- 
Catholic as well as nativistic in its implica- 
tions. Let us hope that common sense will 
defeat this odious measure. 

— President C. A. Blanchard, of Wheaton 
College, who is the author of a booklet 
showing that George Washington was never 
in any true sense a Freemason, in the 
Christian Cynosure for February review? 
"The Masonic Correspondence of Washing- 
ton," recently published under the auspices 
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. He 
points out that these alleged Masonic letters 
are not found in the authorized life and let- 
ters of Washington, and that it is not at all 
unlikely that they are forged. The parading 
of photostatic copies, he thinks, is in itself 
apt to awaken suspicion. Before these letters 
can be admitted at face value, the alleged 
originals must be submitted to impartial 
judges, competent to pass on their authen- 

— Mr. J. M. Middleton Murray, in his "As- 
pects of Literature" (London: Collins), car- 
ries a Keatsian touchstone for the identifica- 
tion of sham and real poetry. Amy Lowell 
he finds *'a negligible poet with a tenuous 
and commonplace impulse to write." Her 
amorphous pieces represent the fungoid in 
literature. Edgar Lee Masters' much-praised 
"Spoon River Anthology" has no message 
save that humor survives death. Split infini- 
ties and uncontrolled infinities, says Mr. 
Murray, make an American couplet and pro- 
ceeds to point out how dangerous it is "for 

— Le Devoir, of Montreal, is unquestion- 
ably the most ably edited French journal in 
Canada. Of M. Henri Bourassa, its director, 
Dr. Thomas O'Hagan says in a paper on 
"French-Canadian Prose Writers" in the 
Catholic World (No. 670): "Henri Bourassa 
is much more than a Canadian figure; he is 
a continental figue. He is, too, probably one 
of the best informed journalists in America, 
and writes and speaks with equal facility 
both French and English. He maintains a 
thesis with a force of logic, at once cumula- 
tive, convincing, and crushing. His style is 
like to a mountain stream gathering force as 
it frets the narrow channel of a valley. M. 
Bourassa has published in all some twenty 
books, many of them being in brochure form. 
His most widely read volumes are : 'Hier, 
Aujourd'hui, Demain' ; 'Que Devons-nous a 
Angleterre?' "Le Canada Apostolique,' and 
'Le Pape Arbitre de la Paix.' " 

— Fr. Harold Purcell, C.P.. writing in the 
Catholic World (No. 670) on "The Bicente- 
nary of the Passionist Order," — which, by 
the way, is not an order at all, but a congre- 
gation, — defends the emotional style of 
preaching of many present-day missionaries. 
He says: "Mere intellectual preaching is 
usually barren of salvific result. It generally 
has all the weakness and disadvantages of 
Cardinal Newman's 'smart syllogism: Mis- 
sion preaching takes into account the perti- 
nent fact that man is essentially an emotional 
creature. In his distinctive mode of preach- 
ing the missioner sets forth the tremendous 
truths of eternity and addresses the whole 
man. He uses the same appeal to the feel- 
ings and senses that furnishes the reason for 
the Church's use of symbol and ceremony." 
But the Church never exaggerates, while 
missionaries, unfortunately, often do and 
thereby neutralize the good effects of their 
preaching. The need of the age, in our 
humble opinion, is less emotionalism and a 
stronger appeal to the intellect. 

—It is almost unbelievable that a majority 
of the 600,000 school teachers of this country 
are under-educated. Yet. according to in- 
formation given to the National Education 
Association by Mr. Joseph H. Defrees. 
president of the Chamber of Commerce of 
the U. S., this can hardly be questioned. One 
hundred teachers, according to him, are 
under 21 years of age; 30,000 have had no 
schooling beyond the eighth grade; 150,000 
never went farther than the third year of 
high school, and four-fifths have not had 
the two years of special training which is the 
recognized standard in other countries. The 
fetish of the American public school has 
long since been uncovered, but this seems 
to be another step towards irrevocable de- 


March 1 

Literary Briefs 

— "Father Allan's Island," by Amy Murray, 
is a description of the island of Eriskay 
(Outer Hebrides), of its people and their 
customs, especially their songs, and in partic- 
ular, of its pastor and leader, Father Allan 
McDonald. The pages which stand out most 
clearly are those on which the writer de- 
scribes this sturdy Gaelic priest hurrying 
over the moors to administer the Sacra- 
ments or serving the first round of Highland 
whiskey at a wedding. The volume contains 
a number of interesting Gaelic folk songs 
set down in their ancient modes. (New York: 
Harcourt, Brace & Howe). 

— Dom Anscar Vonier, O.S.B., in his latest 
volume, "The Christian Mind," draws a dis- 
tinction between general spirituality and the 
specific Christian spirituality which is based 
on the practical assimilation by the mind of 
the doctrine of the Incarnation. The book is 
an excellent antidote for the mental disease 
which leads so many Catholics to shape their 
thoughts and order their lives on principles 
that have no direct relationship with the cen- 
tral fact of Christianity. The book is phil- 
osophical rather than devotional and repays 
careful study. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

— A hitherto unknown poem by Christian 
Friedrich Hebbel (born 1813, died 1863) was 
published recently in the Hamburger Frem- 
dcnblatt. Entitled "Der Thautropf" and pre- 
sumably written in 1834, it symbolizes to a 
degree Hebbel's entire philosophy. The dew- 
drop rejoices that the sun is reflected in it; 
it adds to its beauty and gives it a feeling 
of exaltation. But the dewdrop is soon con- 
sumed : 

"Blickt ein Thautropf rein und mild; 

Sonne scheint hernieder, 
Und ihr wunderschones Bild 

Glanzt im Tropfen wider. 
Liebe Sonne, blicke du 

Ewiglich hernieder ! 
''Tropfe, Tropfe. freust du dich, 

Dass in dir die Sonne, 
Dich vergoldend. spiegelt sich, 

Bringt's dir sitsse Wonne? 
Armer Tropfe, weine du — 

Dich verzehrt die Sonne !" 

— The Catholic Truth Society (London) is 
continuing its good work of the apostolate 
of the press. We have received from it three 
new two-penny pamphlets on very timely 
subjects. The first is "The Lambeth Con- 
ference," a brief discussion of what "two 
hundred and fifty-two Anglican Bishops 
think and say upon the subject of the re- 
union of Christendom." — "The Pope's Latest 
Message of Peace" is the Letter of Pope 
Benedict XV, of May 23, 1920. — "Woman in 
the Catholic Church," by the Rev. N. F. Hall, 
is the substance of a discourse preached at 
Geneva, at the International Congress of 
Women's Societies, June 20, J920. Two longer 
pamphlets (each sixpence) are "The Road to 

Damascus : The Story of an Undergraduate's 
Conversion," by W. A. D., and "Answers to 
a Jewish Enquirer." by the Rev. Theodore 
Ratisbonne (1814-1884). Both of these pam- 
phlets sufficiently indicate their scope by the 
titles. All of these pamphlets are rec- 
ommended as clear, summary discussions of 
timely questions. (St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

. Books Received 

[The price of Father Ryder's Sermons and Notes 
of Sermons, through an error of the publisher, 
was wrongly stated in our Xo. 3. It is $2.25 net, 
not $1.50 net.] 

Die christliche Demut. Ein Biichlein fur alle Gebil- 
deten von Victor Cathrein, SJ. viii & 188 pp. 
12mo. Freiburg i. B. : Herder & Co.; St. Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. $1.35 net. 

Religion in School. By the Editor of "The Sower. '* 
55 pp. 12mo. London: Catholic Truth Society. 

The Sisters of Charity Martyred at Arras in 1794. 
By Alice, Lady Lovat. 86 pp. 12mo. London: 
Catholic Truth Society. 

Fngland's Breach with Rome. By H. E. Cardinal 
Gasquet, O.S.B. 58 pp. 16mo. London: Catholic 
Truth Society. 

Talks for the Little Ones. By a Religious of the 
Holy Child Jesus. 196 pp. 32mo. London: Cath- 
olic Truth Society. 

A Batch of C. T. S. pamphlets, including A Little 
Book on Purgatory, by Allan Ross, 16 pp. 32mo; 
With Jesus my Friend, by a Religious of the Holy 
Child Jesus, 28 pp. 32mo, and Freemasonry, by 
the Rev. Herbert Thurston, S.J., 12 pp. 12mo. 
All publications of the Catholic Truth Society can 
be purchased through the B. Herder Book Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Wh\ Separate Schools? By Fr. George Thomas 
Daly, C.SS.R. 23 pp. 16mo. Toronto: The Catho- 
lic Truth Society of Canada. (Pamphlet). 

Officium Maioris Hebdomadae a Dominica in 
Palmis usque ad Sabbatum in Albis. Iuxta Ordi- 
nem Breviarii, Missalis et Pontificalis Romani 
cum Commemorationibus quae a Dominica Palma- 
rum usque ad Dominicam in Albis Occurrere pos- 
sunt. Editio IVa post Approbatam a S. R. C., 
cum Novis quoque Rubricis Breviarii ac Typica 
Missalis Editione plane Concordans. 452 & 16 pp. 
16mo. Turin, Italy: Pietro Marietti. 10.25 francs. 

The Great Work. The Constructive Principle of 
Nature in Individual Life. By TK, the Author 
of "The Great Psychological Crime." 445 pp. 8vo. 
New York: R. F. Fenno & Co., 16 E. 17th Str. $3. 

The Apostohtc of Non-Catholics. An Address by 
the Rev. B. L. Conway, C.S.P. 12 pp. 16mo. 
Toronto: The Catholic Truth Society of Canada. 

Tractus Canonico-Moralis de Sacramentis iuxta 
Codicem Iuris Canonici. Vol. I. De Sacramentis 
in Genere, de Kaptismo, Conhrmatione et Euchar- 
istia. Auctore Fel. M. Capello S.I. xxiii & 696 pp. 
!2mo. Turin, Italy: Pietro Marietti. 12 francs. 



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The Fortnightly Review 



March 15, 1921 

"Vir Fidelis" 

In Nazareth obscure, unmarked of man, 
In service lowly, JOSEPH, patient, "Just," 
Paid toll of toilsome years ; content to trust 

His recompense to God's mysterious plan; 

Serene, he strove, as only heroes can, — 
All undismayed, though scorned, or rudely 

Aside, — less valued than the sordid dust, 

By them that merely outward seeming scan. 

Lo. from that dust, arose a lily rare 
Of chastity, — and resignation calm. 
And loyalty and service, wove a psalm 
Harmoniously voicing JOSEPH'S prayer ! 
With glory crowned, acclaimed by angel- 
The Faithful Sen-ant smiles, with folded 

V. E. F. 

Book Prices After Two Wars 

Although publishers have protested 
that the cost of books to the public has 
not increased proportionately to other 
prices since the war, the public still 
feels that the rise is very considerable. 
It will be a surprise, therefore, to many 
to learn that the price of books has been 
less affected by the world war than by 
our own Civil War, whose economic 
repercussions were relatively so slight. 
Between 1860 and 1870, according to 
figures in the Publishers' Weekly, there 
■was an average increase of 80 per cent, 
in the price of books. 

A number of works which are still 
on the publishing lists of the. same firms 
provides an interesting illustration of 
the comparative rise in prices after each 
war. Before the Civil War Harpers 
published "The Woman in White" at 
$1. In 1870 that figure was doubled. In 
1915 it was down to $1.25 and in 1920 
it rose again to $1.75. After the Civil 
War Appleton's edition of Ollendorff's 
"New Spanish Method" was increased 
from $1 to $2; in 1915 its price was 
back again at a dollar, and in 1920 it 
was raised to $1.50. In some cases the 
1920 prices are exactly on their pre- 
Civil War level ; in a few instances thev 

are higher than ever before, but the 
average increase since the World War 
has been 50 per cent., as against 80 after 
the Civil War. 

The fall in prices after 1870 was 
largely owing to the cheapening of pa- 
per and the modernization of the. ma- 
chinery of book production. While some 
decrease in the cost of paper may be 
expected to relieve the present situation 
sooner or later, there can hardly be 
again such a modification as was made 
possible by the introduction of wood 
pulp after the Civil War. Technical im- 
provements in production, where manu- 
facture is on a very large scale, will 
also tend to reduce costs. But the public, 
we fear, must resign itself to higher 
prices. Even at their present cost books 
are still the cheapest of our indispen- 
sable luxuries. 

The Catholic Press Month 

It is to be hoped that the Catholic 
Press Month will be as productive of 
good results as the cause which it 
espouses really deserves. A mere in- 
crease in subscriptions will not be a 

It is true that if finances were less of 
a disturbing element, some papers and 
magazine could do a greater amount of 
good with a better literary medium. But 
it is also true that the vast majority of 
Catholic newspapers and periodicals 
would increase in quality by less than 
an appreciable amount, no matter how 
great the financial improvement might 
be. A true appreciation of the nature 
of a journalistic enterprise is lacking 
because the guiding spirit of American 
Catholic journalism is a blind sub- 
serviency, than which there is nothing 
more unworthy of the liberty that makes 
men free. There are a few independent 
publications worthy of support. Will 
this be forthcoming through a campaign 
conducted bv the powers that be? 




March 15 

Does the Parochial School Attain 
Its End? 

We Catholics glory in our parochial 
schools, and justly so. For we are firm- 
ly convinced that persistent training in 
religion is an essential part of educa- 
tion. We believe that good morals and 
manners are dependent upon the re- 
ligious sense cultivated in man from 
his childhood days. We hold as a funda- 
mental principle that man's destiny is 
not of this world, but of the world to 
come, and that his natural desire for 
happiness, even on this brief journey 
of life, is best subserved by following 
the guidance of Christian faith. Our 
chief objection against the modern 
secular system is that it ignores the 
claims of religion and declines the as- 
sistance of its moral power. 

The results of our parochial school 
system for the past fifty years bear us 
out in our claims. No one can be a bet- 
ter judge on this matter than the Cath- 
olic priest, who by his office and the 
confidence of his people is kept well- 
informed about the after-life of the 
pupils of his school. Now, we venture 
to say that very few of these, if any, 
would admit any large proportion of 
delinquencies in the output of their 
schools. In case of any additions to the 
criminal classes coming from our 
schools, some secondary cause could 
and would usually be given for the 
failure of Christian education in this 
regard. Lapses from the rule are pos- 
sible everywhere. But the question, 
Does the parochial school really edu- 
cate? must surely be answered in the 
affirmative. The large proportion of 
our graduates obtaining positions of 
trust in so many of our most successful 
business houses so short a time after 
graduation, is a proof of the confidence 
our Catholic schools enjoy even among 

Yet our school system has never been 
given a fair trial. It is merely tolerated 
under the law ; it enjoys no favor, and 
often meets with blind opposition from 
the public. Its support and encourage- 
ment comes almost exclusively from 
the practical Catholics, that is those 

who practice their religion and are not 
merely "just as good as other Catho- 

The bad results charged against our 
schools are usually owing to this second 
class of Catholics, who are, strictly 
speaking, not Catholics at all. Hanging 
on to the Church only by their birth 
and baptism, but brought up in the 
spirit of the world, they entrust their 
children to the secular schools, and, 
after letting them be estranged from 
God and His law, they send them to 
the parochial school for a few months, 
or perhaps a year, to be prepared for 
first holy Communion. Both parents 
and children were Catholics, yes ; and 
the children did attend the Catholic 
school, yes : but how can any sane man 
expect that the tree so long bent in the 
wrong direction, should have in so short 
a time become perfectly straight? 

I f we were to eliminate such spurious 
elements from the general product of 
our schools, there would be but little 
to complain about. Yet how can we 
account for these relatively few tares 
still found among the good wheat? 

The first cause is evil associations. 
After school comes the work-a-day life. 
Boys and, sad to say, girls also, must 
go out into the world to make a living. 
Here they are thrown together with all 
sorts and conditions of men. Their com- 
panions and their masters and mistress- 
es are frequently no models of Christian 
piety and morals. Irreligious talk is in- 
dulged in by these seemingly upright 
people with a cocksureness that must 
surprise and disturb the inexperienced 
minds of children. Then the corrupting 
influences of shameless jokes, sugges- 
tions and invitation of lacivious dress 
and open immorality attack their virtue 
and do all they can to erase the prin- 
ciples of modesty, purity, and holiness 
from the tablets of their heart. 

Lastly the parental authority, con- 
stantly upheld in their pliant hearts by 
church and school, is assailed by the 
spirit of selfishness, self-will, and re- 
bellion, holding hell's riot in the world 
of today. W r oe to our Catholic children, 
the flower of our educational institu- 
tions, if they are not deeply rooted in 




the truths of religion, if they have not 
heen saturated with the love of all 
Christian virtues ! As the corruption of 
what is best is the worst of its kind 
("corruptio optimi pcssima") the oc- 
casional fall of a pupil of the parochial 
schools into one of the common vices 
of the world is all the more pronounced 
and shameful for the high expectations 
that had been set upon him. 

On the whole, our young people stand 
the test very well, and the number of 
very serious lapses from honesty, 
chastity, and the great duties of the 
Fourth Commandment are compara- 
tively few, as the records of our courts 
assure us. Our Catholic religious train- 
ing of the children entrusted to our care 
is certainly bearing good fruit. 

But how does it come that many of 
our Catholic parents complain so bitter- 
ly of the kind of life led by their boys 
and girls, their general deportment, the 
Avay that girls dress and act. and the 
spirit of independence and insubordina- 
tion at home? 

"The boys and girls of to-day seem 
to be jazz mad," says one who certainly 
knows what he is talking about. "The 
pursuit of pleasure has become a wild 
race, with all restrictions removed. Joy 
rides with much promiscuous kissing 
and hugging are common. Vamping is 
the most popular indoor and outdoor 
sport. Girls in their teens make up like 
movie queens and wear clothes as short 
at both extremities as the law will al- 
low. Boys of 15 take girls of 12 and 13 
to theatre parties. Girls of 12 give 
luncheons at clubs, go to 'slumber' 
parties and stay up most of the night. 
Dances are mostly hugging matches 
and exercise the arm and shoulders 
more than the feet. Corsets are either 
not donned at all or parked in dressing 
rooms. Modesty and self-respect are 
out-of-date. Pleasure is the end sought 
and all means to gain the end are em- 

This wholesale indictment of the 
changed moral standards of our young 
people must be toned down considerably 
in its bearing on Catholics. Yet they, 
too, fall under the severe charge. 

Mothers are, as a rule, too indulgent 
towards their children, permitting and 
encouraging things that must prove 
hurtful. Restrictions are naturally un- 
pleasant. Besides, the children are work- 
ing all day, and, therefore, must have 
some enjoyment in the evening, which 
then naturally grows into midnight and 
after. Being indulged in their ways for 
a time, the children resent the father's 
interference, if he should risk it on some 
particular occasion. Bad example from 
associates confirms the spirit of re- 
bellion. "Principiis obsta," you must 
resist the beginning of evil if you wish 
to avoid evil results. 

But the parents are often to blame, 
not only for neglect, but also for posi- 
tive wrong-doing. They may not realize 
it, but the love of money, that great root 
of evil, is often at the bottom of the 
children's waywardness. A boy or girl 
has finished his eighth grade in the pa- 
rochial school. Father says : "Go and 
get yourself a job ! you have lived at 
our expense long enough; go and help 
make a living. A boy or girl that cannot 
earn a salary or at least good wages, is 
no good." And the boy goes to some 
factory, or shop, or office, the girl takes 
a position as a typist, factory girl or 
saleswoman. They are very proud of 
being wage-earners. At first they give 
all they earn to father or mother and 
receive some small amount for their 
own use. But they learn from others 
that all their earnings should go to 
themselves : they dare not ask this, but 
they become dissatisfied and want to 
quit work. It may be they are troubled 
also in mind about the dangers sur- 
rounding them in the factory or office. 
They mention this to the mother per- 
haps ; but the father insists that they 
must work or leave the house. It may 
never occur to him that he is sending 
his own offspring back into a very hell 
of vice and crime. He thinks only of 
the weekly pay his children bring home. 
He, too, had to work as a boy and make 
a living ; he, too. wants to get something 
cut of his children in return for what 
he spent on them during the years of 
their childhood. "Ah, the great'thing in 
life is monev," thinks the bov or jrirl. 


March 15 

41 My associates said so long ago, and I 
now see that father and mother are of 
the same opinion. They must be right. 
Money is the real object in life; after 
that, the things money will buy. I am 
making money. I am of some conse- 
quence in the family. I can make more 
than the 'old man.'' Why, then, should 
I submit to his old-fogy notions and 
tiresome admonitions ? What I earn be- 
longs to me. I will pay board to mother, 
but the balance of my pay I will spend 
just as I like. If father does not like it, 
I can go somewhere else." 

Now, who bears the main respon- 
sibility for this sad state of affairs, all 
too common even in Catholic families? 
Certainly not the Church, nor the 
school, for they insist on no point of 
Christian law more frequently and more 
earnestly, than on the due observance 
of love, respect, and obedience towards 
father and mother. The world's immoral 
influence, of course, is to blame in a 
measure. But the heaviest responsibility 
rests upon the parents themselves, who 
in their foolish avarice helped to ruin 
what Church and school had so labor- 
iously built up. 

As to the lack of courtesy in the 
rising generation, the rudeness which 
in later life threatens to develop into 
brutality, we again must find the main 
cause in the failure of parents to en- 
force the amenities of life at home. The 
son or daughter who is discourteous to 
members of the family, because of fa- 
miliarity with them, is likely to prove 
rude and overbearing to others, and 
very certain to be a tyrant in the house- 
hold over which he or she may be called 
upon to preside. 

But we have said enough, nay, per- 
haps more than enough, to convince our 
readers that a cooperation of Church 
and State, of the school and the 
family in the education of our children 
and young people is necessary to over- 
come the danger of a complete demoral- 
ization of society, and to preserve our 
Christian civilization. 


Dangerous Fallacies 

When there is no other carcass to 
carve in the camps of the champions of 
"law and order," the Socialist's "mate- 
rialistic conception of history" is 
operated upon. Devious and tortuous 
is the way, but we finally arrive at the 
denial of the freedom of the human will. 

This is a favorite pastime of such 
organizations as the A.C.L. of Wiscon- 
sin, many of whose capitalistic members 
are grinding out the lives of their wage 
slaves in such wise as to leave them 
precious little freedom. If these hypo- 
critical parasites were really worried 
about the security of such orthodox doc- 
trines as the freedom of the will, we 
would commend to their protection the 
tenet of "obedience to legitimate author- 
ity," which was rejected in the Pro- 
testant passion for the dogma of private 
interpretation and the deification of the 
human intellect, whence flows the 
abominable Individualism of the present 
day, of which Capitalism is the eco- 
nomic expression. 

But for the most part these men know 
little and care nothing for ethics and 
religion except for those systems which 
can be interpreted so as to sanction their 
own nefarious wage and profit system. 
The dangerous fallacy of economic de- 
terminism must be exposed without 
question. But let us match doctrine for 
doctrine, the underlying fallacy of So- 
cialism with the underlying errors of 
Capitalism, both equally bad. Against 
which is combat more urgent? If not 
against the latter, then we declare in 
effect that a pain which racks the whole 
body now is as nothing to a pain that 
may possibly afflict it in the future ! 
Is this a case of asinine ignorance or 
of blind, unreasoning prejudice? 

—If you do not bind your Review, hand 
tht copies to others after you have read them. 

— The following lines, transmitted to us 
by a friend, contain more truth than poetry: 
O blest is he who does not fuss 
When he receives a bill from us, 
Tint promptly sends us the amount 
Wherewith to straigthen his account! 
But doubly blest is that good friend 
Who waits not till a bill we send, 
But, knowing his subscription's due, 
Sends in the money to renew. 
What shall be said of one so kind, 
Who tries another sub to find? 
May he, or she, rewarded be 
Forever and eternally! 




The Appeal of Catholic Germany- 
Some time ago, the Catholics of Ger- 
many, especially those of the Rhine 
provinces, occupied by the soldiers of 
the Allied Nations, appealed to the 
world against what has come to be 
known as the "black shame." A mem- 
ber of the English Parliament describes 
these crimes by the army of blacks upon 
women and children of the Rhineland 
as a terror let loose upon the citizens 
through a set vindictive policy of French 
militarists. "They overrun Europe with 
these black Africans," he writes, 
"eighteen months after peace has been 
declared." The most horrible facts nat- 
urally remain unpublished. "An out- 
sider," he writes, "would be tempted 
to mark them as an invention too hor- 
rible to exist, if we but attempted to re- 
late them." 

"Sexually, the African troops are un- 
controllable. Reports are accumulating, 
where poor victims are overpowered, 
some in a most dreadful manner; of 
young girls, who come home from work 
upon the fields, or poor factory girls, 
who are seized on the streets in the dark. 
Young girls from towns and villages 
have disappeared and corpses of young 
women found secreted." He concludes : 
"After all, there is no greater duty that 
womanhood could have, than that called 
for in a case of this kind, which touches 
woman's sensitive instincts for shame 
and decency, which the war was unable 
to destroy among the white people." 
Our American press is not giving any 
publicity to these horrible facts, as it 
did to the so-called Hun "atrocities" in 
Belgium and France. 

What can be more horrible than to 
even think of conditions as described 
above by a member of the English Par- 
liament, and to realize that it is our 
co-religionists, members of the Catholic 
Church, who must suffer such horrible 

Another letter appealing directly to 
the Catholics of the United States, was 
sent by the Hierarchy of Germany to 
the Hierarchy of the United States. In 
this appeal the German Bisops, after ex- 
pressing their gratitude for the charity 

and kindness shown by the Catholics 
of the United States towards their 
brethren in Germany, lay before us the 
true story of the awful conditions that 
hamper the work of the Church in their 
unhappy country. They speak first of 
the children, and tell us that "little ones 
of six and seven years are often found 
not to have reached the normal size of 
children of two and a half years, and 
are just learning to stand alone. The 
tragic appeal in their voices and their 
searching eyes looking into our hearts, 
say, 'Help us or we perish.' " It is 
starvation or tuberculosis with these 
children, unless food is sent there at 
once. Eight hundred thousand German 
mothers have died of slow starvation, 
many dying in an effort to save their 
children. The mothers who are left are 
trying hard to obtain the necessaries 
of life for their children. 

The Bishops' description of the con- 
dition of the clergy and nuns upon 
whom the perpetuation of the Church 
in Germany depends, is truly heart- 
rending. "The salary of many priests 
is insufficient to purchase even the most 
necessary food and clothing. The nuns 
are on the verge of exhaustion. We 
must save the nuns or more children 
will be sacrificed." Many once flourish- 
ing Catholic institutions, charitable and 
educational, must soon close down, un- 
less substantial aid is forthcoming. They 
also tell us "of the strong and terrible 
influences from abroad that are bent 
on disrupting Catholic life and sub- 
verting the foundations of Christian 
civilization. They come when thousands 
are in despair and are ready to listen 
to new and untried doctrines and aban- 
on the old firm principles of Christiani- 
ty." The Catholic Church is needed in 
Germany more than ever, not only for 
the sake of that country, but for the 
sake of the world, to stand against the 
forces of destruction and disorder. 

The Bishops close their appeal in 
these words : "Your charity has already 
made you beloved; a continuation of it 
until we are once more able to be gen- 
erous ourselves, will keep you forever 
enshrined in the hearts of our people." 


March 15 

The Church in this country owes much 
to the zealous and apostolic German 
missionaries of years past. The German 
Catholic coming to our shores, brought 
with him a faith strong and virile, and if 
the Catholic Church in this country is 
a power for good, no one can be given 
more credit than the German Catholics 
who came to us well instructed in the 
faith. It is Catholic Germany that we 
must thank for our parochial school 
system, a system that has made the 
Church in Germany and in this country 
a power to be reckoned with. Let us 
answer the appeal of the Hierarchy of 
Germany in a substantial way and thus 
repay, in her hour of need, the debt 
the Church in this country owes to the 
Church in Germany. 

(Rev.) F. J. Kelly 

Psycho-Analysis and Dreams 
It is perfectly true that sex plays a 
great part in life. But in normal sane 
life there are many other interests, and 
most psychologists from the first re- 
volted from the Freud-Jung conception 
that every dream has a sexual basis, 
as a theory that was demonstrably false, 
and indeed absurd. When a man hap- 
pens to dream about a conversation with 
his broker or his banker, for example, 
it is ludricrous to pretend that some sup- 
pressed sexual emotion is the cause of 
his nightmare. It may be lobster, or it 
may be the excess profit tax ; it is cer- 
tainly not sex. 

These considerations, which after all 
are merely common-sense, would seem 
to have appealed to the originators of 
psycho-analysis. Freud admits that other 
than sexual instincts exist, but savs 
that only the sexual instinct has been 
explored. Jung recognizes that sex is 
not everything, and substitutes vital im- 
pulse — which is pretty safe, seeing that 
it must necessarily include sex and 
everything else. Brill, another leader of 
the school, interprets dreams as an un- 
conscious manifestation of a "desire for 
power." which is probably nearer the 
mark than either of his colleagues have 
yet reached. 

But it is becoming evident that no 
single formula will cover the whole in- 

terpretation of dreams. There are 
dreams which are in no sense either 
sexual or manifestations of a desire 
for power — dreams which are the recol- 
lection of past years, for instance. A 
man of fifty will dream that he is a 
schoolboy being thrashed by the teacher ; 
another man of the same age, who holds 
a perfectly safe position in the world, 
wakes up sweating, because he has 
dreamed once again that he is a junior 
clerk on five dollars a week, sacked 
without notice for some office delin- 
quency. These things are merely re- 
membered terrors which have made a 
deep impression on the mind. 

The modifications of the new doc- 
trine, especially that of Brill, bring 
psycho-analysis into line with current 
psychological thought. Its exponents 
have added a new weapon to our ar- 
mory of the mind, but like most in- 
novators, they have imagined that it is 
the only weapon in the arsenal. Purged 
of that error by criticism and ex- 
perience, psycho-analysis will take its 
proper place in medical practice and 
psychological study, and add to our 
knowledge of the personality. 

But at present it is not purged. There 
lies before us the record of the thoughts 
of a young girl ( "A Young Girl's 
Diary," Allen and Unwin) ; its interest 
— as the publishers recognize by restrict- 
ing its sale to members of the educa- 
tional, medical, and legal professions — 
is purely pathological. The child whom 
it depicts appears to be physically pre- 
cocious, but mentally rather backward ; 
she can hardly be taken as a quite nor- 
mal case of development. Yet the book 
is prefaced by Professor Freud with the 
remark that "This diary is a gem. Never 
before. I believe, has anything been 
written enabling us to see so clearly 
into the soul of a young girl during the 
years of puberal development." As a 
matter of fact, the diary is nothing but 
a record of her physical awakening, — 
often insipid, frequently absurd, and oc- 
casionally beastly. And we are afraid 
that, until psycho-analysis gets past 
these rather elementary conceptions or 
misconceptions of its function, it will 
not attain its proper rank among the 




By means of a rapidly increasing list 
of publications, this English literary 
triad has succeeded in attracting much 
attention. Their books exhibit a certain 
unconventionally that appeals to the 
reading public. Men buy them with 
avidity, rapidly scan them, and laud 
them with indiscriminate praise. Is the 
vogue they enjoy merely a passing fad, 
or is it based on real worth, on the in- 
trinsic merit of their work? A careful 
perusal of their literary output compels 
the verdict that little if anything of it 
is destined to, or deserves to last. 

Apparently these authors write large- 
ly for the pleasure to be derived from 
indulging in intellectual gymnastics that 
are clever exhibitions of bewildering 
paradox and inconclusive argument. 
With almost nothing to say, they yet 
say it in a manner to compel notice. 
Many a reader enjoys being jolted just 
a little in his accepted habits of thought, 
as long as it is not done too crudely, 
but with a bare intimation of the riskv 
to give it zest. The charm of novelty 
is irresistible with those who take bald, 
striking assertion for apodictic proof. 

Of the three Chesterton knows least 
where he stands. He revels in mild scep- 
ticism and makes the most of a position 
that enables him to direct the shafts of 
his satire at the unbeliever, without 
subjecting his own mind and life to the 
profession and practice of any positive 

Wells stands at the opposite pole. He 
is a thorough-going atheist, proud of 
his unbelief; rejoicing in it, and spread- 
ing his negative gospel with an easy 
superciliousness, a disregard of logic 
and truth, that are perhaps more amaz- 
ing and amusing than dangerous in 
themselves or harmful to others. His 
"Outlines of History" is pur e romance. 
It leaves the impression that it was 
written to display his skill in handling 
a time-worn theme as a new-fashioned 
novel. It appears to have been dashed 
off at one sitting in the first glow of 
the clever trick he was about to per- 
petrate on a public that likes to be 
fooled much of the time. Onlv shallow 

minds beyond redemption are likely to 
be deceived by the antics of this serio- 
comic stylist. 

Belloc is a staunch believer, but al- 
most as much of a romancer as Chester- 
ton and Wells. He writes "for effect." 
His latest production, the much-herald- 
ed book, "Europe and the Faith," is not 
the work of a serious-minded historian. 
It is best understood when read against 
the background of the literary dilletant- 
ism that gave rise to it. Sober history 
is an impartial record of facts. Any per- 
sonal interpretation of it may be a strik- 
ing tour de force, but it carries convic- 
tion neither to the Catholic nor to the 
unbelieving mind. One is tempted to 
conclude that Belloc is popular because 
he is superficial. Aphorisms like his 
favorite "Europe is the faith" have not 
even the merit of being enigmatical, 
they are too obviously meaningless, and 
must be so to the blindest admirer. 

The literary skill of all three writers, 
while not of the highest order, is un- 
deniable. That Wells, the materialist, 
should prostitute his talents, is not 
surprising. That Chesterton should be 
so reluctant to draw the unavoidable 
conclusions from his premises, and join 
the Catholic Church, is disconcerting. 
That Belloc should win temporary rec- 
ognition for his nebulous views, is 
quite in accord with the spirit of the 
age : the world is too hurried to stop, 
examine, and weigh according to stand- 
ard values. All three enjoy mushroom 
reputations based on somewhat sensa- 
tional performances of doubtful worth. 
They excel in giving expression to fleet- 
ing moods of fancy, and shine with the 
brilliance of a falling meteor or a pass- 
ing comet. 

(Rev.) T. B. Culemans 
Moline, III. 

— «~~» 

— ''The ear of the public is glued to the 
megaphone of a servile press: how shall we 
let the public know the truth?" is the despair- 
ing cry of one of the few independent 
journals left in England. It is re-echoed by 
right-thinking and clear-eyed men in all 
countries, who cannot believe that if the 
people knew the truth, they would tolerate 
the. doings of the wretches who misgovern 
them. The situation seems helpless and hope- 



March 15 

The Socialization of the School 


In an introductory note to the Bulle- 
tin already cited, Mr. Clayton, United 
States Commissioner of Education, 
states facts which apply to the parochial 
as well as to the public school. "Until 
within the last few years public school- 
houses in American cities and towns 
were open only for the regular school 
work and for the children of legal 
school age. For this purpose they were 
open only from 5 to 7 hours a day for 
from 150 to 190 days in the year, a 
total of not more than 1,400 hours a 
year, and were closed to all use through 
the remainder of the 8,760 hours of the 
year. Public school funds were used 
only for the regular school work. Only 
occasionally evening classes for older 
boys and girls and for men and women 
were found, and sometimes school- 
rooms were used for public debates 
and for meetings of literary societies 
composed chiefly of older boys and girls 
of the school. Except for the very few 
who went to college, education was sup- 
posed to stop with childhood and the 
total or partial completion of the pre- 
scribed work of the elementary schools, 
or, at most, with the years of early 
adolescence and the work of the high 
school. The public schools had no 
further concern for them. But since the 
beginning of the present century there 
has been a growing interest in public 
school extension, and for a fuller use of 
the public school plant." 

A definition of "socialization of the 
school" will help us to see the bearing 
cf these remarks on the work of our 
schools. By the phrase is meant the use 
of the schools for activities and inter- 
ests other than those of the ordinary 
school work, for which they have been 
used almost alone in the past, and to 
promote their use for educative, social, 
civic, and recreative occasions after 
class hours. This extension of public 
education is based on the assumption 
that every work of improvement for the 
benefit of the many is educational and 
thus comes within the province of the 

Thus, if the lectures for the public 
are given in the school-buildings, this 
shows that "new canals have been dug 
to facilitate commerce in the world's 
store of knowledge." If parent-teacher 
gatherings are held in the class-rooms, 
it is inferred that "society is getting 
team-work between the home and the 
school." When the school-house is used 
for political rallies and voting (as has 
been done in some cities) enthusiasts 
say that "the very seat of democracy is 
being transferred from the back hall 
and the barber shop to more suitable 
quarters." When the school-halls are 
flung open to boys and girls for play, 
the school-extension advocate is heard 
to say that "childhood is beginning to 
receive intelligent consideration." When 
youths and maidens are invited to meet 
in school-halls and gymnasiums, there 
is rejoicing that "instincts of racial im- 
portance are being cherished, instead of 

These comments show that the move- 
ment of turning the schools over to the 
use of the public has found much favor. 
Mr. Clarence A. Perry, author of the 
Bulletin on "The Extension of Public 
Education," says that these extended 
activities of the school indicate "a vast 
ground swell of social effort ; they meas- 
ure the sweep of a deliberate, co-opera- 
tive reaching-out for a finer and richer 
human life." 

Before mentioning in detail some of 
the activities which are now actually 
carried on in schools, it will be worth 
while to point out once more the ex- 
treme limits to which the movement of 
"socialization" may be extended. In the 
chapter on- Recent Progress in Educa- 
tional Administration (Report of the 
Commissioner of Education, 1914) we 
read: "The scope of public education 
has been enlarged, not simply in terms 
of a greater variety of opportunity af- 
forded by schools organized for differ- 
ent groups in the population, but also by 
reason of the fact that education has 
come to be thought of as having to do 
with the physical welfare, with the 
moral and social training, and with 
preparation for vocation, as well as 
with intellectual growth or develop- 




nient. Responsibilities once centred in 
the home, the church or the community 
activity outside of schools, are now 
turned over to and accepted by the 
school. It has been but a step from the 
introduction of medical inspection to 
provision for medical and dental treat- 
ment in connection with public educa- 
tion. The older type of school building 
and equipment was frequently charged 
with a responsibilty for many of the ills 
developing in childhood. Our modern 
school plants seek to provide opportuni- 
ties for play and for correct physical 
exercises through the gymnasium and 
through supervised play on the school 
grounds. The feeding of school children 
who are hungry, provision for proper 
clothing, and even -pensions for families 
who are compelled to send their children 
to school rather than enjoy an income 
from their labor, are coming to be ac- 
cepted as corollaries of compulsory edu- 
cation and of our belief in the necessity 
for physical education.'' 

This candid admission that the public 
school is ready to assume "responsibili- 
ties" that belong to the home is in full 
harmony with a resolution of the De- 
partment of Superintendence of the 
National Education Association. Ac- 
cording to that resolution it is de- 
sirable "to bring popular recreations, 
social and civil activities within the 
jurisdiction of the school authorities." 
How anyone can fail to note the finger 
of Paternalism in these two statements 
it is hard to see. 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S.J. 

The Degradation of the Theatre 
If the degradation of the theatre con- 
tinues, that institution may soon go the 
way of the liquor saloon, i. e., be abol- 
ished by law. Mr. William Archer, the 
distinguished British dramatic critic, 
who is at present visiting this country, 
contributes to the N. Y. Evening Post 
(Feb. 25) an article in which he makes 
these significant remarks : 

"The American public not only toler- 
ates but flocks to witness and applaud 
entertainments which are indefensible, 

outrages, I will not say upon morality, 
but upon decent citizenship of any sort. 
. . . Whatever its origin, this acqui- 
escence in unscrupulous baseness is a 
very grave danger. It plays into the 
hands of Puritanism and enormously 
strengthens the case for Blue Laws of 
every sort. If the theatrical public 
suffers the liberty of the stage to be 
abused it must be prepared to see it 
abolished. There will always be ques- 
tions as to what is and what is not de- 
cency, but there are also cases in which 
no such question arises — in which the 
purpose of indecency is flagrant and 
undisguised. Such enterprises conflict 
with common sense and public policy, 
and no civilized community can afford 
to wink at them." 

The "blue law" movement arises 
from real abuses, and that is what 
makes it so strong. 

Liddell and Scott 

The long needed revision of that 
famous Greek-English lexicon, "Liddell 
and Scott," is now approaching its final 
stage, and the Oxford University Press 
hope at an early date to offer the new 
edition to subscribers in ten parts of 
about 200 pages each. £20,000 is being 
spent on the work, and space has been 
economized, so that it will not be much 
bigger than before. 

Allusions to this great dictionary and 
its unconscious humor are numerous. 
The most famous, however, is part of 
the tradition of Westminster School. It 
was, we have heard, on an epigram day 
during Liddell's headmastership that 
one of the boys handed up the follow- 
ing: — - 
"Two men wrote a lexicon, Liddell 

and Scott, 
Some of it was clever, some of it was 

Now hear all ye people, and rede me 

this riddle — 
How the wrong part wrote Scott and 
. the right part wrote Liddell." 
The author has never, so far as we 
know, been identified, and there are al- 
most as many versions of the epigram 
as there are "old boys." 



March 15 

A Society of St. Louis Authors 

Since March 2nd St. Louis has what 
it should have had long ago, namely, a 
Society of Authors. The Society was 
permanently organized on that day, and 
its founder. Dr. Alexander N. DeMenil, 
chosen first president. 

Among the objects of the new Society 
are : encouragement of authorship, mu- 
tual help, and hospitality to visiting 
writers of note. The sole condition of 
membership is that one have written a 
book or be "a writer of present distinc- 
tion." The membership is limited to 

We are glad to be able to report that 
the Catholic portion of the community, 
which has more than its quota of dis- 
tinguished writers, is represented in the 
Society of St. Louis Authors by two 
priests, the Revs. Martin S. Brennan 
and John E. Rothensteiner (the latter 
an occasional contributor to the F. R.), 
and several laymen and women, among 
them the Editor of this journal, who 
will be glad to give any additional in- 
formation that may be desired by those 
interested in the movement. 

Honoring Albert Pike 

A kind friend sends us a copy of the 
Nebraska State Journal of Feb. 23rd. 
containing a report of the unveiling of 
a bronze bust of the late General Albert 
Pike in the Scottish Rite Cathedral at 
Lincoln, Neb., on Feb. 22nd. The bust 
was presented to the Consistorv bv "the 
Albert Pike Class of S. R. Masonry 
initiated in the fall of 1919." Mr. H. H. 
Wilson, Past Grand Master for Ne- 
braska, according to the State Journal. 
"paid eloquent tribute to the man who 
was for so many years the head of 
Scottish Rite Masonry in this jurisdic- 
tion, the author of its ritiual, and the 
author of thirty volumes of Masonic 

Those who have followed the con- 
troversy provoked by our "Study in 
American Freemasonry" will remember 
the constantly repeated assertion of Ma- 
sonic critics that Pike is a back number 
and his books no longer have any in- 
fluence at the present day. If this be so. 

why is the man so highly honored and 
why is his Masonic ritual, first published 
in 1860, still used in the Masonic lodges 
of the Southern Jurisdiction of the A. 
and A. S. R., as the State Journal's re- 
port, which was evidently written by an 
initiate, once again assures us? 
— <$~~ 

A Book About Editorials 

"The Editorial : A Study in Effective- 
ness of Writing," by Leon Nelson 
Flint, Professor of Journalism in the 
University of Kansas (Appleton), pre- 
sents an analysis of scores of so-called 
editorials in prominent American news- 
papers. Wide column and narrow, large 
type and small, short sentences and long, 
emphasis by rhetorical exaggeration 
and ironical understatement — all the 
tricks, methods, and mannerisms by 
which editorial writers try to make their 
articles effective, are here dissected, col- 
lated, compared, classified, labelled. It 
is an exhaustive and quite intelligent 
setting forth of American editorial style 
and, to some extent, of editorial achieve- 
ment and influence. Any newspaper 
man, cub or veteran, can learn some- 
thing from it. 

Yet, as a learned critic in the N. 
Y. Post observes, one turns from this 
book with something of the feeling that 
one might have after studying a case of 
cleverly mounted skeletons of birds in 
an effort to learn to fly. "So this is an 
editorial. Ah, yes ! Printed in ten-point, 
double column on the last page. One 
would feel like that. Careful analysis 
of something that defies analysis. How 
do these editor fellows get and hold — 
or lose — their readers? Why does the 
man on the street read some editorials 
and not others ? This book talks around 
that subject, but does not — perhaps be- 
cause no book could — answer the ques- 

You can pull to pieces a mountain 
laurel blossom or a skunk cabbage (if 
you are thinking of wicked editorials) 
and reduce it to units of structure, or 
even to hydrogen, carbon, and coloring 
matter ; but you will not thereby find out 
the reason for its effect upon you. You 
might dissect the larynx of Demos- 



thenes or parse Lincoln's Gettysburg ad- 
dress ; it would not show you why or 
how either touched the hearts of men. 
About the essential thing that makes 
an editorial effective, regardless of 
literary form or typographical style, 
Mr. Flint's book, excellent as it is in 
many ways, leaves you as wise as when 
you began. 

A grizzled old editor with mighty 
powers of his own once gave to a be- 
ginner this short but comprehensive 
recipe : 

"First, have something to say and 
know what you are talking about. Sec- 
ond, say it, as simply and directly at you 
can. Third, quit." 


Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
(Tzventy-seventh Installment) 

Sister Mary Agnes. O.S.B., also excelled 
in drawing and painting. She had formerly 
heen mistress of novices. With them were 
two younger Sisters, Mary Walburga and 
Mary Francis. Their advent inaugurated a 
new era for the Catholics of northwestern 
Arkansas. These Sisters were ready and 
willing to make any sacrifice in the interest 
of religion. They were accustomed to pov- 
erty. The poor log-house that received them 
and the want of all modern improvements 
did not deter them. With a strong will and 
absolute trust in God they began to work. 
The Benedictine motto "Ora ct labora" (Pray 
and work) was illustrated in their busy life 
from morning till evening. 

Soon after the Sisters came to Pocahontas, 
Father Gleissner received permission from 
the Bishop to visit Bavaria, to see his family. 
So he left Pocahontas, followed by the good 
wishes of the Catholics in our district. 

The Benedictine Sisters began with a heroic 
spirit of sacrifice to assist the priest in his 
missionary work. They taught school; they 
instructed in religion ; they attended to all 
the work of the sacristy, and from this time 
on the church was always nicely decorated. 
Every feast-day would bring a new surprise 
for the faithful in the house of God. True 
to their traditions, nothing was dearer to 
them than the special work of God in the 
church, about the altar, and especially the 
Holy Eucharist. Whenever they found time, 
they all worked in the large garden adjacent 
to their house, and in a short time the flow- 
ers and plants about the convent gave it a 
delightful aspect. 

During the absence of Father Gleissner I 
was once more left alone to do the mission- 

ary work in northeastern Arkansas. I had 
to visit Paragould, Peach Orchard, Imboden, 
and other places. This forced me to frequent 
shorter or longer absences from Pocahontas. 
For Sisters coming from a convent of Per- 
petual Adoration, accustomed to daily com- 
munion and the most beautiful daily services 
in church, the absence of the prjest was a far 
greater trial and sacrifice than that involved 
in poverty and hard work. But with great 
resignation and contentment the Sisters made 
also this sacrifice, hoping and trusting in the 
Lord for better times. They recited the 
rosary and often held devotions for the 
whole congregation, especially on the Sun- 
days and holydays when I was absent. In 
those days it was easy to make a devotion 
attractive. Almost all the people, coming 
from different sections of Germany and 
Austria, could sing the same hymns and the 
same masses in the German language. It was 
elevating to hear the whole congregation 
sing together. My congregation in Poca- 
hontas at that time was far superior in con- 
gregational singing to any Protestant church 
in town. 

However, this has changed altogether, for 
many reasons. The German hymns, with 
their simple melodies and short measures, 
have disappeared, and the English hymns do 
not rill their place. Most of them are too 
complicated and too long, and congregational 
singing is almost a thing of the past. 

During the week before Septuagesima, 
1888, Father Gleissner returned from Europe 
and took charge of the parish in Pocahontas, 
whilst I went to Jonesboro, to make that 
place a new center of Catholic activity. On 
the 4th of January, 1888, I said the first Mass 
that ever was celebrated in the new church 
of St. John, at Engelberg now Debow Post 
Office. Ark. On the 5th of February the first 
high Mass was celebrated in that church by 
Father Gleissner. It was on the occasion of 
the first wedding held in the church. An- 
thony Houseman was married that day to 
Josephine Jerger. I preached and performed 
the marriage ceremony. 

My little congregation at Jonesboro gave 
me great joy.. Though few in number, the 
parishioners showed great zeal. These were 
the golden days of Catholicity at that place. 
On the 28th of May, that year, I baptized 
thirteen persons in the small church, amongst 
them one who had been a Lutheran, a few 
who had been Methodists, and others with- 
out any specific religious belief. Besides 
Jonesboro, I attended also different places 
along the Cotton Belt and the Kansas City 
railroads. One Sunday every month I cele- 
brated Mass in Peach Orchard and another 
Sunday in Paragould. In Peach Orchard 
there was a small church. The present 
church for the Catholics of that neighbor- 
hood is in Knoble, a railroad junction four 
miles north of Peach Orchard. In Paragould 
I said Mass in private houses, sometimes at 


March 15 

Henry Wrape's at other times at Nicholas 
Staudt's or Philip Weber's. Meanwhile I 
tried to get the means to build a school in 
Jonesboro. This was quite an undertaking. 
There were but few families and very few 
Catholic children, but I was hopeful never- 

Time and again I explained in the little 
church that now was the time to invite Cath- 
olics to come as settlers and advised those 
who were in Jonesboro to buy property. 
Lots that now sell for $1000 or more, could 
then be bought for $25. I admonished my 
people to go into debt for property and 
thus to tie themselves to the place. In that 
way they would share in its future prosperity 
and would not need to be hod-carriers and 
track-walkers all their lives. But only a few 
shewed faith in Jonesboro's future by buy- 
ing property. 

I collected dollar after dollar for the 
school without getting any substantial help, 
until one day a Mrs. Finnigan brought me 
$400 on condition that the house should be- 
long to the Sisters of Pocahontas. David 
Dupue, a splendid carpenter, offered all his 
work free for the building, and the leading 
ladies, Mrs. E. McCabe, Mrs. Mary Teall, 
and Mrs. Kate Higgins, contributed consid- 
erably by holding festivals and entertainments 
to provide the necessary funds. To raise 
two thousand dollars in those days was far 
more difficult than to raise twenty thousand 
in the same place now. The town then was 
small (the census of 1880 gave it but a few 
hundred), and the people were mostly poor. 
A man who had five thousand dollars was 
considered wealthy. 

The priest was obliged to watch the pay- 
car of the railroad. If he was in time for 
that car, the men gladly gave him a dollar, 
but if he came a few days later, the grocery, 
and perhaps the saloon, had absorbed all 
their money. The Cotton Belt R. R. was 
then in straitened circumstances. At one time 
it did not pay its employees for six months. 
The section houses finally got no more credit 
from the grocers, and the situation became 
desperate. The Cotton Belt was very gen- 
erous with passes, but the boarding houses 
could not live on passes. The section house 
keepers as a rule were remarkable for pa- 
tience, and traveled in every direction to 
find a place where they could get provisions 
on credit. The poor merchants in the small 
towns could not afford to do this, but a num- 
ber of merchants in Pine Bluff gave credit, 
though naturally at a high rate of interest. 
These were prosperous days for the gentle- 
men from Jerusalem and Samaria who had 
courage enough to take risks. 

Striking was not known or so generally 
practised in those days as now, and it is 
rather a wonder to me how the poor people 
could hold out six months without money 
and continue to work for the railroad. But 
we lived through all these trials and, in spite 

of all, I got money enough to build the 
school, a two story frame building with 
basement, veneered with brick. It burned 
down, together with the church, in 1896. 

On June 24, 1888, Bishop Fitzgerald visited 
Pocahontas to give confirmation and to dedi- 
cate the convent of the Benedictine Sisters. 
The convent was called Maria-Stein, in honor 
of the famous shrine and the Benedictine 
Abbey of Maria-Stein, in Switzerland, and 
because it was built upon a rocky hill. There 
is no rock to be seen the whole way from 
Memphis, Tcnn. until you come to the bluffs 
of the Black River. 

Father Gleissner declared to the Bishop 
on that occasion that he felt unable to carry 
the burden as pastor of Pocahontas any 
longer, and asked that his Lordship send me 
back there. For that reason I had to return 
as pastor to Pocahontas, where Fr. Gleissner 
assisted me again, as formerly, in attending 
the msisions of Jonesboro, Paragould, Wal- 
nut Ridge, and the other railroad stations. 
On the following day, June 25. 1888, the neat 
little church of St. George at Imboden was 
dedicated by Bishop Fitzgerald. There were 
seven Catholic families living in the neigh- 
borhood of the church. They were all re- 
lated, brothers and sisters, and on account 
of family troubles all sold their farms and 
moved away. They were well enough satis- 
fied with the country but could not agree 
among themselves. A Mr. Sloan had given 
the lot for the church, but had never turned 
over the deed. The Catholics having moved 
away, there were no services in the church 
for a time, and Mr. Sloan peimitted a cer- 
tain Mr. Carter to move into the building. 
He converted it into a dwelling. I asked 
Bishop Fitzgerald what I should do about it, 
and his answer was, nothing. If the people 
of Imboden cared for the Catholics or a 
Catholic congregation, they would take it 
upon themselves to defend our rights, and 
if not, it was best to drop the matter. 

On June 26th the Bishop gave confirmation 
at Jonesboro, where he praised the young 
congregation for their zeal and energy, and 
expressed hopes for the future of the parish. 
Father Gleissner worked hard and zealously 
until late in the fall of 1888, when he ob- 
tained permission to leave the diocese and 
returned to Bavaria, on account of some mis- 
fortune that had befallen his family. He 
was received into the diocese of Ratisbon, 
where he is still working in the Lord's vine- 
yard. Thus I was once more left alone in 
Northeast Arkansas. 

{To be continued) 

— The more important rubrical changes 
and text variations in the new Missal have 
been handily summarized for the busy priest 
in a leaflet composed by Father F. G. Hol- 
weck, which is distributed by Messrs. Ben- 
ziger Brothers in connection with their new 
Missale Romanum. 





—The Nation discourses on "Pittsburgh's 
Prostituted Press." But why pick on Pitts- 
burgh? Is not the daily press prostituted 

— A short way is to be taken with those 
tiresome place-names which are difficult for 
English and other tongues to get round. The 
Geographical Journal states that a British 
official system has just been completed for 
the phonetic spelling of the names of places 
in thirty-two foreign countries. It does not 
look on the face of the matter, however, as 
if the geographically inclined will thus be 
able to obtain much relief. For instance, 
Lodz, which figures as a place on the maps, 
will no longer be found if sought for; in its 
place will be the hieroglyphic " Wudsh" ! 

— "The Irish Problem," writes the London 
New Witness, edited by Gilbert K. Chester- 
ton. (No. 430), "is killing us — not our bodies, 
which die daily, but our souls, the soul of 
England, the souls of Englishmen. Continu- 
ally are infamies perpetrated in Ireland to- 
day which, when the like were done by Ger- 
mans in Belgium, excited our horror. Now 
we rub our hands and cry : 'That's the stuff 
to give them !' or 'Shooting men for carrying 
arms! Good! Now just hear them squeal!' 
Oh yes, they squeal; and the squeal is a cry 
to Heaven for God's vengeance on murder." 

— The best and strongest arrangement ever 
published for the supernatural character of 
the charismata and visions of Ven. Ann 
Catherine Emmerich is Dr. J. Niessen's "A. 
K. Emmerichs Charismen und Gesichte. 
Grundsatzliches, Tatsachliches, Kritisches. 
Zugleich Beitrage zur Clemens-Brentano- 
Frage," published by the Petrus-Verlag, of 
Treves, in 1918. Unfortunately, the volume 
is already out of print, but we hope a new 
edition will soon be provided. The case of 
Ven. Ann Catherine is well worth defending, 
and Dr. Niessen defends it with great skill. 

— A correspondent of the Daily American 
Tribune (Jan. 31), in a eulogy of the B.P.O. 
Elks, says : "I cannot understand why such 
opposition to the Elks, when many of the 
officers of the subordinate lodges throughout 
this country are Knights of Columbus, and 
also some of the Grand Lodge officers. I 
have visited cities where the Grand Knight 
of the K. of C. was the Exalted Ruler of 
the Elks Lodge;" — which is unfortunately 
true, but does not prove that the Elks are all 
right, but rather that there is something 
wrong with the K. of C, who have been 
aptly called "Catholic Elks." 

— The January number of the Chapbook 
contains a note by Robert Bridges on the 
subject of a sonnet published by him in the 
London Times of November 4, 1918, im- 
plying that ill-treatment of prisoners was a 
part of the Prussian war policy. Mr. Bridges 
states that, after reading "Comrades in 

Captivity" and other narratives by prisoners 
of war in Germany, he has become convinced 
that cases of brutal treatment were ex- 
ceptional and attributable entirely to the 
character of particular prison-camp com- 
mandants. He therefore retracts his words 
and expresses his sorrow at having written 

— In the current Edinburgh Review (No. 
475), Dr. Arthur Shadwell continues and 
concludes a searching criticism of the Marx- 
ian theory of "Capitalism," pointing out that 
in the evolution of industry events have 
proved Sismondi a truer prophet than Marx. 
"The whole theory of class conflicts is, in 
truth, at fault. The simple conception of 
capitalist versus workman, or 'bourgeoisie' 
versus 'proletariate,' on which the whole 
Marxian structure is raised, never fitted the 
facts any more than the conception of feudal 
lords versus bourgeoisie, which is supposed 
to have preceded it, fitted medieval society. 
There were then many classes, and their re- 
lations, alliances, and conflicts were continu- 
ally changing, and so it is now." 

- — A peculiar game is carried on annually 
by Congress on one side and the government 
departments on the other, over department 
estimates. Both parties are, strange to say, 
victorious. This is how the game is played. 
Knowing that Congress will cut down their 
estimates, the departments ask for much 
greater appropriations than are needed. Then 
Congress proceeds to reduce the estimates, 
as usual. As usual, also, the departments get 
practically what they want, and Congress 
gets credit for watchfulness and courage. 
Thus both sides win, but the credulous pub- 
lic has the wool pulled over its eyes. This 
is a yearly farce that should no longer be 

—The freeman (No. 49) gives editorial 
space to the following: "Most of our readers 
are aware that during the war the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and the Declaration 
of Independence were under ban of the law; 
that is to say, persons who circulated re- 
prints from these documents were brought 
before the courts and convicted of seditious 
conduct. This seemed rather remarkable, but 
an even more remarkable fact has now come 
to light. The Association to Abolish War is 
reprinting and circulating the Sermon on the 
Mount, in a four page leaflet. This is headed 
by the caption 'Now It Can Be Printed'; 
and an explanatory note is added, stating 
that late in 1917, a member of the Associa- 
tion proposed to print the Sermon on the 
Mount, without note or comment, for free 
distribution. The Secretary of the Associa- 
tion, Mr. Wilbur K. Thomas, was officially 
informed that such a procedure would be re- 
garded as 'pro-German'. How is that for 
high?" Surely those who followed the general 
war hysteria arc already being filled with 
shame and remorse at conduct so utterly 
foolish and disgustingly servile. 



March 15 

Literary Briefs 

— A splendid souvenir has been issued by 
the Rev. George A. Metzger to commemorate 
the golden jubilee of St. Catherine's Hospi- 
tal, Brooklyn, N. Y., which was established 
for the sick poor of Holy Trinity parish by 
the late Msgr. Michael May and was devel- 
oped to a high point of efficiency under his 
successors, Msgr. Daufenbach and Father 
Fr. M. Schneider, all three of whom, we are 
proud to say, were warm friends of the 
Fortnightly Review. The hospital is in 
charge of Dominican Sisters and compares 
favorably with any similar institution of its 
kind and size in the U. S. The souvenir, 
though itself richly illustrated, is accom- 
panied by an album of beautiful photogravure 
views of the hospital, its medical, consulting, 
house and nursing staffs, the Sisters, wards, 
operating room, etc., etc. Both the souvenir 
and the album are well worth preserving. 

— We hail with delight the first volume of 
"A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instruc- 
tions for all Sundays and Holydays of the 
Year," based on the Catechism of the Coun- 
cil of Trent, — that inexhaustible treasury of 
sound and practical doctrine which has per- 
haps^ never yet been sufficiently utilized. The 
chief excellence of this work, prepared and 
arranged by the Rev. Fathers Chas. J. Cal- 
lan, O. P., and J. A. McHugh, O. P., lies in 
the fact that it outlines a systematic course 
of instruction in conformity with the Church's 
own catechism, without setting aside the 
Gospel or the Epistle of the respective Sun- 
day. It draws its lessons from the Scripture 
text of the Sunday and groups them around 
corresponding portions of the "Catechismus 
Romanus." Unfortunately, the need of a 
substantially new translation of the latter 
occurred to the editors only after this first 
volume had gone to press ; but the three fol- 
lowing volumes will give the text in a 
thorough revision. The doctrinal instructions 
here gathered together are by such authors 
as the Rev. P. Hehel, S.J., the Rev. B. L. 
Conway, C.S.P.. Dom Bede Jarrett, O.S.B , 
the Rev. W. D. Strapping S.J.. the Rev! 
Thos. J. Gerrard, the Rt. Rev. Tames Bel- 
lord, the Rt. Rev. W. T. Russell, Cardinal 
Corsi, the Rt. Rev. Alex. McDonald, the Rev 
H. G. Hughes, the Rev. Wm. Graham, Dom 
Anselm Parker, O.S.B. , and others who have 
contributed of late years to the Homilctic 
Review, of which Fathers Callan and Mc- 
Hugh are the able editors. We heartily rec- 
ommend the work. (Tos F. Warner, Inc ; 
Western agents, the B. Herder Book Co.)'. 

— We have received the second (exegetical) 
part of "Christus in seiner Praexistenz und 
Kenose nach Phil. 2, 5—8." by the Rev. Dr. 
H. Schumacher, of the Catholic University 
of America. The book carries the highest 
possible commendation: it was awarded the 
prize of the Pontifical Biblical Institute and 
is published under the auspices of that august 

body. It is difficult to refrain from super- 
latives in reviewing the monumental achieve- 
ment of Dr. Schumacher. The praise lavished 
on his first production, "Die Selbstoffenba- 
rung Jesu" (see F. R., 1913, No. 6) and on 
the first (historical) part of the present study 
by the foremost Catholic as well as non- 
Catholic New Testament scholars of the 
world, is equally deserved by this continua- 
tion. We find here the same profound 
scholarship, keen logic, and painstaking re- 
search that have aroused the respectful ad- 
miration of even the most captious German 
critics. Our feeble tribute — and we are not 
aware of a reputation for too ready or ful- 
some praise — would detract from, rather than 
add to, the eulogies of such men as Till- 
mann, Lagrange, Lemmonyer, Van Kasteren 
and C. Villa. With German "Grundlichkeit" 
Dr. Schumacher combines the rather un- 
German virtue — we use the word advisedly ! 
— of a clear and brilliant style. His com- 
mand of language is no less notable than his 
"cognizione vasta e profunda di tutta la 
ricca letteratura che riguarda la vita di 
Cristo." (C. Villa in Scuola Cattol, Milan, 
1912). Without reserve we appropriate the 
judgment of Pere Lagrange on the "Selbst- 
offenbarung Jesu" {Rcvuc Biblique, Paris, 
1912, p. 614 ; "L'etude de Schumacher est 
decisive sur le point special qu'il a traite, ec 
on ne pent que le feliciter " Dr. Schu- 
macher is about to make his debut before the 
English-speaking world in a "Handbook of 
Scripture Study," now in press. We await 
with keen expectancy this latest evidence of 
the enterprise of the firm of Herder. 



Optical Service 

Courteous and Efficient 
Moderate Prices 

S08 two 511 N. 
OLIVE *»*** GRAND = 


Valuable Old Missals for Sale 

For the benefit of the parish church iu Hammer- 
stt-in, Germany, the undersigned has been authorized 
to offer for s-ale: 

1 Missal, piiuted at Venice in 1595, ornamented 

with many cuts: 
1 Missal, priuted at Antwerp, in 1657, with a few 

1 Missal, printed at Cologne, in 1732, with red 
Ptices given on application. 

3933 South Broadway, St. Louis, Mo. 

The Fortnightly Review 



April 1, 1921 

Two Standards 

By Eugene M. Beck. SJ. 

St. Louis University. 


Depart from us! We would not say 

Thy rule hath brought us ought but gain 

But we are tired to tread the way 
That stiffens upward from the plain. 

Depart from us! Life's certainties 
We prize above Thy fabled lore. 

Our lands are fat— a thousand seas 
Waft increase to our goodly store. 

Depart from us ! The gentling sky 

Invites to mirth and jocund play; 
Thy ways are kind, yet does Thine eye 
Rebuke our glittering holiday ! 


Abide with us ! Apart from Thee, 
Earth's calculated joys are pain. 

Unless Thou help, how shall we flee 
The destined wrath, the fiery rain? 

Abide with us! for even now. 

The tides of evening climb apace; 
The night is in our eyes, and how 

Shall we win safely to Thy face? 

Abide with us! And if at whiles 
Thy chosen road is hard to tread. 

Yet are there by-paths, greening aisles 
And gleaming vistas over-head! 

Pascal and the Casuists 

A new edition of "Les Lettres Pro- 
vinciales" of Blaise Pascal has been 
published by Longmans, Green & Co. 
in their series of "Modern Language 
Texts." A critic in the Catholic World 
( No. 670 ) justly objects to the inade- 
quate and misleading preface by the 
editor, H. F. Stewart, D. D. The critic 
makes some additional observations on 
the "Lettres" themselves which deserve 

"Pascal," he says, "was most unfair 
in speaking of the Jesuits, as if they 
were the only casuists in the Church, or 
as if they were the only ones worthy of 
censure. Of the many thousands of 
cases in the Jesuit treatises on moral 
theology he selects only one hundred 
and thirty-two decisions, which in reali- 

ty amount to but eighty-nine if we ex- 
clude repetitions. An analysis of these 
cases leaves little for a non-Catholic — 
if he be honest— to cavil at. Some of 
them are common-sense decisions, 
which could only be denounced out of 
crass ignorance or blind prejudice. For 
instance : that a starving man may take 
food without being guilty of theft ; that 
one may eat and drink things because 
one likes them, not merely to sustain 
life ; that a man is not guilty of abduc- 
tion if his companion freely consents 
to run away with him ; that a bankrupt 
may be left enough of his fortune to 
live decently; that ecclesiastical laws 
lose their force when they become obso- 
lete. Some decisions are travestied by 
the omission of a saving clause or defini- 
tion which altogether changes their 
meaning. Everyone, for example, would 
admit that it is immoral for a servant 
to cooperate in his master's wrong- 
doing. But his indignation will vanish 
once he finds that the case in question 
supposes the servant an innocent party 
to the wrong-doing. The servant is post- 
ing his master's letter advising a friend 
to steal from the State, but he is guilt- 
less, inasmuch as he does not know the 
contents of the letter. 

Scholars have pointed out in Pascal 
two hundred errors of detail, one hun- 
dred more of suppression of context, 
and at least three of absolutely false 
citations. Out of the entire list of one 
hundred and thirty-two decisions, eight 
only have been condemned at Rome (on 
dueling), three on occult compensation 
and equivocation are so arranged out of 
their context as to appear immoral, and 
three others on simony, the passing of 
money between judge and client, and 
usury are to say the least of doubtful 

We are certain that the non-Catholics 
who constantly allude to Pascal's 'fear- 
ful onslaught' upon the immoral teach- 
ings of the Jesuits have for the most 
part never read his book." 


April 1 

The Socialization of the School 


According to the Bureau of Educa- 
tion, cities of 5,000 population and over 
opened their schools for the following 
"social features" during the year ending 
June 30, 1914: — Entertainments, fort- 
nightly social and recreational pro- 
grammes, pupils' civic leagues, polling 
places, night schools, political study 
clubs, dental clinics, adult gymnasium 
classes, motion pictures, concerts, com- 
munity meetings, receptions, basket 
ball, debates, girls' canning and sewing 
clubs, Chautauqua circles, election uses, 
athletics, oratorical contests, foreigners' 
classes in English, domestic science 
associations, patriotic celebrations, 
physical culture and other clubs, night 
citizenship courses, musical entertain- 
ments, women's vocational night school, 
school art gallery, child welfare asso- 
ciations, evening debating clubs, farm- 
ers' institutes, neighborhood meetings, 
chorus rehearsals, boy scout meetings, 
political rallies, children's civic clubs, 
tennis courts, agricultural clubs, Y. M. 
C. A. and Y. W. C. A. meetings, library 
stations, working-girl's clubs, day nurs- 
eries, folk dancing, art recitals, May 
festivals, fairs, social gatherings. Froe- 
bel clubs, cadet corps, etc. — This is 
certainly a sweeping list of activities 
and indicates what is meant by "the 
wider use of school buildings" or the 
"Socialization of the School." 

A phase of socialization which de- 
serves special mention is "the newer 
use of the school yard." Some of our 
educational experts say that if the 
school yard is to have its maximum 
use and efficiency, it should be used 
from 8 o'clock in the morning until 10 
o'clock in the evening, all through the 
pleasant weather, making it available 
for about 14 hours a day. They likewise 
think it probable that the next ten years 
will see the use of all suitable school 
yards quadrupled by use after school, 
on Saturdays, and through the Summer 
vacation, and by the introduction of 
play into the curriculum. The system 
which is said to best satisfv the latter 

requirements, at present, is that in 
vogue at Gary, Indiana. 

"Socialization" carried to the extent 
already described will not satisfy some 
educational reformers. A Wisconsin 
enthusiast wants the public schools to 
be used as the only "polling-place" in 
every district, while the school principal 
ought to serve as election clerk, and in 
other cases as "civic secretary" for the 
community. As "the secretarial service 
of the school principal was not recog- 
nized as actually and officially belong- 
ing to his function as a public servant" 
by the people of Wisconsin, Mr. Ed- 
ward J. Ward, the prime mover in the 
scheme, suggested a remedy : 

"For the sake not only of the money, 
but primarily for the support of the 
school principal in efficiently rendering 
this service upon which effective com- 
munity organization depends, it is 
necessary that this work of civic secre- 
taryship be definitely recognized as pub- 
lic service and remunerated as such." 

But it is fair to ask why the public 
school principal rather than any other 
loyal citizen should be chosen for this 
"remunerative service." 

The movement is full of suggestions 
for Catholic schools and teachers. There 
is no doubt that our school buildings 
and educational equipment could be 
used much more efficiently than has 
been the case in the past. It would be 
unfair, of course, to ask our teachers 
to remain in the buildings after school 
hours, to conduct or supervise social 
activities, or to expect to initiate such 
work as has been undertaken in some 
of the public schools. But we may ask 
ourselves whether our class-rooms and 
larger school-halls might not be more 
freely used for undertakings beneficial 
to the whole parish, and especially as 
"social centers" for the good of our 
youth. How this is to be done must be 
left to the good judgment, to the zeal, 
and to the whole-hearted devotion of 
those whose "social sense" has been 
sufficiently stirred to enable them to 
realize the opportunities for important 
social service in this broadening of our 
educational work. 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S. J. 




To the Editor: 

. It is some time since I read in your 
esteemed journal (issue of February 
1) the notice, of Father Devas's "Ex 
Umbris, Letters and Papers.... of 
Fathers Lacordaire, Jandel, Danzas." 
But it is only now that I have secured 
a copy of the book itself. The docu- 
ments published therein were not wholly 
unknown to me when I wrote Chapter 
VI of my "Life of Father Charles H. 
McKenna." Indeed, this chapter was 
submitted to one who had spent ten 
years in the Province of Lyons (in 
which the documents are preserved), 
and who had read them in the manu- 
script form. Father Jandel's Memorial 
and many letters bearing on the well- 
known controversy between him and 
Father Lacordaire are used extensively 
by Foisset in his excellent and judicial 
life of the great Dominican orator. 
Foisset's work, it must be remembered, 
is no ex-parte plea. 

Aside from other reasons, I leave it 
to the readers of Father Devas's book 
to decide whether the very documents 
which he publishes, do not substantiate, 
rather than refute, the truth of what 
I say in the sixth chapter of Father Mc- 
Kenna's life. The same readers are in- 
vited to compare my idea of Dominican 
life (given in the same chapter) with 
those of Fathers Mandonnet and 
Jaquin, both celebrated historians of 
the Order. Mandonnet's idea will be 
found in his article on the Dominicans 
("Order of Preachers"), Catholic En- 
cyclopedia, Vol. XII, pages 354 ff. ; that 
of Jaquin in his splendid little volume 
entitled : "Le Frere Precheur Autrefois 
et Aujourdhui," which has been render- 
ed into English by Father Hugh Pope 
under the title of : "The Friar Preacher 
Yesterday and To-day." 

I am more than surprised that Father 
Devas's book bears the name of no cen- 
sor of the Order. The Dominican Con- 
stitutions most positively require the 
names of two such censors to be printed 
"in front c o peris." 

V. F. O'Daniel, O.P. 

Washington, D. C. 

Dr. Shailer Matthews on the Pope 
and the Y. M. C. A. 

In the Independent (March 12), Dr. 
Shailer Matthews, a well-known Bib- 
lical scholar, and one of the editors of 
that magazine, comments on the recent 
condemnation of the Y.M.C.A. by the 
Holy See. He affirms that "it [the con- 
demnation] will only serve to deepen 
the chasm between Christian forces at 
a moment when, with mutual toleration 
of each other's position, they should 
be standing together in the maintenance 
of Christian morals in society." 

Dr. Matthews, however, entirely 
overlooks two facts which, if duly con- 
sidered, would have given his comment 
another turn. 

The first is that, as far as Italy is 
concerned, — a country, therefore, con- 
cerning which the Pope is better in- 
formed than his critic, — there have 
been real attempts at proselytizing. In 
fact the Y. M. C. A. boasted of their 
success in this regard. Hence there 
was much more attempted by the 
Association than "the preaching of 
Christianity in any form other than 
that of Roman Catholicism." 

In the second place, Dr. Matthews 
states that "though strictly evangelical 
in its administration, the Association 
puts no religious tests upon its services 
and extends its opportunities to men of 
all religious faiths or none whatever." 

This statement does not square with 
the practice of the Association in this 
country. It is well known that Catho- 
lics are barred from the higher and 
controlling official positions. They do 
not measure up to the "evangelical" 
test. Dr. Matthews does not sufficient- 
ly consider the injustice of inviting 
Catholics to join a religious society, 
telling them they have "equal" rights 
with all "evangelical*" people, and then 
shutting them out from the inner and 
higher councils of the bodv. 


— If the Fortnightly Review fails in stim- 
ulating its readers to think for themselves — 
even to the point of occasional disagreement 
with its utterances — its purpose is not at- 



April I 

The Occupation of Germany 
Because Germany has acknowledged 
that it is impossible for her to meet the 
terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the 
Allies have sent their forces into that 
country to occupy some of its fairest 
provinces and cities, in order to harass 
and humiliate a prostrate nation. Are 
the war-wounds of the world to be 
opened afresh'? Is civilization to be 
dragged into the dust again? Will rea- 
son be dethroned for a second time in 
a decade? Is this the way for triumph- 
ant powers to protect their interests 
and to dictate terms? So far as the 
prostrate German government and peo- 
ple are concerned, there is but one way 
to face, the way of a burdensome debt, 
years of ceaseless labor, sacrifice and 
thrift to meet the unreasonable allied 
demands. This means the enslavement 
of a people for generations to come. 
Defeat generally does not bring any 
choice to the defeated ; but on the other 
hand, victory does not give to the vic- 
tor the right to make unreasonable de- 
mands upon a defeated people. How 
would we have to hold our heads in 
shame were we a party to this infamous 
treaty and the manner in which it is 
being carried out ? Have we acted thus 
with the conquered in the wars in 
which we have been engaged? Has not 
our treatment of the defeated been 
uniformly generous and just? Does 
history record any treatment compara- 
ble to that which is being meted out to 
Germany at this moment? 

Enough time has passed since the 
occupation of Germany began, to indi- 
cate what the attitude of the German 
people will be. Evidently they propose 
to take the thing as philosophically as 
they can and await the outcome. Col- 
lecting an indemnity such as the Allies 
demand, is no work for an invading 
army. Foreign armies cannot restore 
Germany to a condition of economic 
health. Military orders will never make 
the German people produce and sell 
the surplus of goods that must be han- 
dled if an adequate indemnity is to be 
paid. This is equivalent to saying that 
the occupation is meaningless and fu- 
tile. It is a useless hardship imposed 

upon the innocent victims in the occu-j 
pied territory. By marching into Ger-J 
many, the Allies convey to the German; 
people in a most emphatic manner, that] 
they still think of them in terms of' 
bitter enmity and that they intend toi 
make them pay to the limit of their j 
capacity, even though justice and rea-j 
son would dictate otherwise. A settle-] 
ment made on German soil, with an 
army back of the negotiators, seems to I 
be the only settlement that will satisfy] 
the most rabid of the allied countries.] 

Lloyd George says: "For the Allies, 
German responsibility for the war is 
fundamental. It is the basis upon] 
which the structure of the Treaty has] 
been erected, and if that acknowledg- 
ment is repudiated or abandoned, the 
Treaty is destroyed." This "gentle- 
man," whose "generous treatment" of 
the Irish people is gaining for him the 
''admiration" of the world, insists that 
the German government originated the 
world war with the support of the Ger- 
man people. History and not Lloyd, 
George will settle that question and 
place the responsibility for the origin 
of the war where it belongs. Even now, 
it is no secret that it was England's 
jealousy of Germany's increasing com- 
mercial conquests that originated the 
war. The foundation upon which the 
Treaty of Versailles is built is abso- 
lutely false, and a product of hatred, 
falsehood, and injustice. Students 
of history in ages to come will know 
where to put the blame for the devast- 
ating and terrible scourge which began 
in August 1914 and nearly wrecked 

If Germany is made to pay the un- 
reasonable indemnity demanded by the 
Allies, the latter might find themselves 
hit harder than Germany herself. It is 
not merely a question of failure to< 
garner the German tribute year by 
year. There is the much larger ques- 
tion of the quietude and contentment 
of the whole world. Unless the people 
of all countries settle down with a will 
to reproduce the wealth which was dis- 
sipated by the war, there is no prospect 
of the Allies being benefited by the in- 
demnity which they expect to force 




from Germany through the occupation 
of her country. Annual payments 
might be made with regularity, yet 
owing to the crippled state of the 
markets and the general anxiety and 
i discontent, the Allies would have lost 
|j more than they would have gained. So 
there are two sides to this indemnity 
question that the Allies might do well 
to consider before allowing hatred and 
greed to dictate their policy towards a 
defeated and prostrate people. 

The provisions of the Treaty of Ver- 
!| sailles which the occupation of German 
| territory hopes to bring to an issue, if 
J literally carried out, would ruin both 
the Allies and Germany. This is the 
opinion of Francesco Nitti, former 
premier of Italy, who has become one 
of the most active publicists in Europe 
against the strict execution of the 
treaty. In the allied countries the peo- 
ple are convinced that the national debt 
is going to be paid by the vanquished 
countries. They consider not only the 
German government, but all the Ger- 
man people, including future genera- 
tions, as responsible for the war, so 
that the indemnity is to be paid by men 
who were not even born at the time of 
the conflict. This curse on a vanquished 
people has no example in modern his- 
tory. The conquered countries, having 
lost all their resources, have to fight 
for the conquerors. The workmen have 
to work for the victorious enemy, still 
more for their own employers, and not 
only for the present, and in order to 
regain their liberty, but for twenty, 
thirty, and perhaps forty years to come. 
In Central Europe there are more 
than eighty million Germans. They 
represent the largest racial unity in the 
Aryan race and, perhaps, in the whole 
world. They are industrious, energetic, 
and fond of work. Will such a people, 
who count among them the most culti- 
vated and the most progressive of the 
whole earth, submit to servitude? Will 
they accept willingly obligations which 
can not possibly be carried out and 
which are put upon them with threats 
and outrageous military sanctions? In 
the allied countries the people have 

been made to believe that the indemnity 
will put an end to all economic difficul- 
ties, and no one has the courage to tell 
them the contrary. But in order to ex- 
act these indemnities, Germany must be 
kept disarmed under the military domi- 
nation of the conqueror, and this means 
the ruin of the conqueror even before 
the ruin of the conquered. For Europe 
to regain peace and prepare a new 
organization, the indemnity must be 
fixed at a tolerable figure which could 
be paid in a few years by the present 
generation. "Everything,'' says Nitti, 
"must be done to prevent the bank- 
ruptcy of the conquered and the con- 
querors, all at the same time. The same 
destiny weighs on all, and the final fall 
of the conquered will not happen with- 
out the fall of the conquerors. Europe 
must avoid this painful event, which 
may easily become the most tragic in- 
cident of modern history." 

(Rev.) F. Jos. Kelly 

Detroit Seminary 

— . •_»<$-•_, 

A Complaint 

To the Editor: 

America has become of late a fine 
place for foreign literary enthusiasts 
(I dare not use the term "writers") 
to dump their endeavors upon the read- 
ing public. To make matters worse, a 
great number of fickle Americans have 
taken a fancy to the romantic tales 
"dished out" by these visitors, who are 
not able to compete with writers in our 
own country. 

The "hacks that make or mar literary 
reputations in America have lavished 
undeserved praise" on these men, whose 
books make no valuable addition to the 
literary mart. Very often sensationalism 
is their only quality worth mentioning, 
and this is usually of the kind that dis- 

Some publishers in their eager desire 
for that which glitters, make these 
books the "best sellers" by skillful ad- 
vertising, and ignorant, gullible readers 
are not only cheated out of their time, 
and money, but also weaned from really 
worth-while books. J. J. B. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 



April 1 

The "Psycho-Analysis" Fad 

The F. R. for March 15 contained a 
short but trenchant article on the va- 
garies of "psycho-analysis." 

Dr. W. Bergmann, author of one of 
the latest and most up-to-date manuals 
on the meaning and treatment of mental 
disturbances due to nervous derange- 
ment,* speaks in the same severe terms 
of the abuses' and crudities of the 
psycho-analytic method. The inter- 
pretative schemes of Freud are spoken 
of as "nothing more than abominable 
psychology fit for old women." 

The five following propositions were 
presented by an authority on the sub- 
ject at the meeting of the German So- 
ciety of Psychiatrists in Breslau : 

1. The principle of so-called psycho- 
analysis (sc. Freud's) are not suf- 
ficiently established — neither the- 
oretically nor empirically. 

2. The therapeutic efficacy of psycho- 
analysis has not been proved. 

3. The permanent results for clinical 
psychiatry are equal to zero. 

4. The repugnance which is felt by 
right-thinking persons towards the 
psycho-analytic propaganda is 
founded upon its thoroughly un- 
scientific method. 

5. The practice of psycho-analysis, 
in the way in which it is often 
carried on to-day, involves danger 
for the nervous system of the 
sick, and is compromising for the 
medical profession. 

Besides Dr. Hoche, who presented 
these propositions to the Society, other 
authorities were cited in opposition to 
Freud's theories — Weygandt, Liep- 
mann, and Kohnstamm. 

Dr. Bergmann adds that he himself 
cannot agree with Freud, who seeks a 
sexual origin for every case of mental 
conflict. According to Freud, all un- 
desirable trains of thought which force 
themselves upon the mind, of whatever 

nature they be, are merely repressed 
wishes or desires referring to some 
action performed with (sensual) grat- 
ification. It is possible, says Dr. Berg- 
mann, that this may be true in some 
cases. But generalized as it is in the 
Freudian system, it is a "monstrous 

At any rate, he adds, we agree with 
those medical critics who absolutely 
condemn the prying into the inner life 
of the patient by embarrassing and 
suggestive questions. He agrees with 
them when they condemn the practice 
of asking the patient to narrate and 
interpret his dreams. And, finally, he 
rejects, as do these other medical au- 
thorities, the practice of detecting 
sexual symbols in all the patient's ex- 
pressions and actions. 

Liepmann says of the Freudians that 
"they consider possibilities as actuali- 
ties, and turn what may be imagined 
into something necessarily existing." 

It is gratifying to see these outspoken 
criticisms of medical authority enforce 
the occasional utterances of Catholic 
scholars on the subject. 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S.J. 

* Die Seelenleiden der Nervosen. Eine 
Studie zur ethischen Beurteilung und zur 
Bebandlung kranker Seelen. Von Dr. Med. 
Wilhelm Bergmann. (B. Herder). We 
heartily recommend this book as one of the 
handiest and sanest manuals on the subject. 

Christian Charity, the Only Means 
of Reconciliation 

The Central Bureau of the Catholic 
Central Society in a recent press bulle- 
tin reprints from the U . S. Catholic 
Magazine of 1846 an account of the 
conversion of an old Englishman who 
bad served in the army against the 
Irish and stained his hands with Irish 
blood in the rebellion of '98. When 
this man came forward to be baptized, 
he begged that some Irishman stand 
sponsor for him, observing that "as he 
had fought against the Irish people and 
against their religion, being now, by 
the mercy of God, converted to that 
faith in which they had always perse- 
vered, he wished to offer the only 
atonement, besides repentance, it was 
in his power to make, by a public testi- 
mony of his love for a nation whom 
early bigotry had taught him to hate. 
He now realized the value of a univers- 
al faith and universal love." 




What a wonderful example of a sin- 
cere conversion and what a striking 
lesson for men and nations ! "We can- 
not help wishing and praying," says the 
bulletin, "that the spirit evidenced by 
this man of English birth might be- 
come universal to-day. For there can 
be no lasting peace unless there be a 
real reconciliation. And, as the Holy 
Father has pointed out, there can be no 
real reconciliation of men and nations 
and races unless there be a change of 
heart, a change, from the present atti- 
tude to one of true Christian charity." 

Mr. Peter W. Collins and the 

To the Editor : 

In the Catholic Register of Denver, 
I find a reprint from the Fortnightly 
Review, in which Air. Denis A. Mc- 
Carthy calls attention to the fact that 
Air. Peter W. Collins denied making 
the statement that "Socialists should be 
so treated that in a few minutes they 
will be scurrying into holes and corners 
to hide, or seeking hospitals to have 
their wounds doctored." 

It is true that Mr. Collins, in a letter 
to the Nation, denied making this state- 
ment. Thereupon the editors of the 
Nation invited me to rebut Mr. Collins' 
denial, and this I did. However, for 
some reason not known to me, the Na- 
tion has not, to date, published my re- 

In the meantime, will you permit me 
space to set forth briefly the facts? 
They are as follows : Mr. Collins de- 
livered an anti-Socialist lecture in Wil- 
liston, N. D., on June 24th, 1920. The 
Williston Herald, a weekly paper, pub- 
lished what purported to be an inter- 
view with Air. Collins on June 17th, 
a week prior to the date of his lecture. 
This interview, several columns in 
length, was in the nature of advance 
press "dope," advertising Air. Collin-' 
lecture. In this interview Air. Collins 
was quoted as above with reference to 
what constitutes proper treatment for 

At that time I was editing the Farm- 
ers' Press of Williston, and I called 

upon Air. Collins, editorially, to repu- 
diate in his speech the alleged incendiary 
remarks attributed to him in the Herald 
of the previous week, Air. Collins, how- 
ever, did not repudiate the Herald inter- 
view in his lecture, nor did he repudiate 
any part of it as far as I have ever 
been able to ascertain. In fact, he ad- 
mits in his letter to the Nation that he 
did not do so. 

W r hile I dislike, therefore, to dis- 
illusion Air. McCarthy about his ideal- 
istic conception of the utterances of Mr. 
Collins on the lecture platform, the fact 
still remains, in spite of Air. Collins' 
belated denial in the Nation, that the 
latter had ample opportunity to repu- 
diate the incitations to violence attri- 
buted to him by the Williston Herald, 
and failed to do so. If Air. AlcCarthy 
still doubts the above facts, I will try 
to furnish him a photographic copy of 
that page of the Herald containing the 
interview with Mr. Collins, provided he 
is willing to stand the expense of it. 

Incidentally, I may add that just five 
weeks after Air. Collins delivered his 
anti-Socialist lecture in Williston, that 
city witnessed an anti-Socialist riot in 
which bloodshed was averted only by 
the prompt action of Sheriff Chas. 
Alackenroth, who swore in fifty special 
deputies to meet the emergency. To my 
mind there was little doubt that Air. 
Collins' lecture five weeks previous, was 
in a measure responsible for this riot. 
The disorders continued for two days 

As a Catholic, I protest against such 
lecturers as Air. Collins and I reiterate 
the statement I made in the Nation, that 
as long as Catholic organizations send 
out men who permit such interviews 
to go un-repudiated, Catholics every- 
where deserve little sympathy when they 
are persecuted by bigoted mobs who 
differ from them in a religious way. 
Very truly yours, 

G. J. Knapp 
814 Sherman Ave., Salt Lake, Utah. 

— <$>~ 

—After reading the Review, hand it to a 
friend; perhaps he will subscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolate of the good press. 



April 1 

Thoughts Provoked by an Interview 

In the current issue of the American 
— a magazine thoroughly saturated with 
the Zeitgeist, by the way, — the place of 
honor is given to an interview with 
a distinguished prelate entitled "Young 
Man, Expect Great Things !" The quot- 
ed remarks are highly laudatory of Am- 
erican progress and opportunities. The 
entire article conveys the idea of a 
satisfied mind, looking out rejoicingly 
upon our great material civilization, 
and beckoning the younger generation 
to participate in the fruits which are 
supposedly within easy reach. 

Several queries haunted us as we 
browsed in these Elysian fields of make- 
believe. Our mind's eye pictured the 
throngs of the unemployed as we see 
them daily, and reviewed again the 
piteous letters of frantic appeals for 
help and "jobs'' — and we wondered. We 
saw the throngs of workers, and pic- 
tured to ourselves the hopeless prospects 
that even the best of them have before 
them, as wage-slaves in modern in- 
dustrial society — and again we wonder- 
ed. More disconcerting still there came 
to us the thought of the millions of 
Catholic laborers who are being sucked 
into the whirlpool of modern economic. 
political, and social revolution for lack 
of leadership and sound direction. 

Is the Church in America a Church 
of the masses, in the real sense of the 
word? YYe have many "prominent'" 
ecclesiastics, who are indisputably great, 
good, and well intentioned ; but can they 
lead in the present crisis? 


Supporting the Catholic Press 

To the Editor: — 

A little humor now and then, is 
relished by the sternest men. Here is 
a joke, a real one : 

"This is the Catholic press month, 
and all Catholic men are urged to sup- 
port their local Catholic press, and sub- 
scribe for at least one Catholic maga- 
zine ....'" 

A communication from the High 
Office, containing the above, was read 
bv the secretary of a local branch. 

"Brothers," said the presiding officer, 
"you have heard the contents of this 
communication. What is the pleasure 
of the meeting?" 

"I make a motion to place same on 
file as read," said one member, and two 
others offered a second. 

"All in favor of the motion will 
please signify by saying aye." And all 
voted in the affirmative. 

"Those opposed, will signify by say- 
ing no." Not one vote was cast against 
the motion, and the chair declared that 
the motion was unanimously carried. 

Some support, isn't it? 

[. M. Sevexicii 

Milwaukee, His. 

| If the rest of the Catholic papers 
of the country have derived no more 
benefit from the "Catholic Press 
Month" than the Fortnightly Re- 
view, the movement may be put down 
as a dismal failure. — Ed. J 

Drifting into Paternalism 

Interlarded with the immense amount 
of congressional fol-de-rol that creeps 
into our political records, there is an 
occasional bit of wisdom, for instance: 
(Senator King): "We have in this 
country a bureaucracy which puts to 
shame the bureaucratic forms we so 
often criticize in other countries.... 
We are drifting toward paternalistic 
government. Socialistic schemes are be- 
ing devised and advocated with earnest- 
ness, and persistent efforts are being 
made to secure their adoption by the 
government. Following war and during 
periods of readjustment, when business 
i^ disordered and discontent is abroad 
in the land, clamorous appeals for 
paternalistic propositions become more 
frequent, and those appeals are often 
pressed with zeal, and indeed, with a 
fury that make them well nigh irre- 

They are irresistible. Under the pres- 
ent form of society State paternalism 
is the only recourse, and though often- 
times the results are nil, or nearlv so, 
it is necessary to make a show at least 
towards relieving the siutation. Else 




who can say how long revolution would 
he warded off? Quite logically, then, 
are we drifting into paternalism, State 
Socialism, and bureaucracy. As long as 
Capitalism is the prevailing economic 
form of society, this will be the case, 
and indeed inevitablv so. F. 

One Way of Solving the "Housing 

There is now being organized in St. 
Louis a "Workers' Homing Associa- 
tion."' Its aim is to enable wage earners 
and salaried employees of all trades and 
professions to obtain and own their own 
homes on the fraternal co-operative 

In our days of commercialism, 
profiteering, high cost of living, etc., 
there ought to be no question as to the 
feasibility of such an enterprise if we 
take into consideration the success at- 
tained by fraternal life insurance so- 
cieties. If conducted under proper safe- 
guards in regard to the financial end, 
and safety of the investment of funds 
contributed by its members, the plan is 
practical and offers no more obstacles 
than life insurance on the fraternal 
plan. The laws governing equity, pro- 
bate matters, and fraternal beneficiary 
societies can easily be applied to the 
constitution and by-laws of such an or- 
ganization in every State. 

The best features of such an organi- 
zation are the following: (1) Interest 
on notes, commissions, etc., are elimin- 
ated, a spirit of thrift looking to the 
acquisition of a home and the protec- 
tion thereof, is nourished, especially 
among young men and women, who 
ought to be ambitious to own their own 
home by the time they have reached 
the zenith of efficiency, but must work 
under the pressure of ever increasing 
competition. (2) The association fur- 
nishes money in any reasonable amount 
(say $4,000) to each of its members for 
the purpose of building or buying a 
Tiome, subject to the approval of a board 
of competent directors and officers, and 
to the laws governing the security of 
investments. (3) The funds so raised 
are acquired by a monthly assessment 

of the members in the sum of S10 each, 
and when a member obtains a home, he 
pays $26 per month ; the $16 more are 
the equivalent of the average rent paid 
by the worker in our large cities and 
should never exceed 20% of his salary. 
(4) The organization, under its rules, 
starts operation as soon as 500 members 
have joined, and will finish for all 
simultaneously at the expiration of 241 
months, at which time the members will 
release each other and receive a clear 
title to their homes. (5) The association 
creates a contingent fund which, in case 
of accident or sickness of any member, 
is used to pay the sick member's assess- 
ment during the time of his incapacity. 
Of course, the amount so applied must 
be amortizised on a percentage basis, to 
be added to the regular assessment of 
such member when able to resume work. 
Thus aside from other benefits which 
the association is able to render to its 
members) it will protect them against a 
foreclosure of mortgage, against the 
depreciation of the value of their prop- 
erty by the intrusion into the communitv 
of unwelcome individuals, corporations, 
or races, and it is easy to understand 
that many a stumbling block can be re- 
moved by co-operation that would resist 
the individual force of any man. 

The idea has undoubted merit and is 
worthy of consideration and study. We 
shall observe its workings and in due 
time give our readers the benefit of our 
observations. PI. 

— When the Germans bomhed London, 
their theory was that even if they did only 
kill chance civilians still it would have a 
grand moral effect. It did, — in stiffening 
Londoners and Englishmen generally to hold 
out against the enemy. The Germans know 
this now. But Sir Hamar Greenwood, more 
Prussian than the Prussians, clings to the 
belief that mere murderous blackguardism 
can break the spirit of the Irish people. A 
few English newspapers are beginning to see 
the folly of this conduct. "He and the black 
sheep of his irregular militia," says the Man- 
chester Guardian (weekly edition, Vol. IV, 
No. 9), "have deprived us of the advantage 
of being a lawful and honorable government 
contending against a league of assassins. . . . 
British ministers who fill the mind of the 
world with a damning record of foul play 
done in Ireland in our name, are architects 
of humiliation for their country too." 




The Church and the Age 

It must be perfectly plain to all who 
have but a superficial knowledge of the 
world's history that "religious zeal, 
chivalrous love and honor, democratic 
liberty are the three most powerful prin- 
ciples that have ever influenced the 
character of large masses of men." 
Whilst, now, each one of these prin- 
ciples in succession has become the dis- 
tinctive mark of certain ages, all three 
can with justice be claimed as belonging 
to the Catholic Church in every age. 

The early days of the Apostles, mar- 
tyrs, and confessors, were, indeed, the 
grand ages of faith and religious en- 
thusiasm, yet they were the ages also 
in which the universal love and tender 
devotion to the' spotless virgin-queen 
Mary, Mother of God, gave birth to a 
most chivalrous regard for womanhood, 
which we now look upon as the flower 
of knighthood in the twelfth and suc- 
ceeding centuries. These same ages of 
religious fervor began to remove the 
barriers that had so long separated high 
from low, master from slave, freeman 
from barbarian, by declaring that all 
men were children of one common 
Father in Heaven. 

The age of chivalry, then, gave .1 
more pronounced outward expression 
to its deep and lively faith by its deeds 
of true heroism and the noble works 
of art, especially of architecture, which 
even to-day are the wonder of the 
world. The same age of chivalry, like- 
wise, gave rise to the numerous free 
cities and leagues of cities which were 
the forerunners and, in many respects, 
might serve even to-day as models for 
imitation. Modern times, lastly, have 
seen the grandest development of the 
spirit of democracy, the freedom of 
each individual and the equality of all 
before the law. The Church hails this 
development of the spirit of liberty 
under just laws, as exemplified in our 
modern republics, and also, though per- 
has in a less degree, in constitutional 
monarchies, as a step forward in the 
right direction. 

Now, as Mallock says, "the Catholic 
Church is the only historical religion 

that can conceivably adapt itself to the , 
wants of the present day, without vir- 
tually ceasing to be itself." 

Being the mother and guardian of 
this threefold development, the Catholic 
Church need not fear for the future, 
when democracy shall have assumed 
even larger proportions than to-day. At 
the same time she will continue to foster 
the spirit of true knighthood in- holding 
her bright protecting shield over the 
dignity of womanhood against free love 
and divorce, and of noble motherhood 
against the ravages of race suicide and 
the consequent evils of nervous derange- 
ment and insanity. 

May we not then hope that the arts 
of painting, sculpture, architecture, 
poetry, music, and even the drama will 
seek new inspiration at the old foun- 
tainhead of the beautiful, the Catholic 

There are unmistakable signs that a 
new era of progress in human culture 
is coming up. May the world find us 
prepared and ready to receive it and to 
speed it on its blessed way. J. E. R. 

The Mysterious Influenza 

The influenza scourge that swept 
Asia, Europe, and America, in 1918 and 
in a few months killed more people than 
fell in the whole of the war, is the sub- 
ject of intensive study in a bulky report 
issued by the British Ministry of 
Health, and signed by a number of dis- 
tinguished men of science and medicine. 

The most they can tell us, after all, 
is that the cause of the disease is still 
unfound, but that it clearly fastens on 
people who have had their vitality 
lowered ; and "since for a generation to 
come there is certain to exist over wide 
areas precisely the type of misery which 
we suspect to be the appropriate forcing 
house" of the germ, fresh scourges of 
it are to be expected. The only ultimate 
way to lessen its horrors is to "improve 
our standard of life." 

This is cold comfort; but it should at 
least remind us that in the field of health, 
as in that of economics, the restoration 
of the countries that have suffered most 
in the war is a measure of self-protec- 




Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 
By the Rev. John Eugene Weibee, V.F. 
(Twenty-eighth Installment) 
Chapter xiv 

The year 1880 was a good year for the 
farmers of Arkansas, and my Sunday col- 
lections increased greatly. The Christmas 
collection for the students that year amount- 
ed to $113. That Christmas I said midnight 
Mass in Pocahontas, 5 o'clock Mass in Jones- 
boro, and 10 o'clock Mass in Paragould. 

The people of Paragould and Peach 
Orchard suffered keenly from the absence 
of Father Gleissner. They were used to 
having services every Sunday, and now, 
since Father Gleissner's departure, they had 
to # be satisfied with an occasional service on 
a week-day. In both places the people made 
preparations for building a new church. 

In Paragould, we had a subscription list 
of $1600. One day a fine young cleric made 
his appearance and told them that Archbishop 
Kenrick, of St. Louis, had heard what good 
and zealous Catholics they were and had sent 
him to look into their affairs. He would re- 
port to the Bishop, and then return as their 
pastor and build them a church. The people, 
in their anxiety to have a church and a priest, 
were highly pleased and treated the clergy- 
man royally. He got the subscription list and 
quite a good deal of the money subscribed. 
Mr. Henry Wrape, Sr., now of St. Louis, 
offered to pay his subscription of $200 in 
cash, but his wife interfered, telling him 
that he should not pay anything before he 
had heard from Father Weibel, for such 
had been their instructions. The pseudo- 
priest proved to be a Jew. He had fine looks 
and very pleasing manners, and had done 
similar mischief in other missions. At my 
next visit I told the people that they ought 
to have known that the Archbishop of St. 
Louis had nothing to do with Arkansas, and 
they felt quite ashamed of themselves. 

The difficulty now was that the subscription 
list was still in the possession of the swindler, 
whose abode no one knew, and who had 
promised to collect on the strength of that 
subscription in St. Louis, and then to re- 
turn. The names of a number of outsiders 
were on the list. The people begged me to 
say nothing about it, as it would make them 
the laughing stock of Paragould. In fact, 
the trouble never became public as far as I 
know. In those days it often happened that 
such imposters would travel through the 
country, pretending to be priests and would 
naturally be welcomed by the isolated Cath- 
olics who seldom saw a priest. Most of 
those imposters belonged to the tribe of 
Juda. A remarkable case of this kind hap- 
pened later in Jonesboro, on the morning 

when Bishop Fitzgerald had a paralytic stroke 
in my house. We were talking together, 
when a gentleman presented himself as a 
visiting priest. He had a rather humble ap- 
pearance, and at first sight I took him for a 
German. He said he wished to see the pastor, 
Father Weber. I replied that my name was 
not Weber, but Weibel, and asked him for 
his name. He gave his name and said he 
was from Syracuse, N. Y. I looked up the 
name in the Catholic Directory and told 
him there was no such priest in the Syracuse 
diocese, but there was one in the Archdio- 
cese of St. Louis, whereupon he said that 
it was that archdiocese that he meant and 
to which he belonged. Now my suspicions 
were aroused. I remembered having received 
two photographs of a pseudo-priest, who 
had officiated at some church in the East 
as Bishop Meerschaert from Oklahoma. I 
got out these photos, which bore a striking 
resemblance to the man before me. I showed 
him one. He replied : "That is not me, but 
a bishop." I showed him the other photo- 
graph, on which he was represented as a 
simple priest. After that I began to converse 
first in German, and then in French, as the 
information on the back of the photo said 
that, besides English, the imposter spoke 
German and French. He spoke both lan- 
guages. I then told him I must see his 
papers before I would believe he was a 
priest. Thereupon he became angry and said 
he would not show them to me, but would 
show them to the Archbishop of St. Louis. 
I replied: "You said just a minute ago that 
you belonged to the Archdiocese of St. 
Louis, and in that case you must have your 
papers from that place and need not show 
them to the Archbishop." He left in a hurry. 
Bishop Fitzgerald, who had heard every- 
thing, remarked : "I had no idea that you 
could be so quick in examining a man, but 
you should have had him arrested." I thought 
I had no right to do that, as he had done 
nothing wrong in Jonesboro. It was fortu- 
nate, for a few minutes afterward the Bish- 
op became paralyzed in my room, and I had 
my hands full. The same day, Father Victor 
Stepka, then pastor of White Church, Mo., 
now rector of Clayton, near St. Louis, came 
to visit me. A few days later he sent me a 
card, saying the same fellow had been col- 
lecting in his mission during his absence. 
About two months later a body was brought 
for burial from Marked Tree. It was the 
remains of old Mrs. McCarthy. Her son 
told me that they had lately received a visit 
from a saintly priest, who had blessed them 
all, and especially the old lady, which was 
a great consolation to him. The "Holy Father 
John," as he called him had not said Mass, 
but prayed for them and blessed them. To 
his question whether I knew the Father, 1 
answered that I had a photograph of him. 
When I exhibited the photo, he and his wife 
recognized "the good Father" immediately. 
It would have been for them a great pleasure 




to receive the photograph as a present, but it 
had on the back a printed record of his 
sacrilegious crimes. Certain that he would 
not return to our district, I preferred to 
leave these simple folk in their ignorance, 
and said no more. 

In the spring of this year, the Rev. B. 
Fuerst was ordained by Bishop Fitzgerald, 
together with Father Michael McGill, in the 
Cathedral of Little Rock. Father Fuerst was 
born in Bremen, Germany, and is a fine mu- 
sician, as are his brothers, of whom one is 
the present Abbot of Mount Angel, Oregon. 
His sisters excel in that art also, and one 
of them is a nun in the Queen of Angels 
Convent, near Mount Angel, Oregon, where 
she works as a music teacher. At present 
Father Fuerst, sub-senior of the diocese, is 
pastor of the Italian congregation of St. Jo- 
seph's, in Tontitown. After his first Mass 
he was appointed pastor of Pocahontas, and 
worked there as such for about ten years. 

On the Feast of the Ascension, 1889. the 
rirst two novices of the new convent of 
Maria-Stein, at Pocahontas, 'received the 
habit of St. Benedict. They were: Miss 
Christina Unterberger, now Sister Mary 
Aloysia, sub-prioress in Jonesboro, and Miss 
Wuersch, now Sister Mary Anselma. The 
latter was for more than twenty years a bed- 
ridden invalid, but was lately cured by an 
operation, and is again in active service. The 
Sisters' school for white pupils was attended 
this year by 102 children, whilst 36 were in 
the colored school. Sister Mary Agnes de- 
voted herself heart and soul to the education 
of the colored children. She labored for them 
with the same zeal and energy which she 
had shown when in charge of Indian mis- 
sions in Dakota. Towards the end of April 
she was sent to Jonesboro to open a school 
at that place. 

Good old Sister Agnes was soon loved and 
revered by everyone, and all were anxious 
to help her along. The female sex is capable 
of great heroism, and Sister Mary Agnes 
was a good illustration, being ready for any 
sacrifice. She was capable of going long 
without sleep, and willingly performed all 
kinds of "work-in the interest of religion and 
for the welfare of the poor. She had an 
extraordinary love for holy poverty, and was 
ready to give away anything she had to help 
the poor, for their sorrows were her sor- 
rows. She found time to kneel for hours in 
prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. Her 
example was a constant sermon to the small 
flock in Jonesboro. The congregation and the 

convent owe her a great debt of gratitude. 
The school work in the missions was quite 
promising, but more helpers were needed. 
For that reason Mother Beatrice left for 
Europe with the highest recommendation 
from Bishop Fitzgerald, to get some Sisters 
from the mother house in Rickenbach. Her 
mission, which required great courage and 
prudence, was entirely successful, and on 
December 2, 1889, she returned from Ricken- 
bach with Sister Mary Clara and seventeen 
young ladies, of whom the following are 
"still living: Sister Mary Edwarda, superior 
of St. John's Place, Hot Springs; Sister 
Mary Rose, teacher at Pocahontas ; Sister 
M. Romana. Jonesboro: Sister Mary J. Bap- 
tista, Jonesboro : Sister Mary Joseph, music 
teacher at Jonesboro; Sister Mary Hilde- 
garde, Jonesboro : and Sister Mary Henrica. 
Pocahontas. Mother Beatrice also brought 
back some precious relics of St. Boniface, 
given her by the Bishop of Fulda. With 
these young ladies the necessary material 
was furnished for a community. Mother 
Beatrice, with the aid of Sister Mary Clara, 
was indefatigable in instructing and training 
these young ladies to fit them to become true 
religious and competent teachers. A s a proof 
how successful she was in imparting to them 
a solid English education, I may mention the 
fact that during the next few years six 
young Sisters of this company passed their 
examinations as public-school teachers and 
one of them was appointed deputy county 
examiner for the public-school teachers, for 
Ripley County, Mo., and Randolph County, 
Ark. Whilst imparting solid religious in- 
struction. Mother Beatrice never neglected 
to provide plenty of exercise and healthy 
recreation for her charges. She insisted also 
upon upright carriage in walking and would 
not tolerate stooping carrying the head side- 
ways, or other peculiarities. 

(To be continued) 


— One of the unsolved mysteries of the 
war that will perhaps never be cleared up, 
is the disappearance of the U. S. collier 
Cyclops, which vanished from the Atlantic 
three years ago with 339 persons on board. 
Xot a word was ever heard from the vessel. 
despite the fact that she had a powerful 
wireless on board and not a single clue as 
to her fate has ever been found. The last 
hope of tracing her died when the German 
admiralty, after the signing of the armistice, 
announced that she had not fallen prey to a 
commerce raider. 



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— In Xo. 4216 of the London Tablet Fr. 
Herbert Thurston, S.J., examines Lady Glen- 
Conner's book, "The Earthen Vessel," which 
deals with spirit communication through 
book-tests (see F. R., XVIII, Xo. 5, P- 70, 
and shows how even its data of fact go far 
to show that "conclusive evidence of identity 
can never be furnished" and that there are 
endless possibilities of fraud and deception. 

—Under the title, "The Blackrobe in the 
Land of the Wigwam." the Jesuit Fathers 
of St. Francis Mission, St. Francis, S. Dak., 
have issued a pictorial album with many 
interesting scenes and portraits of the mis- 
sion and its charges mostly reproduced 
from photographs. Copies can be had from 
either Fr. Eugene Buechtel or Fr. Floren- 
tine Digmann, S.J., at the Mission, for fifty 
cents each. 

— It is a common complaint, says Father 
W. H. Kent in the Tablet, that the classic 
works of our old writers are too little read 
at, the present day. In some cases, it is true, 
the fact that new editions are still printed 
may serve to show that the complaint is. to 
say the least, exaggerated. But in the case 
of such writings as those of Cardinal Bell- 
armine and Sir Thomas More, and much of 
our medieval literature, we fear there is too 
real evidence that they are strangely ne- 
glected by Catholics who might be expected 
to be familiar with their pages. 

— Woman, the high-priestess of life, who 
risked her own in giving sons to the world, 
has never by right of motherhood been given 
a yea or nay in the councils that doomed 
men to helds of carnage. The government 
of the world by the male half of the human 
race has all but swamped our civilization. 
Recovery and readjustment must needs be a 
slow and painful process, involving changes 
that are at present hidden or dimly realized. 
Among them may we not look for the 
scrapping of the business and advertising 
methods that perpetuate woman's slavery to 
brainless and indecent fashions? 

— In discoursing on "Some French-Canadian 
Prose Writers," in the Catholic World (Xo. 
670), Dr. Thorns O'Hagan fittingly devotes 
a paragraph to our late colleague and friend, 
Jules Paul Tardivel. M. Tardivel, who was 
known as "the Louis Veuillot of Canada," he 
says, "tilled a unique place in French-Cana- 
dian journalism. He was, without a doubt, 
a chevalier sans peur et sans reproche, and 
made of his little weekly journal, La Verite, 
a tremendous force in the Catholic life of 
Quebec. Though dead since 1905, the tradi- 
tions of this fearless Catholic journalistic 
crusader still survive, and give strength and 
inspiration to those who battle for knightly 
honor and Catholic truth." 

— The Christian Democrat is the title of a 
new monthly magazine published by the 
Catholic Social Guild of England, of which 
three numbers have readied us. It pledges 
itself to carry out the directions of Leo XIII 
in his encyclicals on the social question, in 
particular. (1) the maintenance and defence 
of the Christian family, (2) the establish- 
ment of a living wage as the universal mini- 
mum, (3) partnership instead of antagonism 
in industry and (4) the diffusion of prop- 
erty. The Christian Democrat will devote it- 
self mainly to the practical application of 
these principles and to the spirit in which 
they will have to be applied if a right social 
order is to be evolved out of the present 

—President Harding is a Baptist and Vice- 
President Coolidge a Congregationalist. Of 
the cabinet officers, Hughes and Davis are 
Baptists. Mellon and Hayes are Presbyter- 
ians; Wallace is a -United Presbyterian; 
Hoover is a Quaker ; Weeks is a Unitarian ; 
Denby is an Episcopalian; Daugherty is a 
Methodist, and Fall professes allegiance to 
no particular church, but "attends wherever 
Mrs. Fall may desire to go." -Again, as under 
Wilson, the great and numerous Catholic 
population of the country, which has so 
many able and eminent men, is without rep- 
resentation among the President's official 
advisers. Why? Are we not_ largely our- 
selves to blame for this slight 1 

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April 1 

Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. 
The text lays dawn solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these principles, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been highly recommended bv experts and members of the hierarchy and clersry who have made 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post free 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

—Mr. Israel Zangwill. in a letter to the 
London Times Literary Supplement (No. 
993), defends himself cleverly against cer- 
tain charges made against him in that maga- 
zine by the reviewer of his latest book. He 
says among other things: "Writing in 
Switzerland, where even Germans and 
Frenchmen live in a common patriotism, I 
do not find it so hard as Mr. Belloc. the ex- 
Frenchman, to conceive of a multi-racial 
nationalism, and I remember that to his fel- 
low-Catholic, Lord Acton, this seemed the 
highest form of nationalism. .. .It is strange 
that my patriotism should be impugned be- 
cause I hold to that gospel of 'Peace on 
earth and good will to all men' which my 
country's Church has just been proclaiming." 
— The Toronto Statesman (Vol. IV, No. 
ii) thinks we Americans are better off, as 
iar as political liberty is concerned, than the 
people of England and Canada. "In England 
and Canada," says our contemporary, "par- 
liamentary government has been destroyed 
by the pretensions of the executive. ... By 
whatever test we gauge the merits of mon- 
archy, as contrasted with republicanism, we 
are bound to confess that as 'subjects' of a 
king who is a mere figurehead, we occupy a 
status inferior to that of our neighbors, 
where the proud boast of citizenship levels 
all class distinctions." The "proud boast" is 
ever audible : but what did the people of the 
Q. S. have to say when it came to declaring 
war and what influence did they exercise 
on the peace treaty? In reality, there has 
been very little true democracy in evidence 
anywhere of late years. 

—It is a pity to see Sir Philip Gibbs. a 
Catholic carrying on what one of our ex- 
changes calls "a most unfair propaganda 
against Ireland" in the V. S. Sir Philip had 
a clearer vision than most Englishmen in 
regard to the world war: why should he be 
so blind concerning Ireland? Mr A G 
Gardner, another Englishman, though not a 
Catholic, sees clearly that "every new infamy 
wrought by the British government in Ire- 
land every new atrocity, every indiscriminate 
murder, every creamery sent in flames to the 
skies deepens the wrath of an outraged peo- 
ple, drive into the ranks of Sin Fein every 
mederate influence. ... Every crime and folly 
we commit recoils on us in the accumulated 
auger of a people who will perish rather 
than submit to an alien tyranny." Yes and 
we may add: it draws down upon England 
the disapproval and indignation of the whole 

civilized world. England is endangering her 
own future by her treatment of Ireland. 

— The London Times says that as a result 
of the recent occupation of additional por- 
tions of conquered Germany, the Allies "will 
have their hands on the taps through which 
a large amount of German wealth passes, 
and they will know how to regulate the 
flow." A Canadian journal, the Toronto 
Statesman (Vol. IV, No. n), comments on 
this frank admission as follows: "It must 
be evident to anyone who reads between the 
lines that military action has one end in view 
—the economic control of Germany. . , . 
While England and France are handicapped 
by unrest and agitation, Germany has re- 
acted to her pre-war methods of efficiency. 
. . . To control German exports and to pre- 
vent German competition, what more natural 
than that England and France should decide 
to destroy German industrial efficiency that 
threatens French and British trade." Note 
that both the papers quoted are British. 

— The N. Y. Post lately published a state 
ment showing "How the Government will 
spend the income tax money Mr. Citizen is 
paying." 68 cts. on each dollar goes to pay 
for past wars, interest on public debt, etc.; 
20 cts. for present defense, and 12 cts. for 
carrying on the federal government. The 
question at once suggests itself: How much 
of each dollar paid in could be saved if the 
nations indebted to the L T . S. for moneys 
advanced should henceforth be required to 
pay interest thereon? It is now more than 
two years and a third since the war ended. 
Meanwhile the victorious nations have taken 
enormous indemnities from the vanquished 
Germans and Austrians. Is it not high time 
that the citizens of the U. S., who in the 
meanwhile have been taxed at the rate of 
about $450,000,000 a year because of the 
Allies' default in the payment of interest, 
should have relief from this unconscionable 

— The Report of the Second Annual Meet- 
ing of the Franciscan Educational Confer- 
ence, for a copy of which we are indebted 
to the Reverend Secretary, contains papers 
and discussions that must interest every 
educator, especially on the teaching of Latin 
and English in our colleges and seminaries. 
Perhaps the most important resolution adopt- 
ed by the conference was that recommending 
the establishment of a central agency for the 
purpose of securing greater efficiency and 
uniformity in the publication of "Francis- 




cana." The scope and function of this agency 
shall be to systematize the literary efforts 
of the Friars by designating such works of 
the classic writers of the Order, e. g., St. 
Bonaventure. as should be republished and 
the Friars to whom the task should be com- 
mitted. Copies of this valuable report can 
be had from the Office of the Secretary, 
1615 Vine St., Cincinnati, O. 

— Woodrow Wilson's departure from pub- 
lic life was most pathetic. "History might be 
searched in vain," says a contemporary, "for 
another example of a statesman who had 
risen to such godlike heights, only to fall to 
the deepest depths of unpopularity. Others 
have been crucified for doctrines that have 
lived and served humanity's needs. It was 
left to Woodrow Wilson to be condemned 
for failure to give effect to his own teach- 
ing. . . . The world will remember him, not 
as the prophet whose words pierced the 
hearts and intellects of men everywhere, 
but as the apostle who cruelly disappointed 
the hopes that had been centered in him, and 
who blighted the prospects of world peace 
which it was in his power to bring to pass. 
He invoked the genius of Democracy and 
gave to the world a vision of a new heaven 
and earth, only to fall a prey to the allure- 
ments of European entanglements and to 
forswear the faith of Washington and 
Lincoln for the social attractions of Old 
World imperialism." 

— A rare opportunity will be given those 
interested in Gregorian Chant, of hearing 
one of the Solesmes monks, the understudy 
of Dom Mocquereau. the author of the Vati- 
can Edition of the Gregorian Chant Books. 
Father Eudine, O.S.B., will come to America 
immediately after Easter, to take up the work- 
left off by Dom Gatard, O.S.B., who lectured 
here on the same subject last fall. Father 
Eudine ranks next to the greatest living au- 
thority on the Chant, Dom Mocquereau. He 
wili deliver, by appointment, practical and 
theoretical lectures on Gregorian Chant, exe- 
cuted according to the Solesmes method. He 
will also deliver lectures on the liturgy, a 
subject which with the Chant forms a life 
study of the Solesmes Benedictines. Relig- 
ious institutions, convents, colleges, and 
choirs should embrace this opportunity of 
obtaining first-hand information concerning 
the Chant, and the manner of its rendition 
from a master such as Father Eudine. Those 
who wish to benefit by his visit and desire 
his services, or a Summer School in the 
Chant will kindly address him at the Abbey of 
Farnborough. Hants, England, or in care of 
Mr. N. Montani. Editor of the Choirmaster, 
1207 Walnut St.. Philadelphia. 


Experienced Teacher and Organist with A-1 refer- 
ences is desirous of making: change. Unless vou have 
a free house and will pav not less than fi.coo includ- 
ing extras, please do not answer. Strict Cecilian, new 

A. B., care of Fortnightly Review 

Literary Briefs 

—P. Marietti, of Turin, has issued the 
'•Officium Maioris Hebdomadae" in a new 
edition of handier, size, printed in beautiful 
large black type, and revised so as to con- 
form to the new rubrics of the Breviary 
and the new Missal. This handy edition will 
be a godsend to the reverend clergy, to whom 
we heartily recommend it. (B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

— In "Psychology and Mystical Experience," 
Professor John Howley, of Galway, offers 
a valuable critical contribution to the study 
of the psychic phenomena of religious life. 
In seven chapters he discusses : the Psychol- 
ogy of a Retreat The Theory of William 
James, the Psychology of a Revival, A 
Theory of Integral Conversion, Mystical Ex- 
perience and Quietism, Mystical Experience 
Proper, and Varieties of Mystical Experience. 
The volume is dedicated to the memory of 
Father James Mallac, S.J., and bears the 
imprimatur of Westminster. (Kegan Paul 
and B. Herder Book Co.) 

— Under the title "Vitalism and Scholasti- 
cism" Prof. Bertram C. A. Windle has pub- 
lished a new, revised and enlarged edition 
of his former book, "What is Life?" The 
work deals with an important aspect of the 
problem of life that is inexcusably neglected 
by many modern writers. Prof. Windle is 
an eminent scientist and states the vitalistic 
explanation of living matter from the point 
of view of modern science. Theological 
problems are touched upon but incidentally. 
The book repays careful perusal and is a 
valuable acquisition to any library. (B. 
Herder Book Co.). 

— We are told to "read a book a day," so 
that we may become acquainted with the 
world's literature. Suppose a man should 
read a book a day. That is a liberal allowance, 
even for a professional reader, when we con- 
sider that a book may mean a slight novel, 
easily finished in an hour, or a masterpiece, 
such as Hamlet or Faust, to which even a 
miscellaneous reader might like to devote at 
least a week. At the rate indicated, a fair 
average of one book a day, a man who lived 
for fifty or sixty years would have read only 
about twenty thousand books. Twenty thou- 
sand books is a large library, but what a 

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The Most Noteworthy Contribution to Sermon Literature of Recent Years 

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By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an Introduction by 

Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Archbishop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Two Volumes, octavo, about 640 pp. Per set, bound in cloth, net $6.00 

Bishop jVaughan, one of the famous six Vaughan 
brothers who went to the Altar, has devoted himself 
particularly to pulpit and missionary work, and 
while he gained distinction from the publication of 
a number of books of delightful literary qualities, 
his chief renown came to him through his remark- 
able performances in the pulpit. 

He is regarded as one of the greatest living pulpit 
speakers and hence this collection of his SERMON'S 
will be received with the greatest interest. 

very spirit of virility that characterizes their vig- 
orous author. He treats his subjects in original, 
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Abreast of the times in feeling, these SERMONS 
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treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER, (Inc.), Publishers 

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small part of the world's literature it repre- 
sents ! So it is evident that the most ab- 
sorbent of us arm-chair squatters in litera- 
ture have not read very much, after all, 
especially if we are not yet eighty years old. 

—Father Felix M. Cappello, S.J., the well- 
known Italian canonist, is publishing his lec- 
tures on the Sacraments. The first volume, 
comprising the treatises on the Sacraments 
in general, Baptism, Confirmation, and the 
Holy Eucharist, has just appeared under the 
title "Tractatus Canonico-Moralis de Sacra- 
mentis iuxta Codicem Iuris Canonici." It is, 
as the title indicates, a combined moral and 
canonical treatise, not merely brought up to 
date, but written with constant reference 
to the New Code. This gives it a peculiar 
value over other treatises of the same kind. 
(Turin: Pietro Marietti ; St. Louis, Mo.; B 
Herder Book Co.). 

— Were it not for a few entirely unneces- 
sary and very offensive flings against the 
Catholic Church, "Spiritualism in the Light 
of the Faith," by the Rev. T. J. Hardy, an 
Anglican minister, would deserve to be rec- 
ommended as the best of the smaller 
treatises recently written on this burning 
subject. Even as it is. the well-written book- 
let will be of use to the discriminating Cath- 
olic student, to whom we recommend it with 
due reservation. The author's conclusion 
may be summarized as follows : Whether or 
not the devil has a hand in Spiritistic mani- 
festations, the tendency of Spiritism is dis- 

tinctly away from Christ, from His Church, 
from the Sacraments, and from everything 
which the loyal Christian values for his 
eternal welfare and that of those whom he 
loves. To be misled by it must be regarded 
as the greatest calamity that could befall any 
one on earth, and therefore Christians should 
avoid Spiritism as they would a leper. (Lon- 
dan: S.P.C.K.; New York: Macmillan), 

Books Received 

Infant Mortality and Nursing by the Mother. By- 
Rev. Albert Muntsch, S.J. Timely Topics Series 
No. 10 of the Central Bureau of the Central So- 
ciety. 12 pp. 8vo. Central Bureau, Temple Bldg.„ 
St. Louis, Mo. (Pamphlet). 

Flame of the Forest. A Novel by Constance E. 
Bishop, viii & 305 pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. $2 net. 

Children of God. A Summary of Catholic Doctrine 
for Busy People. By Mark Moeslein, C.P. x & 
225 pp. 12mo. New York: The C. WildennaOn 
Co., 33 Barclay Str. Paper, 50 cts.; cloth, $1. 

Tressider's Sister. A Novel by Isabel C. Clarke, 
vi & 409 pp. 8vo. $2.25 net; postage 15 cts. 
Benziger Bros. 

The Essence of the Holy Mass. A New Theory. 
By Rev. Willibald Hacklier, Priest of the Diocese 
of Lacrosse, Wis. 46 pp. 16mo. For sale by the 
)'. Herder Book Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Little Journeys to Parnassus. By Thomas Speed 
Mosby. Part Six. 44 pp. Svo.' Jefferson City, 
Mo. : T'-e Message Publishing Co. 50 cts. post- 
paid. (Paper). 

Almanack Catholiquc Francois pour 1921. 384 pp. 
12mo. Paris: Bloud & Gav, 3, Rue Garanciere 
(Vie). (Paper). 

The Official Catholic Directory for 1921. New York: 
P. J. Kenedy & Sons. 







Bishop of Paderboin 

Translated from the Eleventh Edition of the German Original 
Revised and Edited by the REV. HERBERT THURSTON, S. J. 

Cloth, net $3.50 

There has been of late a very large output of non- 
Catholic books dealing with the life after death. 
Every unorthodox and fantastic opinion has found 
supporters, and especially the present-day craze for 
Spiritism is well represented in this literature. 

The need of a sound and attractive exposition of 
the Catfulic teaching on this subject has been .in- 
creasingly felt, and in its issue of July, 1918, 
CATHOLIC BOOK NOTES (London) voiced this 
urgent need, saying that "such a book, well written, 
abreast of the best scholarship, fair and courteous, 
critical but thoroughly Catholic, would be most wel- 

The present book is intended to supply this need 
and the names and the renown of both the author 

and the editor would seem to offer ample guarantee 
that the book will meet all requirements of a 
Church teaches on the subject. 

While thoroughly up to date in utilizing achieve- 
ments of science, and in meeting the objections of 
scientists antagonistic to the faith, the author has 
wisely taken the writings of the Fathers and Doctors 
of the Church as the foundation for his work, and 
his views and statements are invariably supported by 
unquestionable authorities, with the result that we 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Barclay Street NEW YORK 

St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 


17 Chestnut Street 
Columbus, Ohio 


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April 15 


During National Catholic Press Month 

Forty-One Thousand 

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were secured by the O'Keeffe organization, National 
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Wagner's Londres Grande Segars n m - lakes me pi | i>n ine iaie 


rpHE ordinary factory brand is first placed with the jobber. Then the manufacturer has to 
■*- create a demand for that segar by putting out newspaper, magazine, or billboard advertis- 
ing; after which, the missionary men get into the field, placing it with the retailer. They all 
take a slice off Mr. Segar; after which, Mr. Segar's value properties are pretty well exhausted, 
and Mr. Smoker gets what is left. The segar has, perhaps, been shipped two or three times 
over the country, subjected to different climatic conditions, put into a show window, exposed 
to the heat and dust, and bleached out by the sun. It is then placed "on a retail case and 
offered to the public to smoke. What does the smoker get? Alfalfa, w;e say. It might just 
as well be; for whatever flavor was there has long since evaporated, like so much gasoline 
on a hot stone flagging in August. 

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required by the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912, 
of the Fortnightly Review, published semi-monthly 
at St. Louis, Mo., for April 1st, 1921. 
City of St. Louis, / ss 
State of Missouri, \ 

Before me, a notary public in and for the State 
and City aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur 
Preuss, who, having been duly sworn according to 
law, deposes and says that he is the publisher and 
editor of the Fortnightly Review and that the 
following is, to the best of his knowledge and belief, 
a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., 
of the aforesaid publication for the date shown in 
the above caption, required by the Act of August 
24, 1912, embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, 
editor, managing editor, and business managers are- 
Publisher, Arthur Preuss, 

18 S. 6th Str., St. Louis, Mo. 
Editor, same. 
Business Manager, none. 

2. Names and addresses of owners or stockholders 
holding 1 per cent or more of the total amount of 

Arthur Preuss, sole owner, 18 S. 6th St., St 
Louis, Mo. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and 
other security holders owing or holding 1 per cent 
or more of total amount of bonds, mortages, or 
other securities are: 


4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving 
the names of the owners, stockholders, and security 
holders, if any, contain not only the list of stock- 
holders and security holders as they appear upon 
the books of the company but also, in cases where 
the stockholders or security holders appear upon 
the books of the company as trustee or in any 
other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or 
corporation for whom such trustee is acting, is 
given; also that the said two paragraphs contain 
statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and 
belief as to the circumstances and conditions under 
which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company trustees, hold 
stock and securities in a capacity other than that of 
a bona fide owner; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or cor- 
porat'on has any interest direct or indirect in the 
said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 


Sworn to and subscribed before me this 26th day 
of March, 1921. 

Notary Public. 
(My Commission expires Sept. 19. 1924.) 

The Fortnightly Review 



April 15, 1921 

The Wilsonian Index Expurgatorius 
The Church is often criticized for her 
Index of Forbidden Books. And yet 
even her most bitter critics admit that 
she has good reasons for protecting her 
children against evil literature. The 
same cannot be said for the "Wilsonian 
Index Expurgatorius." as a writer to 
the Freeman (No. $2) terms it. In ad- 
dition to the Sermon on the Mount and 
the Declaration of Independence, which 
were prohibited during the war, Miss 
Susan Ouackehbush writes to the Free- 
man that Unity, a "liberal religious 
weekly" published in Chicago, was also 
on the aforementioned index. It is in- 
teresting to note the lack of any justi- 
fication for the application of the Es- 
pionage Act .to this journal. After be- 
ing unable to determine the reason for 
the suppression of Unity, the editor, "in 
sheer desperation, experimented with 
three issues, two of which contained 
practically nothing but a series of es- 
says on Browning's 'Sordello,' written 
by members of the editor's Browning 
class, and a long 'Sordello' anthology, 
while the third was made up almost en- 
tirely of excerpts from current publica- 
tions which had already passed through 
the mails. Yet even these issues were 
held up over a month before they were 
released. Evidently there was some of- 
ficial doubt as to Browning's eligibility 
for the Index. There filtered through, 
however, from unofficial sources, word 
that among the articles which had at- 
tracted the official blue-pencil were in- 
cluded, besides the Beatitudes, the thir- 
teenth chapter of Corinthians, Mark 
Twain's famous jubilation over the fall 
of monarchies, a chapter from a pamph- 
let sold as a Red Cross benefit and 
written by a faithful supporter of the 
war, which set forth the crying evils 
of our treatment of Indians, Negroes. 
Filipinos and working-people — all of 

these reprinted without comment of 
any kind — and a copy of the postal 
sections of the Espionage Act with the 
official letter suspending the first issue 
of Unity and a brief and colorless 
statement that, though other issues had 
been refused the mails, the paper would 
be printed each week as usual." 

And so the evidence continues to 
pile up against the worst and most un- 
reasonable autocracv in modern times. 

A Word to the American Legion 
The American Legion seems to be in- 
capable of anything but partisanship. 
It now cries "wolf," for lacking intel- 
lectual discernment entirely it seems to 
see the recrudescence of Teutonic pro- 
paganda for two fell purposes : namely, 
"the disruption of the accord which ex- 
ists between the United States and its 
Allies" and the creation of a powerful 
national political machine, composed 
of disloyal elements. And all this in the 
presence here of representatives of 
Allied governments, whose sole pur- 
pose is foreign propaganda. France 
is in a bad way financially and other- 
wise. She desires American support for 
indemnity exactions from Germany. If 
the present occupation of the Rhineland 
should lead to a German-Russian coup, 
France would need considerable help 
to organize and maintain that army of 
four million which General Renaud 
estimates would be necessary to break 
up and destroy the hated bloc. More- 
over Great Britain has proved herself 
beyond a doubt superior to all other 
peoples in the new art of propaganda. 
And she has several decidedly blunt 
axes to grind just now. 

The American Legion would do well 
to preserve themselves from a sub- 
serviency to foreign interests, in com- 
parison with which the effects of Ger- 
man propaganda are as nil. 


April li 

A Sonnet for Broken Hearts 

Bv'Charles J. Quirk, S.J. 

How short is joy, and sorrow, ah, how long ! 

Truly must joy cry hail and then adieu; 
Ere half begun, the triumph of its song 

Wails to a dirgeful close; for well it knew, 
Viewing around, all nature which to-day 

Gains from fruition beauty, loveliness, 
To-morrow sinks in death and in decay, 

And leaves behind a memory's loneliness. 

What then awaits sweet joys but woe and 
Fleeing away we stand in mute despair 
Betwixt past crosses and a future cross, 

That ever looms athward the darkening air. 
Ah, Christ has left Love's immemorial token, 
For utter love His own great heart lies 

Father Augustine's Commentary on 
the New Code of Canon Law 

Vol. VI of "A Commentary on the 
New Code of Canon Law," by the Rev. 
P. Charles Augustine, O.S.B., D.D., 
deals with Administrative Law (Canons 
1154-1551). (B. Herder Book Co.). 
It is always a source of joy to us to 
receive a new volume by thi^ learned 
Benedictine of Conception, Mo., who 
was for nine years (1906-1915) the 
professor of Canon Law at the Bene- 
dictine University in Rome. We admire 
his great capacity for work ; in about 
twenty-eight months he has given us 
six volumes (2876 pages) of his Com- 
mentary. When we consider the vast 
and manifold learning contained in his 
volumes, we are easily convinced that 
this son of St. Benedict is presenting 
to the English-speaking clergy, in a 
palatable and easily digestible form, the 
fruits of his long professorship and of 
the years preparatory to the same. We 
hope God will continue to give him ex- 
traordinary zeal and health, so that he 
may continue to spread the knowledge 
of the laws of the Church among the 
English-speaking peoples, and thus, 
modulo suo, follow in the footprints of 
that other Benedictine, Augustine, of 
long ago. 

The present volume treats of the 
Third Book of the Code, excepting the 
Pars Prima, which was commented on 
in the two preceding .volumes. We find 

the same fluent style, the same vasti 
erudition, and the same brevity exhib-, 
ited in the other volumes. The author^ 
historical sketches not only betoken his-i 
deference to the decree of the Congre-; 
gation of Seminaries and Studies (Aug.: 
7, 1917), but also lend charm to hisft 
commentary. His remarks on conditions,, 
domestic and foreign, at times amuse, \ 
at times inform. On page 212 he says:jt 
"Some of our country churches would; 
be as silent as a grave without the , 
voices of women singers," and on page; 
205 he tells us that the Church permits 
the men in China to wear caps in church, 
because the wearing of a cap is there a I 
sign of respect. His remarks on Canon |i 
1184, concerning trustees, may interest! 
some pastors of old-fashioned country 
churches, whereas his exposition of I 
Canon 1264, concerning church music, 
ought to interest a goodly number of | 
pastors of up-to-date city parishes. The 1 
remarks on Canon 1386, which forbids 
clerics, both secular and religious, to 
publish books on profane subjects and 
to write for newspapers and periodicals 
without the consent of the local Ordi- 
nary, are far more timely, we dare say, 
than note 8 on Canon 1406, which in- 
forms pastors that they are not obliged 
to make the prescribed profcssio fidei 
before the people on the day of their 
installation. The exposition of canons 
1250-1254, on fasting and abstinence, 
will be welcome to most readers. 

Perhaps the most important part of 
the present volume for the general 
reader is contained in pages 428 to 484. 
Many pious and loyal children of the 
Church seem to act on the hypothesis 
that the entire ecclesiastical legislation 
concerning books is confined to the In- 
dex. The famous Constitution of Leo 
XIII : "Ofnciorum ac munerum," of 
January 25, 1897, did not exert among 
English-speaking people the influence 
which might have been desired. This 
part of our volume gives a commentary 
on the canons concerning books and 
will spread the knowledge of these im- 
portant laws in places where the above- 
named Constitution did not enter. Our 
author adds canon 2318, which forbids 
some books under pain of excommuni- 




cation. He gives a translation, but, we 
regret to say, no commentary. We hope 
|(e has reserved this commentary for a 
future volume. This canon is not pre- 
cisely the same law contained in the 
Rpostolicae Sedis" and later in the 
JOfficiorum ac munerum." We do not 
think that canon 1384, §2, applies to 
canon 2318. 

In note 40, page 477, we miss the 
names of Kittel, Nestle, and von Soden. 
The assertion, on page 467, that all 
the books of the New Testament were 
composed in Greek, ought to be changed 
somewhat. A consideration of the tradi- 
tion up to the time of Erasmus, of the 
opinion of the majority of Catholic 
savants, and of the decision of the 
Biblical Commission of June 19, 1911, 
will, we hope, effect this alteration. The 
great desideratum, however, of this 
volume, as also of those that preceded, 
is a comprehensive index rem m. \\ e 
hope that Father Augustine will give us 
such an index at the end of his final 
volume and that his work will one day 
be the standard reference-work on the 
New Code among English-speaking 

(Rev.) A. B. Lager, D. D. 

Mr. Lansing's Book 

Ex-Secretary Lansing's book, "The 
Peace Negotiations" (Houghton Miff- 
lin Co. ) is not only a disappointment, 
it is disillusionment. The title chosen 
is utterly misleading. The author does 
not even pretend to write about the 
Peace Conference. The book is merely 
a brief in his own defense. With the 
world face to face with the question 
whether civilization has not been 
brought to its doom through the war 
and the iniquitous treaty of Versailles, 
Mr. Lansing, as one of the chief actors 
in the tragedy, sits himself down to 
answer "Mr. Wilson's implied charge 
that I was not loyal to him as pres- 
ident." Who cares a fig whether he was 
or not? On most points, to be sure, 
in his disagreements with the pres- 
ident, our sympathies must be with Mr. 
Lansing, notably on the question of 
secret diplomacy and the issue of 

Shantung. But even on these matters 
one cannot help feeling that Mr. 
Lansing's championship of justice and 
fair play took the form of entries in 
his diary rather than courageous oppo- 
sition to what he believed to be wrong. 
On the subject of secret diplomacy, for 
example, he spoke mildly to the Pres- 
ident on January 29 ; his only other 
protest was four eloquent notes in his 
diary, which he gives us in full. Simi- 
larly his opposition to the proposed 
treat)- with France was confided ex- 
clusively to his diary. Of the reparation 
question, which was the great outstand- 
ing issue at the Conference, he makes 
not a single mention. The picture that 
one gets is not of a valiant soldier 
fighting for justice, but of a lesser 
Achilles sulking in his tent — and writ- 
ing in his diary. 

A Correction 

To the Editor: 

I notice a reclame about DomEustine, 
O. S. B., in the F. R., in which Dom 
Mocquereau is named as "author of the 
Vatican Edition of the Gregorian chant 
books." This statement has been made 
so often within the last year that it is 
well to correct it, in justice to the Ven. 
Benedictine Dom Joseph Pothier, O. 
S. B., President of the Pontifical Com- 
mission on Gregorian Chant, who is 
alone responsible for the official edi- 
tion of the chant. Dom Mocquereau 
and his followers withdrew from the 
Commission at the end of one year, 
which had been consumed in the prep- 
aration of the Ordinarinm Missae 
or Kyriale. Since that time the relations 
between the members of the Pontifical 
Commission and the Benedictine 
Fathers of Solesmes have been rather 
strained, as their respective organs 
Rente du Chant Gregoricn (Dom Po- 
thier) and La Rente Gregorienne (So- 
lesmes) show in almost every issue. 
Joseph Ottex 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

—You are interested in the advertisements 
r.f others that appear in the Review. Don't 
you think others would he interested in 



Apiil 15 1 ' 

Criticising the Holy See 

The Literary Digest of March 26th 
published a number of excerpts from 
Catholic as well as Protestant papers 
and periodicals on "Why the Pope 
Banned the Y.M.C.A." Some Catholic 
writers, it appears, attempt to mini- 
mize the significance of the circular 
letter of the Holy Office on that sub- 
ject, while, as was to be expected, the 
comment of non-Catholic publications 
is unfavorable. The Vancouver Daily 
Sun styles the letter a call to a holy 
war; the Christian Century declares, 
that "a new attitude to Protestantism 
is appearing in papal lands, and the 
Congregationalist says, that it is now 
too late to put a ban on any kind of 
fraternizing with organizations and in- 
stitutions without the pale of the 
Church of Rome. But La Gazette, a 
"liberal" Catholic organ of Belgium, 
outshines them all when it says that 
"the 'Y' worries some well-thinking 
people, who claim the monopoly of all 
beneficence," and expresses its belief 
that "intelligent Catholics will despise 
such narrowness." 

By this expression the Belgian editor 
proves his ignorance of the doings of 
the Y.M.C.A. and demonstrates that his 
Catholicity is not worth the having. It 
would be better for the Church if such 
"liberal'' Catholics were eliminated 
from her pale. The Constitution of the 
"Y" declares that the principal work 
of the organization is of a religious 
nature, and this very fact condemns 
the "Y" as a religious body. Since it 
cannot have a specific kind of religion 
for the members of different forms 
of Christianity, it must have only one 
kind for all the members, no matter 
which Church they happen to belong 
to. and this must of necessity lead to 
religious indifference, which amounts 
to practical infidelity. 

It seems that in the opinion of some 
"liberal" Catholics, as of non-Catholics 
generally, the Holy See is no longer to 
be permitted to safeguard the faith and 
morals of its children. The "Y" has 
been built up by collections and drives, 
including Catholic and Jewish money' 

and still it disfranchises the young men 
of both these beliefs. For the rea- ' 
sons given, i. e., the spirit of narrow- 
mindedness exhibited in the exclusion 
of Catholics and Jews from full mem- 
bership and because of the danger of 
religious indifference, we have spoken 
and written against this Association for 
years, and now speaks the one whose 
voice must be heard and obeyed by all 
who look upon him as the Vicar of 

As a certain Bishop wrote to us the 
other day, it remains to be seen what 
action will be taken in response to the 
papal warning by those to whom the 
circular letter of Cardinal Merry del 
Val was primarily addressed, namely, 
the bishops. Meanwhile, in obedience 
to the Holy See, which merely empha- 
sizes the natural law in this matter, our 
Catholic young men should be kept out 
of all organizations that threaten to 
destroy the sacred heritage of the faith. 
And no doubt thev will, because the 
great majority of them are, after all, 
unwilling to barter their faith for a 
mess of pottage. Fr. A. B. ' 
~~S>— . 

The Apocalypse of Albert Pike 

To the Editor: 

I see from Xo. 6 of the F. R. that, 
according to Past Grand Master "Wil- 
son of Nebraska, the late Albert Pike 
was the author of at least thirty vol- 
umes of Masonic literature. No doubt 
the reference is to printed books. No 
"cowan" and very few privileged Ma- 
sons know that, besides these printed 
books, the late "Supreme Pontiff of 
l niversal Freemasonry" (died in 
1803) also wrote a Masonic parody of 
tlit Vpocalypse of St. John, under the 
mystic title "Apadno." The manuscript 
was never printed. Some hold it was 
not the work of Pike, but a compilation 
by Kabbalist Jews. This does not, how- 
ever, diminish its value as a Masonic 
document, for undoubtedly Pike lent 
to it his name and authority. 

I will quote some passages from the 
"Apadno" regarding the "Son of Per- 
dition" or Antichrist. 

"The time will be computed since 




the day when the 'Most High above the 
High' L Satan, according to Manichaean 
dogma J will have a daughter amongst 
the children of men [a parody of tne 
Immaculate Virgin Mary] .... Seven 
years less nine days before the third 
cannon shot [Masonically, the capture 
of Rome, 1870] there will be born, 
from a northern woman, a daughter 
full of wisdom. Her father will be the 
holy [satanical] spirit, working by 
means of a just man. It is from her 
that will proceed the man of whom the 
double name will mean 666 [a parody 
of St. John's Apocalypse, XIIl, 18J. 
Thirty years will pass. Then the wise 
daughter will give birth, not from a 
man, but from a spirit of light [a 
demon], to a daughter, of whom no- 
body will be able to read the name. 
Her father will be the Leopard [Apoc. 
XIIl, 2] with griffin's wings, the chief 
of the seventy legions. Another thirty- 
three years will pass. Then the Leopard 
will give birth to a daughter, of whom 
the name will be read only by the elect 
of Baal-Zebul and Astarte [Phenician 
gods]. The father of this daughter will 
be the king whose face is a star, the 
chief of thirty legions. Another thirty 
years will pass, and then Mikael will 
gnash his teeth [sic!], and from the 
star- faced king's daughter will be born 
the man of whom the double name will 
be 666. This man will have no father, 
but will be born as an infant, like the 
children of men [a parody of the virgin 
birth of Christ] . . . .Thus will be born 
the vanquisher of the world, who will 
have as mother, grandmother, and great 
grandmother three pre-elect girls who 
wiil be virgins. And he will appear in 
public at the age of thirty-three years 
[a parody of Christ]." 

I am not quoting; these inanities for 
mere curiosity, but to show that Ter- 
tullian was right when he called the 
devil the ape of God (Satan simius 
Dei) and that Leo XIII was right 
when, in his last encyclical against 
Freemasonry, on March 19, 1902, he 
said that Masonry is filled with the 
spirit of Satan, who, according to the 
Apostle, knows how to transform him- 
self into an angel of light. 

L. Hacault 

"The International Jew" 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Henry 
Ford's Dearborn Independent, in its ex- 
position of "The International Jew" 
(being a reprint of a series of articles 
appearing in the Dearborn Independent 
from May 22 to Oct. 2, 1920), lays 
itself open to the charge of handling 
a delicate subject uncritically. In spite 
of all the attestations to the contrary — 
and there may be sufficient explanation 
for them — in the press, liiere is a strong- 
undercurrent of feeling against a 
people who have not always been found 
in the best business company or used 
the fairest means of business dealings. 
The Dearborn series of articles un- 
doubtedly give expression to a common 
though suppressed feeling. They will, 
however, give no help toward a solu- 
tion of the problem, in so far as that 
were possible by means of publicity. 

"The International Jew" is an un- 
critical and poorly authenticated bit of 
writing. Chapter X, for example, deal- 
ing with "An Introduction to the 'Jew- 
ish Protocols,' " is particularly open to 
this grave charge. The much discussed 
point concerning the authenticity of 
"The Protocols of the Learned Elders 
of Zion," is brought no nearer to a 
satisfactory solution, although many 
conclusions are based on these docu- 
ments. Moreover, so valuable a work 
as Sombart's "Die Juden und das Wirt- 
schaftsleben" is merely referred to, 
without exact references being given, 
although it is clear that this author had 
a considerable influence on the Dear- 
born staff. And in the end it is doubt- 
ful whether a satisfactory solution for 
the mysteriousness of the wandering 
Jew can be found without taking into 
account the terrible self-imposed curse : 
"His blood be upon us and upon our 

— "A Case of Demoniacal Possession," a 
recent Ave Maria pamphlet, deserves favor- 
able notice for its attempt to modernize, as 
it were, the gospel narrative of possession. 
The skepticism of our day, even among 
Catholics, is only too ready to ascribe "in- 
sanity" as the cause of the biblical cases. A 
more recent American example, thoroughly 
documented, would probably have been more 



April 15 

Our Catholic Schools of Commerce 

and Finance 
To the Editor: 

The question so often asked by Cath- 
olics: "Does the parochial school justify 
itself?" should he seriously propounded 
as concerning also our so-called 
Catholic universities. If this were done, 
not with a view to discovering a justi- 
fication for the continuance of such in- 
stitutions, for such undoubtedly exists, 
but with a view to discovering- some 
fundamental weaknesses, beneficial re- 
sults could no doubt be attained. Let us 
consider, for instance, the department 
usually called "Commerce and Fi- 

Our best Catholic authorities are one 
on the proposition that the system of 
individualistic Capitalism under which 
we are laboring, is a real and terrible 
evil. To what extent do these depart- 
ments combat this philosophically un- 
sound and industrially destructive order 
of society? Is there a concerted effort 
to point out the fallacies of the present 
order, to say nothing of presenting a 
concept of the new society which lies 
buried for the nonce in that great bodv 
of Catholic tradition which is at once 
the repository and the regenerator of 
all that is and has been good in the 
civilization of the last twenty centu- 
ries? In short, are our Catholic schools 
of Commerce and Finance merely 
teaching the mechanics of business and 
commerce under Capitalism, or are 
the}', in addition, preparing the minds 
of their pupils to be a help rather than 
a hindrance in the transition from 
Capitalism to some other juster and 
fairer system? 

Here and there undoubtedly sound 
courses in Catholic sociology are given 
to offset the prevailing traditions of 
commerce and finance. For the most 
part, however, we fear there is nothing 
done in a constructive way. Most of our 
schools of Commerce and Finance are 
thoroughly capitalistic in spirit and 
often enough a tool by means of which 
the support of local business interests 
is won for the entire institution. Cath- 
olic capitalists, whose influence is just 

as deleterious as any other, have been 
and are the leading supporters. Lay- 
teachers, both Catholic and non-Catho- 
lic, who are steeped in the prevailing- 
traditions, are indiscriminately used ou 
the teaching staffs. All in all such de- 
partments are just as bad in their guid- 
ing genius as the most dyed-in-the-wool 
secular schools and it is, therefore, dif- 
ficult to see how they can justify their 

The objection that a course in Cath- 
olic philosophy is a sufficient anti-toxin 
for the current sociological and econo- 
mic heresies will hardly hold water. 
In the first place, it has not been the 
universal practice to include philosophy 
in the ordinary college courses. More- 
over, even if such were the common 
and praiseworthy practice, it would not 
be sufficient, as may be seen from the 
fact that the great clerical body in Am- 
erica is not, for the most part, striving 
against Capitalism, but rather co-oper- 
ating with it. It might be further ob- 
jected that such departments could not 
be maintained in the face of the en- 
sconced and prevailing traditions and 
the necessity of pandering to the local 
moneyed representatives of the same. 
This is a real practical difficulty, which. 
gets us at once into a pretty cul-de-sac. 
Immediately the question arises, in 
what sense may we continue to propa- 
gate a system which of its very nature 
begets social injustice for the sole pur- 
pose of maintaining other questionable 
departments, such as journalism and 
engineering? It is finally objected that 
the occasional spiritual care of Catholic 
students by means of yearly retreats 
and sodalities justifies such departments. 
This may be, but we then have the 
strange anomaly that we inculcate the 
precepts of justice and charity in the 
college chapel and foster a system that 
begets injustice in the class-room. 

We will not attempt to answer these 
objections, some of which are certain- 
ly worthy of consideration. Xor is an 
answer necessary. The indubitable first 
fact remains. For the most part Cath- 
olic Schools of Commerce and Finance 
are not conscious of the evils of the 




system they are propagating and furth- 
ering. They have impaled themselves on 
the strange paradox of a Catholic 
school begetting disciples of social in- 
justice. F. T. 
—<s>— . 

Congregational Singing 
In an audience granted by Pope 
Pius X to Cardinal Mercier, in 1907. 
the Holy Father expressed his satis- 
faction at the active participation of 
the faithful in the singing of the liturg- 
ical texts, which the Cardinal had in- 
troduced into his diocese, and closed 
the interview with the declaration that 
the surest means of preserving the 
faithful from religious indifference is 
to give them an active part in religious 
worship. To bring this about, the 
Cardinal had ordained that Plain Chant 
be taught to the children, boys and girls 
alike, in the primary schools of his 
diocese. In order to bring this rule into 
practice, and to insure its regular exe- 
cution, an hour and a half every week 
was to be devoted to the Chant from 
the beginning of the school year. All 
the children, boys and girls, were taught 
to sing as well as to pray aloud in 
church. The children were thus led 
gradually to an understanding of the 
Church's calendar and liturgy, a knowl- 
edge proper to our system of education. 
Liturgical congregational singing was 
an institution dear to the heart of the 
saintly author of the Motu Proprio on 
Church Music. ''Special efforts,'' he 
writes, "are to be made to restore the 
use of the Gregorian Chant by the peo- 
ple, so that the faithful may again take 
a more active part in the ecclesiastical 
office, as was the case in ancient times." 
As far back as 1866. the Fathers of the 
Second Council of Baltimore, realizing 
the special conditions in this country, 
suggested the very means bv which to 
reach the end intended bv Pius X. They 
proposed a measure which, had it been 
universally adopted at the time, would 
h.ave put us in a position to carrv out 
the Holy Father's orders the very day 
thev were issued. YVe would indeed 
have forestalled these very orders by 
means of the measures then recom- 
mended, as follows : "We consider it 
very desirable that the elements of 

Gregorian Chant be taught and exer- 
cised in the parochial schools." What 
wonderful congregational singing we 
would have today in our churches, had 
this law been put into effect, and dili- 
gently lived up to, these many years? 
How much more piously and intelli- 
gently would our Catholic people now 
assist at Holy Mass, had they, during 
these long years, imbibed the spirit of 
the Chant and of the sacred liturgy, 
through the constant repetition of its 
strains Sunday after Sunday. 

It is not too late to correct the evil 
and conform to the mandates of the 
Motu Proprio. Vocal music has be- 
come one of the regular branches of 
the school curriculums. Aside from 
its artistic value as an educational fac- 
tor, it is hardly equalled and certainly 
not surpassed by any of the other acces- 
sory branches of study, in developing 
the children's power of observation. 
Thus, from an educational standpoint, 
we cannot begrudge the time given tc 
this study. During the primary school 
years of the child, it is possible to mas- 
ter thoroughly the entire repertoire of 
church music, masses, vespers, psalms, 
and hymns. In this way, in a few years, 
we shall have prepared an unending 
supply of available material for our 
choirs. As the children of today be- 
come the congregation of tomorrow, 
we shall have provided, not only choirs. 
but that congregational singing so 
earnestly desired by the Holy Father. 
The solution of the entire problem lies 
in the parochial schools. It is the best, 
if not the onlv way of reaching: a per- 
manent and effective reform. To Avhat 
purpose are our great churches and our 
well equipped schools, if we neglect the 
very act of worship itself, to which 
these things are but a setting, and if 
that alone be left a contrast and a con- 
tradiction to the care so generously 
lavished on its surroundings and acces- 
sories? What we have achieved so far 
for the organization of religion and of 
education, we can also achieve in this 

(Rev.) F. Tosepti Kelly 

— Tf you do not bind your Review, hand 
the copies to others after you have read them. 



April 15 


The much neglected Dr. Brownson 
once laid down a canon of true criti- 
cism, which we here quote as represent- 
ing the norm the Fortnightly Review 
strives to make its own. "To compre- 
hend a system rightly," remarked "the 
American Newman," "is not simply to 
detect its errors. We understand not 
even an erroneous system till we un- 
derstand its truth. And its refutation 
lies not so much in detecting and ex- 
posing its fallacies, as in detecting, dis- 
tinguishing and accepting the truth 
which it misapprehends, misinterprets, 
or misapplies." 

We therefore take great pleasure 
in acknowledging the worth while 
achievements of Mr. Taylor, mentioned 
by an esteemed critic, who in a letter 
takes . issue with the article entitled 
"The Efficiency Craze" in our March 
i st issue. No one with the slightest in- 
dustrial experience can ever forget 
that the name of Taylor is inseparably 
linked among other things with the 
development of the so-called high speed 
steels, the scientific grinding of metal- 
cutting tools, and the proper speeds at 
which metal could be economically cut 
under the changed conditions. 

But this is far from constituting the 
efficiency systems which have become 
so prevalent during the past decade. 
The modern capitalistic form of in- 
dustry is exceedingly inefficient in the 
use of men, means, and materials. This 
is contrary to the popular opinion, but 
it is a well recognized fact among tech- 
nicians. The various efficiency systems, 
which usually are proud to' consider 
Mr. Taylor as their high priest, are but 
the expression of the recognition of 
this state of industry and an attempt to 
remedy it. Their efforts may be divided 
into those affecting the materials and 
machines and those dealing with men 
as workmen using these materials and 
machines. The former must be judged 
entirely on their merits. It is with the 
latter that we are here chiefly con- 

In the first place we put down that 

the Efficiencyites are wrong in their at- 
tempt to remedy a system which is fun- 
damentally unsound. Capitalism cannot 
be much longer shored up by any tim- 
ber, much less the efficiency variety, 
which has unfortunately been so often 
identified with the present regime. 
Secondly, these doctors are awry in 
their manner of procedure. The editor 
of "Ettco," who was originally quoted 
by us, charged them with subordinating 
the man to the machine. Who can deny 
this when he recalls the motion and 
time studies to which workmen are sub- 
jected, much as the engineer and scien- 
tist are making photo-elastic and mo- 
tion studies of the internal stress and 
movements of the members of struc- 

But more than this. We charge that 
this is placing the production of ma- 
terial things first and the happiness of 
the human beings producing them 
second. In other words, life to-day is 
lived for the express purpose of pro- 
ducing! "Must all the canvas on which 
are painted the pictures of the world 
be made into flour sacks, and all our 
monuments broken up to macadamize 
our roads?" No! Men work inefficient- 
ly to-day because they are being made 
into machines as fast as this dehuman- 
izing process can make them. But not 
for long. They have the inconvenient 
habit of remembering their human 
compost with its aspirations, ideals, and 
desires. Then come disinterestedness, 
resentment, slacking, and even sabot- 
age. This is the mental history of the 
vast majority of workers at the present 
moment. Should we then help the pro- 
cess by further identification of man. 
with the machine and his obliteration? 
Let us rather identify the producer and 
entrepreneur, which arrangement is 
psychologically adequate in that it will 
satisfy the normal human desires for 
possession, self-expression, and se- 

These new disciples have gone even 
farther than this and in one instance 
at least proclaimed that the doctrines 
of efficiency "set forth a morality and 
provide measures for its attainment." 




(Going in the Introduction to Emer- 
son's "Twelve Principles of Efficiency." 
p. ii). But in this we feel that they have 
taken themselves far more seriously 
than the results subsequently warrant- 
ed. However, it remains as an indict- 
ment to a system which has had its 
vogue because of the prevailing ma- 
terialistic and evolutionary ideas. Mr. 
G. Sterling Taylor, in "The Guild 
State," graphically depicts the modern 
delusion. "The desire for speed," he 
says, "is but the expression of the mod- 
ern man's determination to value 
everything in terms of quantity instead 
of quality. If he can have two of any- 
thing, he feels himself infinitely better 
than if he only has one.. . . He thinks 
Chicago is so many times better than 
Canterbury because there are so many 
times more people in it ; and so many 
multiple times the possibility of making 
money in it. . . . In short, it is a philo- 
sophy of multiples; there is only one 
test "for everything — the multiplication 
table. That is the creed. His questions 
can only be answered in terms of quan- 
tity, of space, of velocity. He prefers 
the last part of the multiplication table 
to the beginning, for it talks about big- 
ger numbers." 

Mr. Chesterton once wisely said that 
a sign of our deplorable inefficiency 
was the voluminous chatter about ef- 
ficiency. Some day in the not distant 
future, when men will be at work in 
a proper industrial society, human hap- 
piness and welfare will be first, pro- 
duction second, and "efficiency" not at 

When Shall We Get a True History 
of the War? 

In answer to this question Dr. W. C. 
Abbott, professor of history at Yale 
University, writes : 

We have already a series of histories 
of the external facts of the conflict — 
Doyle, Simonds, the war histories 
issued by Thomas Nelson's Sons, by 
the New York Times and the Literary 
Digest, with single volumes like those 
of March and the textbook writers who 
have hurried into the field. We have, 
besides these, monographs like Bassett's 

account of the share of the U. S. in the 
conflict and McPherson's description 
of the strategy of the war. There are 
already in print the reports and memoirs 
of many commanders, French, Haig, 
Beatty, Jellicoe, of Gourko, and espe- 
cially of the German leaders, who, like 
the French generals forty years ago, 
have scarcely awaited the issue of the 
struggle to take to the pen. These, the 
narratives of Ludendorff in particular, 
of Falkenhayn, Hindenburg, and Tirpitz 
are of the greatest value to the historian 
of the war, not only for the facts which 
they contain, but for an insight into 
what lies behind those facts. To these 
may be added the reports of the various 
"investigations" carried on by govern- 
ments, especially those of Great Britain 
and the United States, regarding the 
conduct of the war in general or par- 
ticular parts of it. These, however con- 
flicting and various, shed much light. 
There are, besides, accounts of specific 
actions or movements — the Dardanelles, 
which has been more written about than 
any single episode ; the blocking of Zee- 
briigge, the Mesopotamian adventure, 
the defence of Verdun, the battles of 
the Marne and of the Somme. The 
historical sections of the general staffs 
are already at work planning, collecting 
and classifying material, and even writ- 
ing "official" history. In view of all this 
extraordinarv activitv it might seem 
that it would not be long until we had 
at least the beginnings of a real history 
of the war. 

Yet the experience of the past is 
against any prospect of reaching that 
stage soon. In the first place the strug- 
gle was too vast, there were too manv 
men, nations, and interests involved, 
and their activities were so interdepen- 
dent that it will be long before their 
precise doings see the light of print, 
and still longer before it is clear just 
what effect their separate or conjoint 
movement and policies produced. We 
are likely to have the facts long before 
we are able to perceive just what they 
mean — for historv is not merely the 
accumulation of heaps of unrelated 
facts ! Yet the production of the evi- 
dence is the first step in the case and it 
is easv to see that there are certain 



April 15 

extraordinary elements in the problem. 
For certain governments have collapsed, 
others have just come into being, and 
still others have fallen into new hands. 
Nor are we at the end, nor do we know 
whether much of the most valuable 
material is still in existence, or whether 
it has been destroyed. For there is 
every reason to believe that, as in all 
such periods, many papers are too valu- 
able to be preserved ! — 

So when we consider that before we 
can have a really truthful and complete 
history of the war we must obtain the 
dispatches, the orders, the innumerable 
documents relating to the conflict from 
half the nations of the earth; that to 
these we must join those memoirs and 
diaries and private papers of leaders in 
every land, many of which will certain- 
ly not appear in their owner's lifetime ; 
that each considerable episode and many 
minor ones must be the subject of many 
monographs ; and that this inconceiv- 
ably huge mass of material must be 
sifted and synthesized and compressed 
and interpreted — and finally turned into 
narrative comprehensible to its readers ; 
when we consider this we may well 
hesitate to set a period for its accom- 
plishment. Certainly this generation is 
not likely to have what may be fairly 
regarded as a full and accurate history 
of the war. 

And finally there is another element 
of truth — it is time. For even if we 
had the evidence all in hand at this 
moment we would lack two things, 
perspective and the knowledge of how 
the world will be affected by the great 
conflict. These in the last resolution 
of events are scarcely less important to 
the elucidation of the truth than the 
facts themselves — for they too are 
facts. And while we have already a 
tolerably accurate outline of the external 
events of the military operations and 
know approximately what happened, 
even if we do not know how and why; 
and while another generation will have 
a sound military history, it is not proba- 
ble that that generation will have 
plumbed the depths of the causes, and 
above all the effects of the conflict and 
determined its "place in history." 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
{Twenty-ninth Installment) 

In our days prohibition has become natio- 
nal. Numerous Americans consider them- 
selves models of virtue and morality as long 
as they do not use any alcoholic drinks. Even 
among some Christians this seems to be re- 
garded as the crown of Christian morality. 
Still it is a fact that the worst criminals 
and the most unscrupulous gamblers are, 
and usually have to be, total abstainers. They 
can not afford to risk a condition in which 
they might "give themselves away." That the 
virtue of temperance consists in the moderate 
use of things is overlooked by the fanatics. 
Thirty years ago this movement was con- 
fined to a few States. In some, like Arkansas, 
certain towns and counties had prohibition 
through local option. In the spring of 1890 
such a movement became very strong in and 
around Pocahontas. Even the young Sisters 
of the Benedictine Convent were drawn into 
the conflict. A St. Louis paper, the Hcrold 
des Glaubens, published the following com- 
munication from Pocahontas : "In our small 
town people went on the 'war-path' about 
New Year's. At the last county election about 
1700 men voted for licensing the liquor trade, 
and about 300 against, and therefore we have 
had two saloons since. They were conducted 
in a peaceful and orderly manner, and no 
serious fight or murder took place during the 
whole time. Nevertheless, a number of people 
were not satisfied. They sent around a pe- 
tition for local option, in order that no saloon 
should be allowed within three miles of the 
Methodist church. With unheard-of boldness 
the prohibition amazons patrolled the streets, 
and with glib tongues, many tears, coy 
glances, and other feminie tricks, tried to 
win young and old for their cause. Some 
of our people, too, were caught and three 
of them became zealous helpers for prohibi- 
tion. Repeatedly committees visited the con- 
vent of the Benedictine Sisters and tried to 
induce or force them, by means of flattery 
and arguments, nay, even threats, to sign the 
petition for prohibition. The Mother Su- 
perior refused to do this, pointing out that 
the Sisters did not take part in public affairs. 
According to the law the Sisters were then. 
to be counted with the majority, and the ma- 
jority had voted for license. The prohibi- 
tionists would not have this. They contended 
the Sisters should not be counted at all, as 
they were neither inhabitants nor citizens. 
Lawyer Lomax remarked that the sister? 
may not lie inhabitants or citizens, etc., 'but 
we all know," lie said, 'that they are pure and 
noble ladies, who remain at home, are very 
industrious, and mind their own affairs.' He 
alluded to the numerous women who, for- 
getting their house and kitchen work, roamed 
about in the public highways and byways." 




All this was of no avail; the court insisted 
that the inmates of the convent had to ap- 
pear at the court house. Then began a fierce 
debate; the men, — lawyers, doctors and 
others, — quarreled and argued, and it looked 
as if a general fight and shooting would en- 
sue. Finally, the opponents of the resolution 
succeeded in obtaining the privilege that the 
Mother Superior might appear alone for the 
whole convent. Thereupon Mother Beatrice 
was called, and a torturing cross-examination 
began, through which it was hoped to en- 
trap her. But her answers were all so clear 
and striking that friends and foes were unan- 
imous in saying that the lawyers did not 
equal her in logic and argument. There was 
to my knowledge not one Catholic present 
at the court house. One of the leading mer- 
chants, Luke Imboden, told me that the 
Mother Superior was as dignified as a queen, 
and her answers were so quiet and to the 
point that she seemed to be possessed of 
more brains than the whole court. Her de- 
fense was such that they were glad to let 
her go back to the convent. There always 
have been men among the Protestants in 
Pocahontas, who took upon themselves the 
protection and defense of Catholic citizens, 
especially immigrants, and who showed 
great respect for the priests and sisters. 

When I was called upon as a citizen to 
work on the streets, some doctors pointed 
out in court that I might be called to a sick 
patient at any time, and that, as a priest, I 
should be excused from such work, just as 
the doctors were. The leader in protecting 
and defending Catholic interests was Dr. I. 
C. Esselman, a Presbyterian, who later be- 
came a Catholic with his whole family. To 
the general sorrow of the people of Poca- 
hontas, and especially of the Catholics, this 
philanthropic man died, February 7th, that 
year, almost immediately after this extra- 
ordinary court affair concerning prohibition. 

As sunshine follows rain, after the stormy 
days at the beginning of 1890, there followed 
days of joy and consolation for the convenl 
of Pocahontas and the Catholic community. 
On the 28th of February, Mass was said for 
the first time in the new chapel of Maria- 
Stein Convent, and at that service the first 
two novices made their profession. They 
were Sisters Mary Aloysia Unterberger and 
Mary Anselma Wuersch, both from the 
canton of Unterwalden, Switzerland. Sister 
Mary Aloysia has served two terms as pri- 
oress and Sister Mary Anselma has been 
sub-prioress. At the same time seventeen 
candidates took the habit of St. Benedict. I 
acted as representative of Bishop Fitzgerald. 
Great was our joy; great especially was the 
exultation of the four sisters whom Abbot 
Frowin had sent to establish the convent. 
Mother Beatrice and her three companions 
had made untold sacrifices for this under- 
taking. Where the most courageous would 
have faltered, they kept up courage and per- 

severed. "Today salvation has come to this 
house," was the jubilant key-note in every- 
body's heart, when hearing the young Sisters 
sing the praises of God in their new chapel. 
That community will never forget its duty 
of gratitude to Mother Beatrice, who with 
rare skill and extraordinary energy inducted 
those young ladies into the monastic life, 
laying a deep foundation through her solid 
instructions in the religious life, and at the 
same time never neglecting their education 
as teachers and workers. Most of them had 
received a solid education at home, but they 
had first to learn the language of this coun- 
try before they could make their training 
profitable. As soon as they could understand 
English sufficiently, the different branches 
were repeated in English. In this way a num- 
ber of them passed successful examinations 
as public-school teachers. 

Chapter XV 


In 1890 the Catholic church in Paraerould 
was built. In Mav I celebrated Mass in it 
for the first time. The Herold, of St. Louis, 
on May 22nd said : "Last Sunday Rev. J. E. 
Weibel held the first services in our fine 
new church. It is 46x30 feet, with a tower 
about 60 feet high. A sanctuary, 18x20 feet, 
is planned for later. Our congregation is still 
quite small, but has everything paid for. 
The church is situated in town, but not in 
the business section. We oaid $300 for the 
lot. We have a very good choir and lusty 
singers, amongst whom Mr. Nicholas Staudt. 
with his excellent sons, takes the most prom- 
inent place. We also have several good or- 
ganists. In the town itself there is great 
building activity, and the factories seem to 
be running day and night. As the church 
is not yet plastered, and has no bells, we do 
not know how soon it can be blessed." 

That same church is still being used by the 
large congregation, but has since received an 
addition of a sanctuary, much larger than 
originally planned. 

As already remarked, the churches at 
Doniphan, Gatewood, and Poplar Bluff, in 
Missouri, were attended for some time by 
the priest at Pocahontas, who made all these 
trips on horseback. Later the Archbishop of 
St. Louis succeeded in getting the Benedic- 
tines from St. Vincent's Abbey, in Pennsyl- 
vania, to attend those places. These Fathers 
also acted as extraordinary confessors for 
the Sisters of Pocahontas. 

The relations between the priests and the 
Catholic people in Arkansas at that time 
were very cordial. For the great feast days 
wagon loads of Missouri Catholics from Al- 
ton and Ripley counties, especially from the 
"Irish Wilderness," would come to Poca- 



April 15 

hontas to celebrate. Some put up with 
friends, others would sleep in their wagons, 
and the priest always kept a side room of 
the church ready for them to stay over night. 

(To be continued) 

— ^— . 


— This was found in an editorial of a "re- 
spectable" daily recently : "Arrange with 
Destiny. Whatever God you believe in, be 
friends with him. Whatever your view of the 
cosmos, adjust yourself to it. So shall life 
be passed with some sense of satisfaction, 
and death be entered upon not without 
hope." The Son of Man spoke about "blind 
leaders of the blind" and predicted a fatal 
end for both. 

— Missouri's literary glory is being en- 
hanced by Miss Sara Teasdale. In her latest 
collection of poems, "Flame and Shadow," 
she continues to sing sweetly, shaping her 
tones to recognized forms, without in any 
way losing in quality. She is apparently ob- 
livious to the tremendous war of words that 
is being waged by the vers librists and their 
opponents, and who will say that she is not 
gaining thereby? In comparison with Amy 
Lowell, for example, Miss Teasdale is clear- 
ly superior. 

—One reads through Catholic Book Notes, 
London, with something of deep regret that 
we have not its equivalent in this country. 
This modest little literary review is excellent 
and a worthy critical mouth-piece of a great 
organization. If its services could be ex- 
tended to give judicious estimates of the 
more worthy non-Catholic publications in 
the principal fields of intellectual life, it 
would be literally invaluable. As it is, English 
Catholics have a worthy guide to their litera- 
ture, while we have none to ours. 

— In the Catholic Historical Review for 
January, the Rev. Joseph Dunn discusses in 
a lengthy and learned paper "The Brendan 
Problem." He gives a general survey of the 
results so far achieved by historical research 
in regard t the life of St. Brendan and 
points out some of the problems which still 
await solution, expressing the hope that some 
student may thereby be induced to do what 
the distinguished Franciscan, Father John 
Colgan had planned to do in the seventeenth 
century, namely, to examine the legend 
afresh and bring together in one comprehen- 
sive volume all the sources and all the 
legends and associated myths bearing upon 
St. Brendan in all the vernaculars of Europe. 
Fr. Dunn's own opinion in regard to the 
alleged discovery of America bv St. Brendan 
is, that it has not been proved, but even if 
he was not the discoverer of America, his 
story was one of the moving causes that led 
Columbus to the New World. 

—Stead's Magazine (Melbourne. Austra- 
lia), estimates that over ten million Ger- 

mans will be obliged to emigrate in order 
to find fields of employment denied them 
in the present diminished Germany. Since the 
U. S. and the British dominions "foolishly 
refuse to allow German immigrants to set 
foot on their territories," they must go to 
South America or to Russia. High steamship 
fares exclude all but the well-to-do from the 
journey to the South Atlantic countries. Con- 
sequently, a majority will go to Russia, 
which is likely to be developed by German 
science and labor, and thus to become under 
German tutelage "the dominating country in 
the old world." 

— Father Zephyrin Engelhardt. O.F.M., in 
the Franciscan Herald, upholds the authen- 
ticity and genuineness of Benavides's report 
concerning the miraculous flights of Ven. 
Mother Mary de Agreda to the Jumana 
Indians of New Mexico, early in the seven- 
teenth century. Mr. Benjamin F. Read, not 
long ago, in a paper in the F. R. (Vol. XXVI 
[1919], Nos. 7 and 8), rejected the story as 
apocryphal. Mr. Read spoke exclusively as 
a historian, whereas Fr. Zephyrin rather 
takes the part of the theologian and apol- 
ogist. This probably accounts for the differ- 
ence of opinion between these two eminent 
Catholic historians. We hear that Father F. 
G. Holweck, of St. Louis, who is both a 
theologian and has also done some very 
creditable work along historical lines (see, 
e. g., his paper "An American Martyrology" 
in the January number of the Catholic Histor- 
ical Review) is interesting himself in this 
curious problem and intends to write an ar- 
ticle on it in the near future. 

— The possibility of the extension of Cath- 
olic Truth Society work is interestingly dis- 
cussed in the February issue of Catholic 
Book Notes. In this connection it has often 
occurred to us that an edition of what might 
be called Catholic Classics would be an event 
second only to that of the publication of the 
Catholic Encyclopedia. Such a series might 
well start with a selection of Patristic writ- 
ings, pass on down through the rich products 
of the Middle Ages to those of our times, 
like Newman, Goerres, Chateaubriand, etc. 
The writings of the early Fathers of the 
Church are perhaps most modernly preserved 
for us in the Loeb Classical Library. New- 
man's work has been carelessly allowed to 
run to seed in editions unworthy of its great 
author. Catholics would do well to gather with 
loving hands the great classics which so well 
express the beauty and magnificence of their 
eternal faith. The Catholic Truth Society is 
perhaps the only body equal to so great 
and good a labor. Cheap reprints of Cath- 
olic classics would be a heaven-sent blessing 
in these days of extravagant book prices. 

— Have you renewed your subscription for 
1921? The address label will show. Please 
attend to the matter if you have not yet 
done so. 




Literary Briefs 

—"The Flame of the Forest," by Con- 
stance E. Bishop (Benziger Bros.), is a 
mediocre piece of work, in which a mixed 
marriage forms the frame-work of the plot. 
The Catholics are, for the most part, repre- 
sented as ideals, while the non-Catholics 
leave much to be desired. In spite of the 
obvious defects of making the so-called 
Catholic novel conform to such patent 
formulae, the author has done some good 
character sketching, as, for example, in 
Jinny King. 

—Number 10 of the "Timely Topics Se- 
ries," published by the Central Bureau of 
the Catholic Central Society, bears the ar- 
resting title "Infant Mortality and Nursing 
by the Mother." The £ev. Albert Muntsch, 
S. J., is the author. This little publication 
combines the solidity of a well-documented, 
logical argument with the readableness of a 
terse journalistic style. And who will gain- 
say the timeliness of the subject, for our 
country particularly? The literary minute- 
men of the Central Society are doing ex- 
cellent work. 

— "The Seminarists' Symposium, 1919 — 
1920" (Edited and issued by the St. Thomas 
Literary and Homiletic Society of St. Vin- 
cent Seminary, Beatty, Pa.) is a decidedly 
creditable anthology of students' efforts. 
Asceticism, Literature, Science, sacred and 
profane, as well as Art, all have their studi- 
ous spokesmen. The articles on "Mendelism," 
"The Beginnings of Liturgy," "The Chant 
of the Ages," and "Modernism's Poisoned 
Source," are particularly noteworthy. A more 
critical attitude in the editorial section would 
have been welcome ; this is particularly true 
of "The Constitution.' 

- — Tn his latest book, "Social Reconstruc- 
tion," the Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan discusses 
with his wonted lucidity and caution cer- 
tain problems and agencies arising out of 
the war, high wages and high prices, a 
living wage by law, social insurance, public 
housing, vocational training, labor unions, 
labor sharing in management and profits, 
co-partnership and co-operation, exorbitant 
profits, and other kindred topics. In an ap- 
pendix is printed the American Bishops' Re- 
construction Programme, of which Dr. Ryan 
is believed to be the author. Like everything 
that Dr. Ryan publishes, this book is well 
worth studying. (Macmillan). 

— We have received the fourth and fifth 
volume of Herder's "Lexikon der Pada- 
gogik," edited by Prof. E. M. Roloff with 
the assistance of the late Dr. Otto Willmann. 
The list of contributors to this famous 
treasure-house of pedagogical knowledge 
comprises the foremost names of Catholic 
Germany. Nothing equal to this work, in 
quantity as well a squality, has ever been at- 
tempted by Catholics of any other nation in 

the field of educational science. There is not a 
topic of interest in this domain that is not 
treated somewhere in these five large lexicon 
volumes in the light of the most recent re- 
search. No one working in this field can afford 
to be without the "Lexikon der Padagogik." 
(B. Herder Book Co.) 

—Father John Rickaby's new book, "The 
Ecclesistical Year: Contemplations on the 
Deeper Meaning and Relation of its Seasons 
and Feasts" is characterized by an originality 
one seldom meets with in books of this kind, 
The author forestalls possible criticism by 
saying in his preface that the work is not 
intended to displace the traditional expo- 
sitions, but to supplement them. It is the 
most interesting book of the sort that has 
come under our notice for a long while and 
will, we believe, be found stimulating, in- 
structive, and helpful especially to those who 
are tired of the familiar expositions, which 
are so apt to become monotonous. Preachers 
will find here many variety-giving strands 
which they can weave into their discourses. 
(Joseph F. Wagner, Inc.). 

— Abelard's philosophic writings have late- 
ly been edited by Dr. B. Geyer in Baumker's 
"Beitriige zur Geschichte der Philosophic 
des Mittelalters" (Miinster i. W. : Aschen- 
dorff). The editor groups them under two 
headings: 1. Die Logica "Ingredientibus ;" 
2. Die Glossen zu Porphyrins. Fr. Pelster, 
S. J. in a favorable notice of the edition in 
the Theolozische Revue (No. 19/20, p. 350, 
calls attention to the fact that, according to 
Dr. Geyer's researches. Abelard should be 
spelled Abaelard, and pronounced as if it had 
four syllables — Abaelard. Traces of this 
correct pronunciation survived until 1728, 
as may be seen from the fact that Du Pkssis 
d'Argentre. in the first volume of his "Col- 
lectio Iudiciorum." published in ? that year, 
consistently writes "Abaelardus." 

—An English Jesuit, Lewis Watt, S. J., 
has given us through the Catholic Social 
Guild the "Elements of Economics." _ The 
little book is intended to serve as an intro- 
duction to the text books of Devas, Mar- 
shall, and Taussig. So far the author has 
undoubtedly succeeded. Nor could we expect 
him to point any new paths in the_ so-called 
science of political economy. But it is difficult 
to see just what we gain by furthering, even 
in this small way, the chaotic condition of 
oresent-dav economic science. English-speak- 
ing Catholics particularly need a pathfinder 
of the caliber of H. Pesch, S. J., who in his 
monumental "Lehrbuch der National-Oeko- 
nomie" dared to leave the beaten path and 
gave to the world a new method of political 
economy. Fr. Watt, we regret to say, shows 
himself to be subservient to the prevailing- 
economics. We are so accustomed to paying 
tribute to the so-called economic laws — that 
of supply and demand, for example, — that we 
little realize how unscientific this treat- 
ment is. 



April 15 

Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of Plates jf 1 ™ Jj^^^g^i? « 
The text lays djwn solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these principle!,, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been highly recommended by experts and members of the hj™"^"^.^ cathofic 6 presl 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post, free 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

—It is seldom that the reviewer is called 
upon to pass judgment on 445 pages of 
philosophical rot. And yet such is the case 
with "The Cxreat Work," by TK (R. F. Fenno 
and Co., New York). It is "Addressed to 
the Progressive Intelligence of the Age," 
is the third volume of the "Harmonic Se- 
ries," of which the other two are "Harmon- 
ics of Evolution" and "The Great Psycholo- 
gical Crime" ; and, finally, its author is "the 
American Representative of the great School 
of Natural Science, a School which was 
hoary with age when the foundation of the 
great Pyramid was laid ; a School which 
antedates all present authentic history and 
records; a School against which the waves 
of superstition and ignorance have dashed 
in vain, because its foundation is the rock 
of Truth." Though not being of the "pro- 
gressive intelligence" class to whom the 
author appeals, we nevertheless waded 
through this slough of esoteric nonsense, 
Masonic mummery, and pagan Orientalism. 
According to the writer, there are two "Great 
Parent Schools" in the world; the one of 
India, the other of Egyptian Black Alagic. 
To the former, which is the school of Light, 
belong Freemasonry, Buddhism, Primitive 
Christianity, "as exemplified by the Master, 
Jesus, and by Protestant Christianity." To the 
latter, "the Great Parent School of Egyptian 
Black Magic," belong Paganism, Moham- 
medanism, the Greek Church, and Roman 
Catholicism "in its present form." The latter 
is the "destructive psychological force in 
human society." With this division in mind, 
the author solves all problems on, under, and 
above the earth, by word-spinning and jugg- 
ling familiar to those versed in Masonic 
literature. The book is an attempt at con- 
structing a world-view through the eyes of 
Freemasonry. The best clue to its worth- 
lessness is the perusal of "A Study in Am- 
erican Freemasonry" by Arthur Preuss. Its 
anti-Catholic passages will do little harm 
They are too crassly ignorant. The book is 
absolutely useless and an utter waste of good 
material and workmanship. — F. 

Books Received 

Bird-a-Lca. By Clementia. (A novel for girls. Illu- 
strated by James A. Waddell. 357 pp. 12mo. 
Chicago: Extension Press. $1.50. 

Die ricr Evangclien. Ihre Entstehungsverhaltnisse, 
Echtheit unci Glaubwiirdigkeit. Von Dr. Bartholo- 
maus Heigl, Hochschulprofessor in Freising. xi & 
400 pp. 12mo. Freiburg i. B.: Herdersche Verlags- 
bandlung. 1916. $2.20 net. 

Evangelium und Arbeit. Eine Apologie der Arbeits- 
lehre des neuen Testaments. Von Simon Weber. 
Zweite, verbesserte Auflage. vii & 363 pp. 8 vo. 
B. Herder Book Co. $2.50 net. 

Thesaurus Doctrinac Catholicae ex Documcntis Ma- 
gisterii Ecclesiastici. Ordine Disposuit Ferd. 
Cavallera, Lector Theol. in Facult. Theol. To- 
losana. xviii & 794 pp. 8 vo. Paris: Gabriel 
Beauchesne; St. Louis, Mo.; B. Herder Book Co. 
$3.75, bound in cloth. 

Die katholische Internationale. Von Dr. Max Josef 
Metzger. 16 pp. 16mo. Graz: Paulusverlag. 

The American Commission on Conditions in Ire- 
land. Interim Report, viii & 144 pp. 8vo. L. 
Hollingsvvorth Wood, Chairman, 501 Fifth Ave., 
New York City, 35 cts.; $3.50 per dozen; $22.50 
per 100. (Wrapper). 

Ireland's Claim for Recognition as a Sovereign 
Independent State. Presented Officially to the 
Government of the United States by Eamon de 
Valera, President of the Irish Republic. 136 pp. 
8vo. Washington, D. C. ; Irish Diplomatic Mis- 
sion, 1045 Munsey Bldg. 25 cts.; $15 per 100. 

A Handbook of Moral Theology. By the Rev. An- 
tony Koch, D.D. Adapted and Edited by Arthur 
Preuss. Volume IV: Man's Duties to God. iv & 
423 pp. 12mo. B. Herder Book Co., $2.50 net. 

Don Bosko. Von Franz X. Kerer. Mit Titelbild. 

viii & 110 pp. 12mo. Ratisbon: Verlagsanstalt 

vorra. G. J. Manz. 
Die Anfdnge des mcnschlichcn Gcmeinschaftslebens 

im Spiegel der ncuern I'blkcrkundc. Von Dr. phil. 

Wilhelm Koppers S. V. D., Redakteur des "An- 

thropos." 192 pp. 16mo. M. Gladbach: Volks- 

vereinsverlag. M. 7. (Wrapper). 

I. a Philosophic Moderne depuis Bacon iusqu'i 
Leibniz. Etudes Historicities par Gaston Sortais, 
S.J. Tome Premier, x & 592 pp. 8vo. Paris: P. 
Lethielleux, 10, rue Cassette. (Wrapper). 

The Garland of Praise. A Booklet of Spiritual 
Songs for Use in the Catholic Church. With 
Prayers for Mass and Latin Hymns. By Rev. 
Tohn Rothensteiner, xv & 259 pp. 32mo. B. Herder 
Book Co. 50 cts. 

Social Organisations in Parishes. By Rev. Edward 
F. Garesche, S. J. 340 pp. 8vo. Benziger Bros. 
$2.75 net. 

Efficiency in the Spiritual Life. By Sister Mary 
Cecilia, a Religious of the Ursuline Convent of 
Our Lady of Lourdes, Paola, Kansas, xiv & 201 
pp. 12mo. Frederick Pustet Co., Inc. $1.50. 


Oculists' Prescriptions 

Lenses accurately ground. 

Properly adjusted frames. 

Moderate Prices 

SOS Two 511 N. 

i i tll llll ll llllllllll l ll ll HIIIIIHI I Ill l llll l l l llllll l llll T ff 

The Fortnightly Review 



May 1, 1921 

On the Sea at Night 
By A. Hugh Fisher 

As some white ibis troubled in its sleep 
Draws the uneasy burden of its head 
From the close comfort of its warm wing- 
I wake and stare across the gloomy deep. 
What unrecorded loves lie buried there ? 
Queens of dead kingdoms? — conquerors 

unknown ? 
Once held the treasures of an Empress' zone 
A golden clasp now winding nereid's hair? 

How often in so very small a world 

Men's feet must wander where some hero 

trod : 
To-night birds guard the same Egyptian god 
Where smoke from Cleopatra's trireme curled 
And amorous shepherds couch within that 

Where love-sick Dido turned a Trojan's -lave. 


The Smith-Towner Bill in the Light 
of Common Sense 

Whatever might be said against the 
Smith-Towner Bill as a possible means 
of oppression against Catholics, it 
seems obvious that the advocates of 
first-class educational methods have a 
telling argument against Federal med- 
dling in affairs of this kind. For those 
who need definite proof of the debauch 
consequent upon bureaucratized educa- 
tion should investigate the results of 
this modern form of autocracy in the 
city of Milwaukee. What the Freeman 
i Xo. 56) says of the public school sys- 
tem in general holds particularly for 
this city, as any initiate can tell. "It 
is a system of propaganda," according 
to this editorial. 'The schools are con- 
trolled by the government, which is the 
agent of privilege. Naturally, then, 
their pupils are given such education, 
and only such, as will prepare them to 
ccuntenance and support privilege. 
Privilege is not interested in teaching 
people to think ; it is interested in im- 
planting in their minds such stock no- 
tions, prejudices and formulae as it can 

profitably use. For example, the teach- 
ing of history in our schools shows 
little concern with truth and fact; its 
object is to develop an exaggerated 
chauvinism, to impress our youth with 
the greatness and unfailing rightness 
of their country, which means their 
government. Thus is prepared the way 
for such extravagance as Mr. Hard- 
ing's bathos about 'the divine inspira- 
tion of the founding fathers', and such 
gross and incredible absurdities as are 
from time to time perpetrated, in the 
much abused name of patriotism, by 
exuberant members of the American 

In addition to this let it be remarked 
that, as schools are conducted under 
bureaucratic control, system has be- 
come of the utmost consideration. 
Teaching is entirely secondary. The 
fol-de-rol of the efficiency crowd has 
become the chief characteristic ; forms, 
standards, records, and charts choke up 
the ordinary avenues of teaching. The 
result is that there is far more concern 
about the "record"' or "chart" of John 
and Mary, than about the teaching of 
the fundamentals. And yet this is the 
result of a purely local application. 
How much more disastrous would the 
results be if federal bureaus and offi- 
cials added to the confusion, the red 
tape, and the official dry rot ! It is 
impossible to believe that the American 
people will invite more of these polit- 
ical parasites that infest our land. 
With the evidence of the utter useless- 
ness of political methods all about us, 
can we. aside from all religious con- 
siderations, and looking at the matter 
merely with the eyes of common sense, 
have the hardihood to degrade still 
further the teaching of American 
youths by putting their education under 
the blighting influence of federal offi- 
cials and bureaus? 




The Y. M. C. A and the Y. W. C. A. 

Attention has recently been drawn 
to these two organizations by a circular 
letter of the Holy Office, which especi- 
ally mentions the Y. M. C. A. and in- 
cludes the Y. W. C. A. under the term 
"similar organizations.'' Many of our 
Catholic people have been taken in by 
the humanitarian work of these two 
organizations, the social and intellectual 
advantages they offer, and have given 
them their support by becoming mem- 
bers, or bv taking an intense interest in 
their activities. These organizations 
invite Catholics to join, telling them 
that they have equal rights with all 
"evangelical people," and then shut 
them out from the inner and higher 
councils. It is well known that Catho- 
lics are barred from the higher and con- 
trolling official positions. Blind to these 
facts, some of our so-called liberal 
Catholics, in order to move in a certain 
society, support these organizations by 
word and deed. It has never been a 
secret what was the real aim of these 
two organizations. They have paraded 
themselves as non-sectarian, but recent 
events have proved their stand to be 
false. The activities of the Y. M. C. A. 
in particular have called for the con- 
demnation by Rome, not of its welfare 
or humanitarian work, but of its at- 
tempt to undermine the Catholic faith. 

"Considering that these associations 
are supported by the good will, the re- 
sources and active cooperation of high- 
ly influential persons, and that they 
render efficient service in various lines 
of beneficence, it is not surprising that 
they deceive inexperienced minds who 
fail to detect their inward nature and 
purpose. But their true character can 
no longer be a matter of doubt for any 
one who is well informed ; their aims, 
hitherto but gradually revealed, are now 
openly declared in pamphlets, news- 
papers, and periodicals which serve as 
their means of publicity. Under the 
pretext of enlightening vouthful minds. 
they turn them awav from the teach- 
ing authority of the Church, the divinely 
established beacon of truth, and per- 
suade them to seek in the depths of 

their own consciousness, and hence 
within the narrow range of human rea- 
son, the light which is to guide them. 
It is chiefly young men and young 
women who are drawn into such snares. 
They above all others need help and 
direction in order to learn Christian 
truth and preserve the faith handed 
down from their forefathers. Instead 
they fall into the hands of those by 
whom they are robbed of their great 
inheritance, and gradually led away 
until they hesitate between opposing 
opinions, then come to doubt about 
everything, and finally content them- 
selves with a vague indefinite form of 
religion, which is altogether different 
from the religion preached by Jesus 

Thus the Holy See w r arns pastors of 
Catholic flocks and instructs them to 
take efficient measures against the in- 
sidious propaganda of these organiza- 
tions, which under the plea of offering 
opportunities for social, intellectual, and 
moral improvement, attract Catholic 
young men and women to a material- 
istic creed in the guise of Christianity. 
They create the impression that the goal 
which we seek and must obtain is to 
be reached by an easier and more com- 
fortable way than that prescribed by 
the Catholic Church. They induce Cath- 
olics, who take part in their activities, 
to leave the more perfect way for this 
naturalistic doctrine. They are danger- 
ous to Catholics, the letter declares, be- 
cause they are being made the occasion 
and the means of propaganda of doc- 
trines, which the Holy Office deems 
prejudicial to the best interests of Cath- 
olic young people, because the material 
and educational advantages offered by 
the associations in question are being 
employed to instill habits of thought 
which the Holy Office judges to be un- 
christian, since the culture given by 
them destroys in its beneficiaries the 
integrity of the Catholic faith, robs the 
Church of her children and eventuates 
in rationalism and religious indiffer- 

The condemnation of these associa- 
tions bv the Holv Office does not dis- 




approve their welfare and humanita- 
rian work. It is a condemnation of 
their attempts to undermine the Catholic 
faith, for, as the decree states, "while 
displaying sincere love for youth, they 
corrupt their faith while pretending to 
purify it, teaching a conception of life 
above all churches and outside ev^ery 
religious confession." No Catholic can 
take part in the activities of these or- 
ganizations and hope to remain strong 
in his faith. Environment will soon 
assert itself. 

It is certainly time that we Catholics 
realize that these associations are not 
non-sectarian, in spite of the fact that 
they assume that character. They make 
it their proud claim that they aim at 
leveling religious differences and preach 
the "higher" Christianity into which 
the warfare of creeds will not enter. 
And in so doing, they have not only 
insulted, they have, through human 
kindness, weakened in the hearts of 
mothers and fathers and children, in- 
debted to their aid for physical help, 
the Catholic faith. It is idle to assert 
that the religious propaganda of these 
organizations should be overlooked, be- 
cause of the great good they accomplish 
in helping the needy. The concerns of 
the soul with a true Catholic are dearer 
than all other considerations, however 
humanitarian and necessary they may 
be, for the latter are merely an aid to 
the individual in the concerns of his 
short life here below. Catholics many 
times must choose between general wel- 
fare enterprises and their Church. 
When these general welfare enterprises 
interfere with the practice of their re- 
ligion, or when they are used for pros- 
elytizing purposes, the course of action 
of the sincere Catholic is plain. 

It was in the reconstruction work 
after the War that the Y. M. C. A. 
showed the true spirit that animated 
it. During the war, religious bias was 
less in evidence because of the many 
other outlets for the activities of the 
different organizations doing humanita- 
rian work. After the war, the Y. M. 
C. A. started a campaign of religious 
"reform," as thev called it, in the "be- 

nighted" Catholic countries of Europe. 
It expressed its purpose to refine and 
purify the religion already practiced by 
the people of these countries, and to 
show to young minds the way to more 
light out of the darkness in which the 
old Catholic faith of their fathers had 
enveloped them. They made use of the 
benefits that they offered the youth of 
these countries as channels of propa- 
ganda, substituting a "higher religion" 
for the old faith. "By teaching an easy 
sensuous morality of well-groomed 
manners, well-informed intellect, and 
respectable enjoyment, instead of the 
self-denial, humility, obedience to the 
precepts of Christ and the Church 
established by Him, the young may be 
weaned from the faith of their fathers. 
The outcome of the religious or moral 
teaching of the Y. M. C. A. is utilita- 
rianism, materialism, and rationalism, 
decked with the garments of Christ." 
Similar means of proselytizing are 
used by these organizations in this 
country. Catholics join them and take 
part in their activities at a great risk 
to their faith. They are just as Prot- 
estant as any Catholic organization is 
Catholic. Humanitarian work is only 
a means to an end with them, and the 
sooner this is realized by our Catholic 
people, the better. 

"All are urged by this Sacred Con- 
gregation to exert the utmost zeal in 
preserving Catholic youth from the 
contagion spread abroad by these or- 
ganizations, whose very benefactions, 
extended in Christ's name, endanger 
the Christian's most priceless posses- 
sion, the grace of Christ." Every Cath- 
olic should take these words of the 
Holy Office to heart. The Church re- 
gards it as her bounden duty to defend 
the faith from any movement that 
threatens its integrity. The Holy Office 
in the exercise of its function of watch- 
ing over the purity of faith and morals, 
bids all, clergy and parents of children, 
to safe-guard the young from the dan- 
ger with which in their ignorance they 
are threatened. F. Jos. Kelly 

Detroit Saninarv 



May 1 

Profit-Sharing In Hard Times 

The principles of profit-sharing and 
partnership for a great many years 
have had not only my close study, but 
with one change after another have 
been put into practice and operation in 
my own business. 

Often in reading papers and giving 
addresses on this very interesting sub- 
ject, and inviting questions, there comes 
up the inquiry as to what would be 
done when the company experiences a 
loss. The depression which has been 
existing in our business since October 
gives me an opportunity to answer this 
question more correctly than heretofore. 
I can truthfully say now, from experi- 
ence, that the principle of partnership 
has its greatest value during times like 
these, for everyone connected with the 
concern not only feels in a material 
way the adversity of the times, but they 
also relieve me by bearing part of the 
burden of worry and planning which, 
under ordinary circumstances, the em- 
ployer has all to himself, at night as 
well as day. 

During times of prosperity our em- 
ployes shared equally with the capital 
invested, in the ratio of their monthly 
and weekly wages, the profits which 
the company produced, and before the 
end of the year, when they were ad- 
vised of the actual condition of affairs 
and given details in figures of the loss 
which was being encountered, they 
were asked to make suggestions and 
recommendations as to what could be 
done to meet the extraordinary condi- 
tions existing. We found them mak- 
ing recommendations for the curtail- 
ment of the number of employes. Later, 
when there was no improvement after 
the first of the year, they suggested 
that inasmuch as the company had 
shared with them its profits "during 
prosperity they expected to share its 
losses as much as possible during the 
times of adversity, to the end that they 
accepted cheerfully a reduction in 
wages of 20 per cent, with the assur- 
ance that everybody connected with the 
firm in any capacity would make the 
same concession. 

Such curtailment of the force in 
numbers and reduction of expenses, 
under ordinary circumstances, creates 
disappointment and dissatisfaction and 
affects the morale of the whole concern. 
None of this resulted in our case, inas- 
much as we were acting on the initia- 
tive of our employes, who were fully 
advised of actual conditions. We were 
able in another month to bring down 
all of our operating expenses of all 
kinds to a reasonable basis of percent- 
age of our restricted business. 

Every normal business has had a 
reduction in volume and was con- 
fronting the same condition, or even 
crisis, as ourselves and losing money 
if the old 1920 schedules were main- 
tained. Being able to reduce these ex- 
penses to the extent mentioned, without 
in any way injuring the morale of the 
company, and keeping at work all of 
our older employes, is a most satisfac- 
tory achievement, all of which leads 
me to believe that the general scheme 
of partnership does stand the test of 
hard times. 

It might be interesting to know that 
in the curtailment of the force, as rec- 
ommended, the employes' committee 
felt that the company and themselves 
were not under the same moral obliga- 
tion to take care of the additional em- 
ployes who were employed during 1919 
and 1920 to meet the demands of the 
extraordinary business enjoyed during 
those years. Furthermore, another list 
was prepared of those employed during 
the previous three years who had no 
dependents. As the company did not 
deem it necessary to use any but the 
first list, it held the other in reserve, 
only to be used in the event "that the 
worst was still to come." 

We found that all of our employes, 
or as we term them, "partners," were 
fully appreciative, first of what had 
been done for them in the past, second- 
ly, of the present conditions necessitat- 
ing such changes as described, and, 
thirdly, that the integrity of the com- 
pany must be preserved like unto "the 
goose that lays the golden eggs," no 
matter if further reductions and econ- 
omies must be practiced. 



This spirit of industrial co-operation 
cannot be achieved in a day, and can 
only be produced by coming clean with 
-the facts and figures, so that everybody 
will know the actual conditions exist- 
ing to the same extent as the proprie- 
tors. There must also be a recognition 
on the part of the employer that the 
employes are a part and parcel of in- 
dustry, with rights of representation 
in directing matters on which their 
lives, their families and their future 
depend, and especially that they have 
a moral claim on their job. 

We, of course, have had the .advan- 
tage of having some plan of this kind 
in practice with our company for many 
years, and during times of prosperity 
secured confidence that must be the 
underlying fundamental of any success- 
ful industrial plan. 

P. H. Callahan 

Louisville, Ky. 

— — <$>~ 

A Queer Ad in a Catholic Magazine 

To the Editor: — 

We Catholics have a right to expect 
that our publications will feature ads that 
are at least not patently extravagant, 
exaggerated, and manifestly misrepre- 
sent facts. Moreover, a Catholic maga- 
z ; ne, devoted to the cult of the Blessed 
Virgin, is hardly the place to expect a 
furthering of inflated worldly ambi- 
tions. The Queen's JJ'ork has been 
featuring a one-page ad, which holds 
out the promise that an electrical 
course, taken by correspondence, under 
the direction of a Mr. L. L. Cooke, 
Chief Engineer of the Chicago Engin- 
eering Works, would bring to the stu- 
dent the title of "Electrical Expert" 
and enable him to "earn $12 to $30 a 
day.'' According to this bit of charla- 
tanism, "Trained electrical experts are 
in great demand at the highest salaries, 
and the opportunities for advancement 
and a big success in this line are the 
greatest ever known. Electrical Experts 
earn $70 to $200 a week. . . . $3,500 
to $10,000 a year ! Get in Line for one 
for these 'Big Jobs' by enrolling now 
for my Easily-learned, Quickly- 
grasped, Right-up-to-the-minute, Spare- 

time, Home Study Course in Practical 
Electricity." And so on, ad nauseam. 

Every one who knows conditions, 
realizes that these claims are largely 

Besides, it seems a bit strange that a 
magazine conducted by Jesuits, mem- 
bers of a recognized teaching order, 
should feature this "educational" ad, 
which proceeds to tell the reader that 
"You don't have to be a College Man ; 
you don't have to be a High School 
graduate." If this is not in diametric 
opposition to all sound principles of 
education and if it does not promote 
the get-rich-quick attitude, and the 
pagan time-spirit of exaggerated ego- 
tism, then there are no such things as 
falsehoods, fakes, and delusions. 

An Engineer 

K. of C. Correspondence Schools 

We are inclined to doubt very much 
the efficacy of the latest get-education- 
quick-and-easy scheme which the 
Knights of Columbus are attempting by 
means of correspondence. A report 
indicates that more than a million men 
and women are to be given educational 
aid in this manner. If thus carried out, 
the plan would constitute the largest 
correspondence school system in the 
world. We need now more than ever 
trained mechanics and skilled laborers. 
There is a surfeit of salesmen, clerks, 
business men, and the so-called non- 
producing class. Can vocational train- 
ing worthy the name be given by cor- 
respondence? Or, for that matter, can 
any kind of training be properly given 
by mail? Localized efforts of the 
Knights along these lines have certain- 
ly not produced any really valuable 
results. Or can we claim success when 
75,000 have been enrolled in 197 
schools? Is it not questionable ad- 
vertising by means of quantity produc- 
tion ? F. 

— After reading the Review, Iiand it to a 
friend ; perhaps lie will subscribe, and you 
will have done him a service and helped 
along the apostolate of the good press. 



May 1 

Some Aspects of Birth Control 

Every now and then some bureau 
or other discloses figures which show 
the relationship betweeen wages and 
infant mortality. Not so long ago the 
Childrens' Bureau, investigating condi- 
tions in New Bedford, Mass., discov- 
ered what is to be ordinarily expected, 
namely, that in the lowest wage group 
twenty babies out of every one hundred 
died before the end of the first year. 
In the highest wage group only six out 
of every one hundred died. America 
(No. 21) comments on this result as 
follows : "Poor home sanitation, con- 
gestion in crowded tenement districts, 
lack of adequate medical care, and a 
mother unable properly to care for her 
child, are the circumstances that in- 
crease to such an awful extent the 
mortality of infants. To this must be 
added the impossibility of a proper 
intellectual, moral, and religious train- 
ing for the children." 

It is on the basis of just such reports 
that the birth restrictionists make their 
efforts. The Catholic Church, however, 
stands like adamant against all immoral 
and abominable practices. The destruc- 
tion of life, the degradation of woman, 
and the indulgence of man are involved 
in "birth control." It seems strange 
that its advocates should wade into the 
mire deeper, rather than point a way 
out of the low-wage muck. This, as the 
report clearly indicates, is at the bottom 
of the difficulty. 

On the other hand, it does seem that 
Catholic apologists oftentimes leave an 
opening in their defense which makes 
the entire question seem hopeless to the 
ordinary observer. A statement like 
the following is the rule rather than 
the exception : "And who has not seen 
the beautiful unselfishness and generos- 
ity of the children of a family of seven, 
or, better still, of a family of four- 
teen?" ("Christian Marriage, a Sacra- 
ment," by the Rev. D. McBride, D.D.). 
It would be interesting to determine 
the munificient salary necessary to edu- 
cate and rear such a family at the pres- 
ent time under the conditions laid down 
bv the reverend author. ' 

He rightly insists on a proper in- 
tellectual and moral training for all 
children of all Catholic families. But 
is this the only aspect of this problem? 
Apparently not, to judge from the 
statistics quoted by another Catholic 
periodical. The underpaid laborer in 
the U. S. is rather the rule than the 
exception. Are we not flying in the 
face of facts, and leaving ourselves 
unprotected to serious attack from the 
radicals, when we continually repeat 
the bald, broad statement that a family 
of a dozen or more children is better 
than a family of two or three? Would 
it not be more in keeping with reason 
to advocate that Catholic parents, with 
the grace and cooperation of God, have 
families of such size as their means 
and condition in life will permit them 
to rear and educate in a way befitting 
the Christian home and according to 
the precepts of the Church? Are not 
the parental sacrifices of such a family 
sufficient, or are we to preach sacrifice 
at the expense of improperly trained 
children, whose defection from the 
Church in later life will spell spiritual 
ruin ? 

Meanwhile if all our leaders did a 
little earnest, honest propaganda work 
for a system of industry in which low 
wages did not always and of necessity 
predominate, the Catholic stand against 
the abominable practices of birth con- 
trol would seem more reasonable. We 
are not chary in telling these immoral 
reformers, or deformers, that the real 
difficulty lies in the low wage. It would 
seem then that the logic of our own 
conclusion would force us into active 
combat against Capitalism, a real and 
terrible enemv to the Christian family. 

—The Rev. Richard Downey. D.D., has 
republished his recent Month article on H. 
G. Wells's "Outline of History" in pamphlet 
form (London : Burns, Oates & Washbourne). 
The pamphlet is meant to be "an antidote to 
some of the chief errors into which Mr. 
Wells has been betrayed by his prevailing 
bent of mind." A still better antidote would 
be a readable and reliable history of the 
world, written from the Catholic point of 
view. Who will undertake it and clothe it 
in the attractive style that has made Mr.. 
Wells's "Outline" so popular? 




Shall We Cancel the Debt? 

The insidious propaganda for a can- 
cellation of the Allied war debt to the 
U. S. has found many advocates who 
insisted that this government should 
act as the world's good angel. There 
were two important phases of the pro- 
posed debt cancellation that its advo- 
cates studiously avoided. One was the 
fact that every one of the Allied coun- 
tries, with the exception of the U. S. 
and China, was being well taken care 
of in the way of indemnity from Ger- 
many. Furthermore, most of them — 
particularly England, France and Japan 
— have been awarded tremendously 
valuable mandates over former Ger- 
man-owned colonies. England, for in- 
stance, has been enabled to extend her 
influence in Egypt and Mesopotamia 
and to acquire absolute control over 
German East and Southwest Africa. 
France's sphere of influence, and like- 
wise Japan's, have been vastly increased 
through the provisions . of the peace 
treaty. In other words, allied Europe 
is gaining additional wealth by reason 
of its unjust seizure and appropriation 
of German properties many times in 
excess of the $9,706,000,000 that rep- 
resents the sum of their indebtedness 
to this government. 

The other important point was that 
if our government should cancel the 
$9,706,000,000 debt, the burden would 
fall upon the shoulders of the American 
public. The government of the U. S., 
of course, could not repudiate its obli- 
gations to the people in the form of 
Liberty Bonds. The government would 
have to add almost ten billions of dol- 
lars to its own national debt and in- 
crease the tax rate sufficiently to 
meet it. 

Would such a heroic procedure in- 
crease our foreign trade? It is doubt- 
ful. We should be increasing our 
tax burden and relieving our European 
competitors of a large slice of their 
own. Would not cancellation of the 
debt enable them only the more easily 
and more quickly to become dangerous 
competitors with us in South American 
and Asiatic markets? 

Before going any further with their 
propaganda, it is suggested that the 
debt cancellation enthusiasts experi- 
ment by cancelling some of their indi- 
vidual debts in order to get the proper 
atmosphere. If that were a necessary 
preliminary to advocacy of national 
debt cancellation, it is suspected the 
debt cancellation propaganda would 
suddenly cease. 

The people at large of the U. S. are 
justly and properly aroused over the 
proposal to cancel the approximately 
ten billion dollars owed to us by the 
European allies and their associates. 
Of course, the debt will not be cancelled, 
the American public would never stand 
for so absurd a transaction. Neverthe- 
less it is interesting as well as infor- 
mative to know that the entire cost of 
the Federal government, from its foun- 
dation to 1912, when Woodrow Wilson 
became president, was only about twelve 
billion dollars, and that sum includes 
the cost of all our wars and every gov- 
ernmental expense of whatever charac- 
ter. Those who favor cancellation of 
this debt would give away outright a 
sum that lacks only two billion dollars 
of totalling the whole cost of our gov- 
ernment from the day George Wash- 
ington became our first president down 
to the dav that Mr. Wilson entered the 
White House. Could a more striking 
comparison be employed to demonstrate 
the utter absurdity of the proposal? 

Under the present burden of taxation, 
the people have given manifestations 
of discontent, and the cancellation of 
the $9,706,000,000 war debt undoubted- 
ly would increase taxation heavily. The 
present administration does not insist 
on immediate payment of the debt, but 
wants it understood that payment is 
required. The terms of payment will 
be so arranged as to rest as lightly as 
possible on the debtor nations. No one 
can criticise this plan. 

(Rev.) F. J. Kelly 

Detroit Seminary 


—How about that new subscriber you 
promised to send us last year? It is still 
time to keep your promise. 




A Timely Protest 

Rene Viviani was allowed to occupy 
a pew with the French ambassador at 
Cardinal Gibbons' funeral in the Balti- 
more Cathedral, despite the public pro- 
test of Mr. John D. Moore to Bishop 
Corrigan, that the man was a notorious 
infidel and persecutor of the Church. 

We presume this could not be pre- 
vented ; but what are we to think of 
the conduct of Supreme Knight Flaher- 
ty, who, according to the Nativity 
Mentor, edited by the Rev. J. L. Bed- 
ford, D.D., rector of the Church of the 
Nativity, Brooklyn, N. Y., (Vol. 26. 
No. 4) escorted Viviani at the funeral 
of the late Cardinal, and of those K. of 
C. leadeis who entertained him as guest 
of honor at a dinner given in Wash- 
ington ? 

Dr. Bel ford justly protests against 
these doings on the part of certain K. of 
C. leaders, who, he says, are "gluttons 
for the lime-light'' and "love to get 
their pictures taken, to see their names 
in print, and to brush shoulders with 
the prominent and powerful — especially 
the latter.'' "There is," adds the fear- 
less priest, "grave danger that these 
men will wreck a fine society unless 
tbe members wake up to the fact that 
they are being deluded and used. Down 
the job-hunter."' 

Dr. Belford concludes as follows: 
"They are showing the country pictures 
of Flaherty posed with the Pope. Let 
them complete the work and show him 
arm-in-arm with Viviani. one of the 
worst enemies religion has had in one 
hundred years." 

A Catholic Teachers' Employment 

The Bureau of Education of tbe 
National Catholic Welfare Council has 
taken a step in the right direction 
by opening a Teachers' Employment 
Agency to assist Catholic schools and 
colleges in obtaining lay instructors, 
either men or women, and to assist 
Catholic teachers in obtaining positions 
in the U. S. or in foreign countries. A 
circular issued by the Bureau says : 

"Institutions needing teachers are 

invited to notify the Bureau of their 
needs. No fees are charged institutions 
for this service. College and school 
authorities are requested to bring this 
service to the attention of advanced 
students preparing for the teaching 
profession. Successful teachers of all 
grades and subjects, principals, super- 
visors, and superintendents are invited 
to register. Persons desiring to register 
should write to the Bureau for appli- 
cation blanks, enclosing a stamp for 
reply. A registration fee of $2 will be 
required of each applicant when the 
application blanks are returned. No 
commission on salaries will be charged. 
Address communications to the Na- 
tional Catholic Welfare Council, Bureau 
of Education, 1314 Massachusetts Ave., 
Washington, D. C." 

This is a very commendable measure, 
for no class of Catholics engaged in 
semi-ecclesiastical work is so neglected 
and so badly underpaid as the Catholic 
lay teachers. But why serve the insti- 
tutions, which are well able to pay, 
without charge, and exact a registration 
fee from the individual teachers, who 
are almost without exception men ( or 
women) with no resources? The serv- 
ice must be made free to the teachers 
if it is to be a success. 

The Mysterious Influenza 

Apropos of the paper under this 
heading in No. 7 of the F. R., the 
venerable Dr. L. Hacault, of Bruxelles, 
Man., sends us an interesting letter, 
from which we quote the following 
passages : 

In 1918 I had occasion to confer with 
a number of medical men on the in- 
fluenza epidemic, and all agreed that its 
most probable cause was the circulation 
of mephitic emanations from the mil- 
lions of corpses insufficiently interred 
on the battlefields of Europe, accom- 
panied by poor hygienic conditions and 
underfeeding. We all remember that 
some years ago, at the time of the 
eruption of the volcano Krakatoa, 
fumes, vapors, gases and minute cinder 
clouds were carried to various parts of 
the world. Note that the influenza 




epidemic started in Europe and spread 
from there to America, to South Africa, 
and finally to Asia and Oceanica. 

May I add that the mysterious plague 
seems to have been predicted centuries 
ago by St. Odilia, national patron of 
Alsace? In a letter to her brother 
Hugues, son of Alderic, duke of Alsace, 
written in the seventh century, the 
Saint wrote ( I quote from the Beau- 
chemin, Montreal, Almanack for 1917, 
pp. 347 sqq. ): "Around the mountain 
will flow human blood. It will be the 
last battle. The nations will sing their 
hymns of thanksgiving in the temples 
of the Lord for their liberation. Then 
will appear the warrior who will rout 
the troops of the victor, whose armies 
Avill be decimated by an unknown 
plague. This plague will discourage 
his soldiers, and the nations will say : 
The finger of God is there . . ." The 
influenza epidemic, we all remember, 
started among the victorious armies of 
the Allies and greatly hastened the 
armistice of 1918. 

The American Catholic Historical 

It is perhaps a too little known fact 
that there exists in the United States 
a "Catholic Historical Association'' 
whose purpose it is to foster the 
sludy of Church history in America. 
This body was organized Dec. 30, 1919, 
and under its direction is published the 
excellent Catholic Historical Review. 
According to Sec. Ill of the Constitu- 
tion, "Any person approved by the 
Executive Council may become a mem- 
ber of the Association. The annual 
membership fee shall be three dollars. 
On payment of fifty dollars, any per- 
son, with the approval of the Executive 
Council mav become a Life Member." 
Educated Catholic laymen and women 
should avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity to promote so important a study 
as that of the development of the 
Church in our beloved country. 

The love of historical studies should 
be cultivated early in the student's life. 
Unfortunately this is not the case, with 
rare exceptions, in the vast majority of 

our Catholic colleges and academies. 
The modern historical method is un- 
known and unused, though there are 
such texts as the "Outline of the His- 
torical Method*' by Dr. F. M. Fling, 
which is based on Bernheim's famous 
"Lehrbuch." It would seem that the 
arts and science course leading to the 
A.B. degree should at least include, in 
its history courses, an acquaintance 
with this absolutely essential study. 

In this connection, a perusal of the 
excellent Catholic Historical Review 
has more than once suggested the advis- 
ability of student branches of the Am- 
erican Catholic Historical Association 
in our Catholic colleges and academies. 
Technical societies make room for a 
junior membership, which consists of 
technical students in colleges and uni- 
versities. The plan is very successful. 
It serves to bring the best and most 
recent information to those directly 
concerned, and at the same time it 
builds up an enthusiastic body of future 
members. The American Catholic His- 
torical Association deserves the widest 
possible support. Through the estab- 
lishment of student memberships in 
Catholic colleges and academies it could 
confer an immense benefit upon our 
Catholic students. 

The Close of an Era 

The death of Cardinal Gibbons has 
called forth glowing tributes from un- 
expected sources. Of the outstanding 
liberal and even radical periodicals in 
America, the Freeman, the Nation, and 
the New Republic, head the list. It is 
interesting to note that the latter, anti- 
Catholic at times at least by innuendo, 
does not so much as mention the death 
of the Cardinal. The Freeman, how- 
ever, has outdone itself ; radical in the 
political field and a free-lance in mat- 
ters of religion, this scholarly publica- 
tion says among other things, comment- 
ing on the characteristics of the late 
Cardinal: "Great as a teacher, great as 
a citizen, great as a friend, great as a 
Christian, above all, great as a man; 
such was James, Cardinal Gibbons. . . . 
He was one of the most simple-hearted, 


May 1 

pious and Christian men that ever 
rilled an episcopal chair. In the midst 
of a careless and perverse generation, 
he walked worthily ; when all about him 
was at the utmost variance with the 
principles of true religion, he remained 
sincere and humble and patient. By 
living the life of the righteous, he 
earned the death of the righteous ; his 
life manifested the beauty of holiness 
and his death the peace of perfect as- 
surance. Expectat resurrectionem mor- 
tuorum et vitam venturi saeculi." 

The Nation in an editorial leader, 
entitled "The American Cardinal," 
after paying a generous tribute to the 
deceased ecclesiastic, remarks discern- 
ingly: "When we turn to consider his 
work and influence from a non-ecclesi- 
astical point of view, it must be said 
that on the whole they were reaction- 
ary. He was no pioneer opening up 
fresh paths of truth, no champion of 
unpopular causes. His voice was al- 
ways lifted on the side of the estab- 
lished order. ... Of the deeper forces 
of his age he does not appear to have 
caught even a glimpse. He gave no 
guidance to the minds of the rising 

Elsewhere in the same article the 
Nation remarks that the death of Car- 
dinal Gibbons "is an event of more than 
local importance, for it marks the close 
of a significant era in the history of the 
Roman Catholic Church in this coun- 

In expressing the desire that this 
might be so, we yield to no one in 
veneration for a prince of Holy Mother 
Church. But it is hardly to be expected. 
The ideas and ideals of the late Car- 
dinal are firmly intrenched in Catholic 
ecclesiastical America. Leadership 
equal to the present crisis is not in 
sight; and a true estimate of the old 
cannot be had until precipitated in the 
alembis of history. Observer 


A writer in The Freeman (III, 55), 

The "Rook of Mormon"' is never 
mentioned in histories of our litera- 
ture: the genteel tradition has quietly 

brushed it aside, along with the records 
of Mormonism itself, its rise, its pro- 
gress, its leaders. Yet the man who^ 
composed this solemn parody of the 
Rible, this Joseph Smith with his im- 
pudent cherub's face who walked with 
an angel and dreamed of a new papacy, 
is one of the characteristic figures of 
our history ; and Mormonism was as 
much and as logical a product of New 
England as any of those other move- 
ments of the delirious half-century be- 
fore the Civil War came and America 
"got down to business." 

This universal preoccupation with 
business has had the effect of imposing 
a false unity upon our life; it has im- 
parted an air of simplicity and com- 
prehensibility to the American scene, 
past and present, that is far from ac- 
cording with the facts. We speak of 
Russians as "queer" and of Africa as 
the "dark continent," but there is noth- 
ing queerer and darker than this con- 
tinent of ours, if one penetrates behind 
its mask. Our history, if we could ever 
frankly envisage the whole of it, would 
appear as a singularly fantastic spec- 
tacle. Who remembers that it was the 
dove-colored New England itself which 
produced (and in the same generation 
with Emerson and Whittier) not only 
P. T. Barnum, but Joseph Smith and 
Brigham Young? 

— According to the Christian Cynosure 
(Vol. 53, No. 12), which quotes as its source 
the Appendix to the Proceedings ot the 
Grand Lodge of Illinois, 1921, a new secret 
soe'ety has made its appearance in Nebraska, 
known as the "Knights and Ladies of 
Jericho." Its ritual "exemplifies Biblical 
characters" and the organization "is some- 
what similar to the Order of the Eastern 
Star," wh'ch, as our readers are aware, con- 
sists of Masons and their kin. The constant 
growth of secret societies is an alarming 
symptom of intellectual and moral decline. 

— "Perhaps some day," says the Nation, 
"there will be an enforced house-cleaning of 
the State Department, which will spread to 
the White House, so that we shall truly have 
done with those pernicious infants Wiggle 
and Wobble. At present they do not appear 
changed appreciably from the pair that has 
been in evidence for eight years, unless in- 
deed they have grown a little bolder, a little 
bigger a little more thoroughly at home in 
the last six weeks." 




Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

Thirtieth Installment) 

For many years they brought all their dead, 
30, 40 and 50 miles down, to the Catholic 
cemetery at Pocahontas. A trip to Pocahontas 
always meant for them an absence from 
home for three or four days, and certainly 
also a great sacrifice. Great was their joy 
when they were placed under the care of the 
Benedictines of Beatty, Pa. In this year 
Father Pius, O.S.B., finished the new church 
of St. Benedict, at Doniphan, Mo. The Arch- 
diocese of St. Louis had at that time many 
missions which were just as poor and iso- 
lated as any in Arkansas. The priest living 
in Doniphan had to attend a number of such 
missions. In order to attend White Church. 
in Howell County, Mo., he had to ride on 
a hack twenty-eight miles from Doniphan to 
Xeeleyville. From Xeeleyville he could reach 
with the Iron Mountain line Hoxie, about 
fifty miles south. There he had to wait for 
a train of the Kansas City and Memphis 
Ry., to take him about 100 miles northwest 
to West Plains, Missouri. From West Plains 
he had to go ten miles into the country, 
either on foot, or by wagon, or on horse- 
back, in order to reach White Church, situ- 
ated in the woods of Howell County. There 
was no town, — only a store, a blacksmith- 
shop, and a few houses. 

Father Pius attended this and a number 
of other missions with such regularity that 
one was tempted to attribute to him the Rift 
of ubiquity. There were two families living 
about twenty miles from Doniphan in the 
woods. He visited them regularly once a 
month, said Mass and preached as if it were 
a congregation, and gave the children in- 
structions. For years he preached almost 
daily, and very seldom twice in the same 
place in succession. Wherever he went, no 
matter how fatigued, he rose at four o'clock 
the next morning for his spiritual exercises. 
Though not a prohibitionist, he drank neither 
wine nor beer nor any other alcoholic bever- 
age. He did not smoke. He never used a 
rocking chair. In appearance he was always 
neat and clean, but very simple. He was 
generous, kind, and considerate towards 
others, especially the poor. Whenever he was 
asked to take a rest, he would smilingly re- 
ply that this would come soon enough. Xo 
wonder he enjoyed such high esteem among 
the people! The Methodist preacher of 
Doniphan. _ who was present at his death- 
bed, exclaimed: "If there still are any real 
saints on earth, this man was surely one." 

After this saintly monk had built St. Bene- 
dict's Church, at Doniphan, he invited Father 
Fuerst. pastor of Pocahontas, and myself 
to the dedication. The Right Rev. Msgr. 
Henry Muehlsiepen. V. G., of St. Louis, 
blessed the church, dedicating it to the glori- 

ous patriarch of the Western monks, St. 
Benedict. He celebrated the High Mass and 
I preached the sermon. Father Fuerst and 
I sang Leo Stoecklin's Mass in B flat; I 
played the organ, Father Fuerst accompanied 
it with his violin, and we sang the soprano 
and alto parts together. It was the best we 
could do. The people never had assisted at 
a High Mass there, nor did it happen again 
for many years afterwards. Father Fuerst 
had come in a buggy from Pocahontas, a 
distance of about thirty miles, over rough 
hills and mountains. But distance seemed not 
to count in those days. The few priests w^ould 
visit one another regularly and help out on 
any feastday. Priests living within a radius 
of a hundred miles were called neighbors. 
This dedication took place on the nth of 
June. 1890. 

On the 27th of July, the same year, the 
first reunion of the German Catholic Central 
Verein of Arkansas took place at St. Bene- 
dict's, Logan County, now Xew Subiaco 
Abbey. This reunion greatly advanced the 
development of Catholic life in Arkansas. 
The Logan County Anzciger, now the Arkan- 
sas Echo, of August 1, 1890, gives us an 
idea of Catholic activity in those primitive 
days. It says : "Favored by most beautiful 
weather, hundreds of German Catholic men 
on Sunday morning, July 27th, went to St. 
Benedict's, Ark., to take part in the first 
general meeting of the Catholic German so- 
cieties of the State, which at the same time 
also belongs to the Catholic Central Verein. 
A short distance from the Monastery of St. 
Benedict they stopped. The members of the 
different societies with their banners and 
emblems drew up in rank and file ; the differ- 
ent societies were represented by the follow- 
ing parties : Paris, St. Scholastica, Morrison's 
Bluff, Altus, Fort Smith, Atkins, Morrillton, 
Conway, Little Rock, and Hartman. With 
the sound of music, furnished by bands from 
Paris and Altus, the members marched to the 
place. At the school house they were received 
by the society of St. Benedict. The meeting 
of the delegates was opened with prayer by 
the vice-president, Mr. Conrad Elsken. After 
the roll call of the delegates, the society and 
the reverend clergy, represented by Very 
Rev. Father Prior Wolfgang Schlumpf, Rev. 
Father J. Eugene Weibel, of Jonesboro and 
Paragould, Rev. Father Gall D'Aujourdhui. 
and Rev. Matthew Saetteli, as well as the 
delegates, accompanied by bands and led by 
the marshal, went into the beautifully deco- 
rated church. High Mass was celebrated by 
the Very Rev. Father Prior, with Father 
Weibel and Father D'Aujourdhui, as dea- 
cons. The Rev. J. E. Weibel preached the 
sermon, to which the assembly listened with 
great attention and which pleased them 
greatly. The choir consisted of the Venerable 
Fratres. They are real masters of music, and 
their singing delighted those present. The 
societies felt indebted to them for the glori- 
fication of this feast. After the services the 



May 1 

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members of the different societies, the rev. 
clergy and the delegates went to the hall, 
where they were received with the most 
hearty welcome by the president of St. Bene- 
dict's Union, Mr. Schluettermann. The hall, 
150 by 95 feet, was decorated with festoons, 
inscriptions, and banners with great skill and 
taste. Father Gall D'Aujourdhni, who had 
directed the decorations, proved that he pos- 
sessed a great deal of the taste of his 
famous predecessor. Father Gall Morel, the 
celebrated poet and professor of esthetics. 
At the festive hall, a delightful view offered 
itself, for the tables were loaded with en- 
ticing food and decorated with flowers. It 
was evident that the Fathers of St. Benedict, 
under the supervision of the Venerable 
Brother Benedict, chief cook and butler, 
understand how to care for a man's body 
as well as for his soul. Afterwards followed 
the deliberations in the church, where a num- 
ber of practical resolutions were adopted. 
Little Rock obtained the votes for the next 
year's meeting, and Conrad Elsken was un- 
animously re-elected vice-president. This 
was followed by a lunch, seasoned witli 
several good toasts. The feast passed in the 
merriest mood, and together with the late 
meeting of the union of the Catholic young 
men of Arkansas, was one of the most popu- 
lar celebrations ever held in Arkansas." 

During this summer the Catholics of 
Jonesboro and Paragould were both active 
and busy, the latter finishing their new 
church, and the former building their school. 
On the 26th of October, 1800, the school- 
bouse in Jonesboro was solemnly blessed by 
Bishop Fitzgerald. It was a two-story brick- 
building with a basement containing the 
heating plant, kitchen, and dining room. The 
first story had two school rooms, separated 
by a folding door, and a stage. In the second 
story were four living rooms. It was a fine 
building. The Bishop was received at the 
Sisters' house, and led in procession to the 
church. Fifteen members of St. Cecilia's 
Union from Pocahontas, under the guidance 
of their beloved pastor, Father Fuerst, helped 
to enhance the solemnity by their splendid 
singing. There were also present Catholics 
from Paragould. Harrisburg. Hoxie. and 
Black Rock. Dr. Callahan. V. G.. preached 
a beautiful sermon in the morning, whilst 
Bishop Fitzgerald spoke in his usual fatherly 
way a t Vespers, praising the people for then- 
work and encouraging them to persevere in 

it. At the end of the ceremonies the Bishop 
with his sonorous voice entoned the "Grosser 
Gott," and for the first time the "Te Deum" 
was sung by 100 voices in German at Jones- 

On the next day his Lordship blessed the 
new church in Paragould under the title of 
Our Blessed Mother Mary of Einsiedeln. 
He sang the high Mass, with Dr. Callahan 
and myself as deacons. Previously Father 
Placidus, O. S. B., and I had given a week's 
mission at Paragould and several converts 
were received into the Church on that oc- 

This year the Forty Hour's Adoration was 
held for the first time in Jonesboro. During 
the first part of November, I preached a 
mission at Arkansas City, in the southeastern 
part of the State. The church there was a 
frame building. 60x24, with a tower at the 
entrance, a very neat altar and stations of 
the cross. In the spring flood of that same 
year, the water had risen from two to ten 
feet high in the houses, the people went 
about in skiffs, the Mississippi was sixty 
miles wide and the frame church, built on 
brick pillars, had been knocked off its foun- 
dation by some lumber placed under it, but 
was happily carried back by the same high 
water and a favorable wind, not even the 
tower being damaged. It certainly was a 
strange thing to see the church automatically 
going back upon its pillars. Whilst the large 
building was floating about, threatening to 
go down the Mississippi, a wag wrote upon 
the entrance door: "This church belongs to 
Askansas City, Arkansas; wherever it may 
go, we politely ask the people to return it." 
This inscription was still visible when I 
preached the mission there. When the high 
water came, every one thought first of his 
own salvation. The pastor. Father McCor- 
mack. was absent. When he returned, he 
looked through the windows into his church, 
another ark of Xoe ; his bed and books were 
still floating upon the waters. The people 
there were so accustomed to these inunda- 
tions that they spoke without any apparent 
surprise about the water's pranks. 

On November 28th. the Right Rev. Abbot 
Frow-in. O. S. B.. held a very careful canon- 
ical visitation of the convent in Pocahontas. 
His approving judgment proved quite a satis- 
faction to the Bishop and the young com- 

(To be continued) 




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— At a production of the film, "The Four 
Horsemen of the Apocalypse," based upon the 
novel of Blasco Ibafiez, a woman was heard 
asking her companion : "Do you know any- 
thing else this Ibafiez has written?" "Yes," 
was the answer, "another horse story, called 
'Mare Nostrum'." 

— A somewhat extended reply by our 
esteemed contributor "F." to Rev. Prior 
Stocker's criticism of his recent article "The 
Catholic Press Month" (F. R., No. 6) as 
well as several other intersting and import- 
ant articles had to be held over for the next 
number for lack of space. 

— The London Express has heard an amus- 
ing story of the association of H. G. Wells 
and W. E. Henley on the ill-fated New Rc- 
zHcw. This publication was anything but a 
success, and one day when Wells and Hen- 
ley were discussing its future, both became 
almost despondent. When their talk was at 
its gloomiest a funeral passed in the street 
beneath their window. Henley turned toWells 
and said: "Can that be our subscriber?" 

— The Indian Sentinel for April deals 
chiefly with the missions among the Crow 
Indians and is gotten up with the usual lov- 
ing care. There are a number of informa- 
tive articles and appropriate illustrations. It 
is too bad this excellent little magazine can- 
not be put into the hands of every Catholic 

in the U. S., for no one can read it without 
becoming interested in the cause for which 
it stands and which it so intelligently 

—The Ave Maria prints the interesting in- 
formation that the historical department of 
the N. C. W. C. has thus far collected the 
names of no fewer than 15,300 Catholics 
who gave their lives for their country dur- 
ing the Great War. About two-thirds of 
the number died overseas and are buried in 
France; the others died and are interred in 
this country. The total number of casualties 
suffered by the United States during the 
war— from April 6, 1017, to Nov. 11, 1918— 
was 103,740; and our contemporary esti- 
mates the Catholics among them at twenty 
per cent of the whole. 

—The new attorney general of Indiana, 
Mr. U. S. Lesh, has reversed the opinion of 
his predecessor, which excluded Catholic 
Sisters from the public schools because of 
their wearing a distinctive religious garb. 
He says that the wearing of a religious garb 
by a teacher is not a violation of the law, 
and the fact that religious contribute their 
earn ngs to a common treasury, to be 
used for religious purposes, does not make 
their employment in public schools illegal. 
This decision settles the matter for Indiana, 
unless the legislature passes a law to the 
contrary. This will probably be attempted in 
the near future. 



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— The supporters of the movement in favor 
of fixing the date of Easter are taking suit- 
able steps to ascertain the views and to 
secure the cooperation of the Holy See. 
After saying that the question has been 
"most courteously and kindly" considered by 
the Catholic authorities in England, notably 
by the Bishop of Salford, a correspondent 
of the Royal Astronomical Society, quoted 
in the Tablet, mentions that the staff of the 
Vatican Observatory has also been consulted. 
Obviously, unless the cooperation of the 
Holy See is secured, Lord Desborough's Bill 
can only create confusion. 

— It is no easy task to ascertain the true 
nature and aims of the organization calling 
itself Kiwanis Clubs. At a recent meeting 
of the Hyde Park Kiwanis Club in Chicago, 
according to the Evening American of that 
city, April 2nd. Mr. J. Mercer Barnett, of 
Birmingham, "International Kiwanis Presi- 
dent," characterized the Kiwanis as "a society 
of over 43,000 leading business men in Amer- 
ica whose motto is 'We build' " and added : 
"Kiwanis is Christianity so capsuled that the 
average man can take it." So the Kiwanis 
movement, as we suspected has a religious 
aspect. What sort of Christianity is it that 
this organization of 43,000 business men dis- 

— A number of pastors of small parishes 
have protested, in letters to the F. R., against 
the incessant "drives" and money-gathering 
campaigns at a time when most small 
parishes find it hard to meet their own 
expenses. "Instead of campaigning for social 
centers in large cities," says one of them, 
"let us first provide Catholic schools in the 
small places from whence most of the city 
population comes." Another thinks that, in- 
stead of establishing more or less useless 
"councils, clubs, etc., the authorities should 
try to organize the Catholic voters for the 
purpose of electing honest and trustworthy 
officials." These voices are worth listening 

— The tercentenary of the creation of the 
Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of 
the Faith, occurs on June 22, 1922. The his- 
tory of this remarkable organization, which 

ranks "only a little less in dignity than the 
Universal Church," is being written by a 
group of historical students, chosen by the 
present Prefect, Cardinal Van Rossum, and 
is to be published in book form next year. 
The Reverend Peter Guilday, Ph. D., is to 
contribute the chapter on the United States, 
of which he has given us a few introductory 
paragraphs in the Catholic Historical Review 
for January, 1921. Father Guilday is one of 
the most scholarly Catholic historians in 

— What is the next step in the modern 
development of Mariology? Undoubtedly, as 
suggested in an article in the Irish Theolog- 
ical Quarterly (Xo. 61) on the "Definability 
of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin," 
it is the conversion of the long established 
pious belief in the Assumption into a formal 
dogma. The dogmatization of the Assump- 
tion would embrace the facts expressed in 
the fourth and fifth glorious mysteries of 
the Rosary, i. c., the preservation of the body 
of the Blessed Virgin from corruption after 
death, the rehabilitation of her glorified body 
by the soul, and its assumption, in this con- 
dition, into Heaven. The article is suggestive 
throughout and the author hopes it will 
precipitate a theological discussion as a pre- 
lude to the definition of the dogma. 

— We see from the Daily American Tribune 
that Dr. Monsma and his friends in Chicago 
are trying to resurrect their "Christian daily," 
which went under so suddenly after a career 
of less than four months. Meanwhile, as a 
former subscriber of the Daily American 
Standard (that was the name of the paper) 
we are informed by circular letter that Dr. 
Monsma is preparing a book in which he will 
tell the story of the venture. It promises to 
be sensational, for the circular says : "We 
shall tear off the veil that is now hiding un- 
speakable conditions in the American church 
world. We shall tell the true Christians in 
this country what the hypocrites of this age 
have dared to do," etc. We wonder whether 
Dr. Monsma's book will reveal any essential 
facts that have not long since been uncovered 
by Upton Sinclair, the Nation, the Nezv 
Republic, the Freeman, the Echo, the F. R., 
and a few other independent papers. 




— As part of its exercises in commemora- 
tion of the 6ooth anniversary of the death of 
Dante, the University of North Carolina 
offered to the students a week's intense 
course in the works of the great poet. Six 
conferences were conducted by Prof. Grand- 
gent of Harvard, the students preparing for 
them in advance by group meetings and 
private reading. In addition to these lectures. 
Prof. Grandgent delivered an address before 
a large university audience on Dante and his 
poetry. The October issue of Studies in 
Philology, a quarterly journal of research 
published by the university, will be devoted 
to essays on Dante and his influence on 
thought and literature. What are Catholics 
doing to honor the memory of their greatest 
poet ? 

—The Rev. Dr. P. W. Schmidt, S. V. D., 
one of the foremost authorities in ethnology 
and comparative philology, will soon visit 
the U. S. to lecture on scientific subjects, 
for the benefit of the foreign missions. The 
journal Anthropos, which he founded in 
1006, has achieved a world-wide reputation. 
The great war has seriously retarded the 
work of the Fathers of the Society of the 
Divine World in New Guinea, China, Japan, 
and Africa. As practically all the Fathers 
were Germans or Austrians, the English gov- 
ernment proceeded ruthlessly against them, 
with total disregard of the fine work they 
had accomplished for the natives. Further 
information on the projected lecture tour 
of Fr. Schmidt can be secured by addressing 
the Rev. Fr. Bruno, S. V. D., Techny, 111. 

— The N. C. W. C. is doing a good work 
in its efforts for cleaner "movies." As a 
result of the work along similar lines by this 
and other religious and secular organiza- 
tions, some curb will no doubt soon be put 
on the production of salacious films. How- 
ever, it is well to remember that as long as 
this or any other form of entertainment is 
trafficked in for private gain, so long will it 
be abused. Poor human nature, weakened 
and debased by original sin, cannot be flat- 
tered into a virtuous state of wanting and 
demanding the higher and ennobling kind 
of recreation by exaggerated statements 
that such is its real desire. The films with 
the sex allurement will always be more 
profitable, and so long as this is true, under 
a system which conducts business primarily 
for profit, so long will the production of ob- 
jectionable films continue, by hook or by 
crook. Meanwhile, a sane and moderate 
form of control by law seems necessary. 

— Mr. Denis A. McCarthy writes us that 
he has put Mr. G. J. Knapp's letter (F. R,. 
No. 7) before Mr. Peter W. Collins and 
that the latter denied emphatically ever to 
have made the statement attributed to him 
in the Williston (N. Dak.) Herald, viz.: that 
"Socialists should be so treated that in a 
few minutes they will be scurrying into holes 
and corners to hide, or seeking hospitals to 
have their wounds dressed." Mr. McCarthy 
adds : "I naturally take the word of Mr. 
Collins, whom I know, against that of Mr. 
Knapp, whom I don't know. By this I do 
not mean to cast any reflection upon the 
honesty and truthfulness of Mr. Knapp but 
I suggest that there is a mistake somewhere 
in his apprehension of the facts in the case. 
. . . The appearance of an interview in a 
paper is not absolutely incontrovertible evi- 
dence that the person interviewed gave the 
interview as it is printed." This ends the 
matter as far as the F. R. is concerned. 

—Col. P. H. Callahan sends us a letter in 
which complaint is made that the F. R. fre- 
quently takes an attitude different from that 
of other Catholic publications and criticizes 
where others approve. Col. Callahan com- 
ments: "Some people, in fact the -bulk, ex- 
pect everyone to see eye to eye with them 
on everything." This mental (or shall we 
say: moral) defect is perhaps one of the 
main obstacles in the path of a really strong 
Catholic press. The writer who dares to 
express and defend his convictions in the 
face of great opposition is often lauded 
after his death : but, like Dr. Orestes A. 
Brownson, he is not properly supported 
while he is alive. Brownson is now highly 
praised, but during his lifetime he was never 
able to enlist more than eight hundred sub- 
scribers for his now famous Quarterly Re- 
view, in which he so often and so courage- 
ously opposed the errors and foibles of his 


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Literary Briefs 

—Of the English Catholic Truth Society 
pamphlets that have come to the reviewer's 
desk recently, several deserve more than a 
passing notice. "The Sisters of Charity Mar- 
tyred at Arras in 1794," by Alice Lady Lovat, 
is a side-light on the horrors of the French 
Revolution. The four martyred sisters, whose 
heroism is here related, were beatified on 
the 13th of June, 1920. "Why 'Separate 
Schools'?'' is an interesting account of the 
Church's struggle for proper educational 
facilities in Canada. The separate school is 
the right and duty of Catholics, according 
to the author, Father George Thomas Daly, 
C. Ss. R. In this connection we may also 
mention "Religion in School," by the Editor 
of the Sower, an excellent English contri- 
bution to the same subject. In "England's 
Breach With Rome," Cardinal Gasquet, 0. 
S. B., brings to the Catholic reading public 
the benefits of his more scholarly contribu- 
tions to Reformation literature. This popular 
pamphlet deserves the highest praise. 

—"A Year With Christ" by William J. 
\oung, S.J. (Herder), is a welcome addition 
to our religious literature. The author's 
method and the spirit which permeates the 
work is well calculated to bring "to the busy 
and preoccupied mind a momentary glimpse 
now and then, of the sweet and strong per- 
sonality of Christ as He appears on the vivid 
pages of the evangelists." Moreover, the aim 
of supplying our Catholic societies, and par- 
ticularly laymen's retreats, with suitable 
reading material, is most worthy and timely. 
J he laymen especially are in need of a litera- 
ture suitable for their peculiar needs. It is to 
be hoped that Mr. Young will continue his 
work and give us the English equivalent of 
Peschs Christian Philosophy of Life" 
adapted to the needs of the fast growing lay- 
men s retreat movement in America. 

—It has long been one of the oddities of 
German literary history that there was no 
biography of Ludwig Uhland. His widow 
Notter, K Mayer, and Professor Hermann 
Fischer (lately deceased) wrote "accounts" 
of the great poet's life, but they are all 
scrappy, shallow, and inadequate generally 
rhis was largely owing to the fact that 
fipMc p WaS pre - e ?" n «rt >'" at least three 
fields: Romance philology, German politics 
and German poetry. Hermann Schneider' 
Professor of German at the University of 
Berlin and successor, after a fashion* to 
End 'Schmidt, has now filled this wan by 

lin\ n/ 1 ' 1 : ' ( , ErnSt Hof «*nn u. Co., Ber- 
lin). Of this biography W. Oehlke after 

^v" n Tt°i ut a a , n T'; er of weak <** '" t 

or everv r 3 k *?* VF Gmna Il0me 

library" 7 " ^^ f ° r ever * German 

—A new batch of the penny publications of 
the Catholic Truth Society (London, 69 
Southwark Bridge Road) generally comes 

like a godsend. For more often than not it 
contains in brief something "we were just 
looking for." Some late additions to the 
fine series are "Freemasonry," by the Rev. 
Herbert Thurston, S. J. That name on a 
book or pamphlet means solidity and critical 
acumen. So we may confidently accept Fr. 
Thurston's summary of the question : "Noth- 
ing assuredly has happened in recent years 
which would warrant the Holy See in re- 
voking the condemnation long ago so wisely 
passed upon the deistic spirit of Masonry 
and upon its unjustifiable oaths of secrecy." 
Our educational experts are talking a good 
deal about child study, child psychology, 
etc. Do our Catholic teachers sufficiently 
realize the powerful appeal that Catholic 
truth and devotion and ceremony make to 
the young? At any rate such pamphlets as 
"Talks for the Little Ones" by a Religious 
of the Holy Child Jesus (C. T. S.) will 
prove inspirational to Catholic instructors 
of youth. A smaller C. T. S. publication. 
"With Jesus My Friend," conveys informa- 
tion in simple language about Prayer, Bene- 
diction, Our Lady, etc. "A Little Book on 
Purgatory," by Allen Ross, Priest of the 
London Oratory, explains that doctrine, 
brings out its consolatory aspect, and tells 
how we may help the Poor Souls. It is a 
multum in parvo. (The C. T. S. pamphlets 
are kept for sale by the B. Herder Book Co., 
17 S. Broadway. St. Louis, Mo.) 

Books Received 

Practical Philosophy of Life. Facts, Principles, 
Actions. By Ernest R. Hull, S.J. Editor of The 
Examiner, ii & 257 pp. 12mo. Bombay: Examiner 
Press; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Berder Book Co. 
45 cts. (Wrapper). 

Divorce. By the Rev. M. Ceslas Forest, O.P., Pro- 
fessor of Theology in the Dominican College of 
Ottawa. Translation and Preface by Dr. J. K. 
Foran. 171 pp. 8vo. Ottawa: The Ottawa Print- 
ing Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. 
$1 net. (Wrapper). 

The Greater Lore. By Chaplain George T. Mc- 
Carthy, U. S. Army. 161 pp. 8vo. Chicago: 
Extension Press. 

Soziale Arbeit im neuen Detitschland. Festschrift 
zum 70. Geburtstage von Franz Hitze. Dargeboten 
von Hans Frhr. von Berlepsch, Theodor Brauer, 
Goetz Briefs, Karl Dunkmann, Robert von Erd- 
berg, Ernst Francke, Johann Giesberts, Anton 
Heinen, Ludwig Heyde, Paul Kaufmann, Franz 
Keller, Joseph Maushach, Heinrich Pesch, August 
Pieper, Benedikt Schmittmann, Adolf Weber. 
260 pp. 8vo. M.-Gladbach: Volksvereinsverlag. 
18 marks. 

A Mill Tote, Pasto.: The Story of a Witty and 
Valiant Priest. By Rev. Joseph P. Conroy, S'.J. 
226 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. $1.75 net. 

The Missions o>i<l Missionaries of California. New 
S'eries. Local History. San Diego Mission. By 
Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M. xiv. & 358 pp. 
8vo. San Francisco: The James H. Barry Co. 
$3 net. 

Moss in Honor of St. Joan of Arc. For Mixed 
Voices. By J. Gruber (Op. 311 b). New York: 
J. Fischer & Bro. Score 80 cts.; voice parts, $1.20. 

The Church and the Problems of To-Day. By Rev. 
George T. Schmidt. 165 pp. 12mo. Benziger Bros. 

Thoughts on June. [Poems]. By Kathleen A. Sul- 
livan. Milwaukee: The Died'erich-Schaefer Co. 

The Fortnightly Review 



May 15, 1921 

Need of a Free Catholic Press 

An editorial comment in the Christ- 
ian Democrat for April, which should 
be pondered seriously by American 
Catholics, runs as follows : 

"The progress of the Church in this 
country [England] depends on the 
activities of Catholics. We ought to be 
continually inspecting our activities for 
the purpose of finding faults and mak- 
ing improvements. That admirable pa- 
per. The Sower is doing invaluable 
work by its constructive criticisms of 
our educational methods. It would be 
a good thing if we could have the same 
enlightened discussion of our charitable 
organizations. Masters of the spiritual 
life recommend a daily examination of 
conscience. On the same principle we 
would suggest a periodical review of 
our methods and equipment in practical 
works. The correspondence columns 
of our Catholic weekly papers are 
among their most interesting features, 
precisely because the function of criti- 
cism is performed there." 

We would recommend the above ob- 
servation to the serious attention of the 
reverend editor of the Little Rock 
(Ark.) Guardian, who takes us to task 
in Xo. 42 of his paper for a few words 
we wrote in the F. R. of March 15, 
concerning the Catholic Press Month ; 
namely, that "there are few independ- 
ent publications worthy of support, be- 
cause the guiding spirit of American 
Catholic journalism is a blind subserv- 
iency, than which there is nothing more 
unworthy of the liberty that makes 
men free.'" And to the statement of the 
Christian Democrat that "Masters of 
the spiritual life recommend a daily 
examination of conscience," let us add 
that the same masters of asceticism 
strongly insist on admonitors, admoni- 
tions, and public Ccommunitv) accusa- 

tion of faults. The value of this sort 
of criticism ought to be appreciated by 
our critic, who is a member of one of 
our oldest religious orders. 

In the course of a perfectly good 
column of literary sparring, we are 
accused of several serious logical and 
philosophical faux pas. We about con- 
cluded that these made up the greater 
portion of our "little piece," but on a 
second reading of our reverend critic's 
remarks and some hasty resurrection 
of school-day lessons, it seemed to us 
that we might survive, fit for future 
"independent" engagements. 

The writer imputes to us four terms 
in our argument, which, if they existed, 
would indeed vitiate the "syllogism" 
and the validity of the conclusion 
drawn. However it may be, we thank 
him for the opportunity to restate 
more clearly, and for his benefit syllo- 
gistically, the argument we were trying 
to make : 

True journalism demands independ- 
ence of the editor ; 

But diocesan organs are not inde- 
pendent ; 

Therefore diocesan organs are not 
representative of true journalism. 

We have called "Barbara celarent..." 
to our aid and are now of the opinion 
that the above is a true syllogism ; at 
any rate, our meaning is probably clear 
and the syllogism represents, moreover, 
— all non-essentials aside, — the gist of 
the argument between the Guardian 
editor and ourselves. 

Continuing true to scholastic form 
we offer the following as proofs for 
the respective members of our syllo- 

The major, "True journalism de- 
mands independence of the editor," is 
a self-evident proposition. People pro- 
claim it daily as they grow indignant 



May 15 

at the subserviency of the secular 
press ; for they realize that, to give the 
facts, all the facts and nothing but the 
facts, along with a competent criticism 
of them, the editor must be free and 
unfettered. It would be just as una- 
vailing and bootless a task to prove that 
literary criticism demands freedom of 
the critic, to prove that an editor should 
be independent. The very nature of 
both functions demands freedom. The 
publisher's review of a book would 
hardly be considered a criticism, 
though it might be very good "press- 
agent" material. Criticism, from the 
Greek word kri>w, to judge, demands 
a judge. A judge must hold a super- 
eminent position above all parties, so 
that, having had placed before him the 
facts on both sides of any matter, he 
may decide truly and fairly. 

Diocesan organs are not independ- 
ent in this sense. They reflect, as a 
rule, the attitude and frame of mind 
of the ecclesiastical superior of the 
diocese which they represent. That 
they have their place, we do not deny, 
just as the "house organ'' of a business 
or industry or a labor, prohibition, or 
Wall Street review has its place. But 
we should not look to the house organ 
of the Ford Motor Co., for example, 
for an unbiased opinion on the contro- 
versy between air and water cooled 
cars, nor to a Wall Street review for a 
true judgment regarding the "open 
shop" issue. It is just as unlikely that 
one would go to a diocesan organ for 
an unbiased criticism of a diocesan 
matter in which the respective bishop 
was directly interested or had given an 

Of course, the Guardian editor was 
not serious when he lectured us on the 
necessity of implicitly obeying the com- 
mands of the Church in matters of 
faith and morals and of the "intolera- 
ble arrogance" for a priest or layman 
of her community to "claim wisdom 
superior to that of the Church." To do 
so may be "intolerable arrogance," but 
to confound this statement with the 
issue under discussion, is certainly in- 
tolerable ignorance. For surely, though 
one believe that it were rash, to say the 

least, to go contrary to the social pro- 
nouncements of a Leo XIII, yet who 
will not say that there may be diver- 
gence of opinion, for example, regard- 
ing the application of the doctrine of 
the minimum or living wage? How 
vast is not the gulf between the plain 
statement of a doctrine and its prac- 
tical application in daily life ! WTio will 
not say that here there could be mighty 
conflicts of master minds without the 
imputation of "intolerable arrogance" 
to either? Now let us suppose that one 
of our American bishops had favored 
such and such an application of this 
particular doctrine. His diocesan organ 
would, of course, and rightly so, inter- 
pret and promulgate his personal views. 
It must be clear that under the kind 
of journalism our critic has in mind 
we should soon all be intellectual 

But let us make our meaning clearer 
by reference to an existing case. The 
Non-partisan League was at first a 
purely political movement. Not long 
after it began its activities in the State 
of North Dakota, it strayed from the 
purely economic highway and made 
excursions into the fields that deal 
with morals. The Bishop of Bismarck, 
seeing this, immediately became anx- 
ious, and after an examination declared 
that in his opinion the Catholics of his 
diocese should not identify themselves 
with the movement as then conducted. 
About the same time, the Catholic Cen- 
tral Society sent a competent investi- 
gator from the Catholic University into 
the field, who, in an excellent report, 
gave it as his opinion that it would 
probably be better for Catholics to take 
part in Non-partisan League affairs, 
in order to rid an essentially good 
movement of certain undesirable ad- 
juncts and dangerous leaders. 

Was independent journalism in this 
case worth while ? We do not know, 
for the Central Yerein may. in the 
end, prove to be wrong. Meanwhile an 
impartial review of the situation was 
had. and who will not say that this is 
always the foundation for a true judg- 
ment, and, we might add, of true and 
genuine journalism? 




The lack of any considerable amount 
of solid criticism, and of appreciation 
of its necessity, in the American 
Church bodes ill for the future. Amer- 
ican Catholics are not free in this sense, 
and until we are willing to say, as the 
Christian Democrat of England says, 
that "we ought to be continually in- 
specting our activities for the purpose 
of finding faults and making improve- 
ments." we shall not make any great 
advance as a community. The Catholic 
body in America at present is stagnant 
and lacks that intellectual vitality which 
would make it a tremendous influence 
in the present crisis. But so long as 
we insist on having all our criticism 
come "from the top" — which means, 
strictly speaking, no criticism at all — 
so long as we are satisfied to be lulled 
to sleep by official organs attuned to 
ecclesiastical ears, so long, as we said 
in our previous article, will the "guid- 
ing spirit of American Catholic jour- 
nalism be a blind subserviency, than 
which there is nothing more unworthy 
of the liberty that makes men free." 


Ordination Day 
By Lawrence M. Loerke, St. Francis, Wis. 

What rapture meet is yours today 
When God's high altar you ascend. 

Soft songs of angels flood your way. 
Unearthly sweet their voices blend. 

The longed-for day at length arrived, 
Fulfillment of thy fondest dream. 

The years of hardships safe survived. 
But as a passing cloud they seem. 

A Priest of God! what boon is thine 

To be His minister on earth. 
What power, to change the bread and wine, 

Each day renew our great Love's birth. 

Another Christ ! O blessed thought, 
To lift the fallen from the ground, 

The poor to comfort, mercy fraught, 
To give the deaf a warning sound. 

Go forth eternal Priest of God. 

In His high name proclaim the Life. 
Forget thy home, thy native sod, 

Stay pure and noble in the strife. 

This life is short, its days are few, 
Earth soon will be a dismal wreck. 

But thou in realms beyond the blue 
Willst reign with bless'd Melchisedek. 


To the Editor: — 

Your April 1st issue has just reached 
me. Having had experience of your 
fairmindedness on a former occasion, 
I once again crave the hospitality of 
your columns for a few words in reply 
to the Very Rev. Fr. O'Daniel. O.P. 

1. All the letters and papers printed 
in my book "Ex Umbris," except the 
Notes by Fr. Danzas, are to be found. 
I believe, in at least two or three other 
archives, besides those of the Province 
of Lyons; and these letters and papers 
are what Fr. Jandel expressly wished 
to be in the hands of every member of 
the Order interested in the great ques- 
tions involved. But I must beg to 
differ with Fr. O'Daniel when he de- 
scribes Foisset's Life of Lacordaire, in 
connection with the controversy, as 
"excellent and judicial." Foisset's 
work, in my humble opinion, was an 
cx-parte plea ; because extensive use of 
Jandel's Memorial is precisely what he 
did not make; and because, as for the 
important letters between the two men, 
he did not publish a single one! It 
seems that Fr. Lacordaire himself de- 
stroyed all the correspondence he had 
had on the question, and his biographer 
made up his mind to conceal it all too. 
"Je crois etre fidele, he says (Vol. II. 
p. 331). a sa pensee [i. e.. Lacord- 
aire's,] et a sa memoire en n'en repro- 
dnisant rien ici." But that is not his- 
tory ; for we read history not because 
we wish to be kept in ignorance, but 
because we want to know the truth. 

2. Not only do the Dominican Con- 
stitutions require the names of two 
Dominican censors to be printed in a 
book, but also the name of the Pro- 
vincial or Master-General (cf. num. 
1153.) But there are several things in 
the Constitutions which, especially in 
view of the New Canon Law, are no 
longer binding. I was given to under- 
stand that this was one of them, and 
I have not yet been told authoritatively 
that I am mistaken. Canon 1385 lays 
down that no book may be published 
without the permission of the Ordi- 
nary. A bishop in England, when asked 



May 15 

recently for his permission, deleted 
the name of the Provincial, saying that 
there should be only one Imprimatur. 
The principle, therefore, of preserving 
the names, it seems, has gone. This 
point, however, is but a side-issue ; for, 
needless to remark, "Ex Umbris" was 
not published without the permission 
of the Order, as the words Cum Supe- 
rior uin licentia, I should have thought, 
ought clearly to indicate. The names 
of the two re visors of "Ex Umbris,'" 
appointed by the Provincial, I will 
gladly forward to Fr. O'Daniel, if he 
really would like to know them. 

3. Lastly, I too willingly leave "Ex 
Umbris" to the judgment of its read- 
ers, for no one, I venture to believe, 
will be able to refute the principles, 
which a great General of the Order has 
laid down therein. I too am not afraid 
of any comparison being made with 
what other learned men have written, 
but recommend to students, especially, 
the works of Bl. Humbert of Romans 
and the letters, now easily obtainable, 
of the other early Master-Generals in 
the first and best days of the Order. 

Fr. Raymund Devas. O.P. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, England 

Congregational Singing 

To the Editor: — 

In answer to Rev. Dr. F. J. Kelly's 
article under the same caption in the 
F. R. of April 15, I would ask the 
question : "Where rests the responsibil- 
ity for the current neglect of the Holy 
Father's wish with regard to Church 

The reform in Church music, speak- 
ing in general, appears to have had a 
greater effect than we are usually will- 
ing to concede. Congregational singing, 
however, does not make any progress. 
As Father Kelly rightly states, it is 
"very desirable that the elements of 
the Gregorian chant be taught and 
exercised in the parochial school." 

It has come under the observation of 
the writer (an "old-timer" organist) 
that in a certain flourishing parish 
where Sisters and Brothers have the 

supervision over the parochial schools, 
not less than 24 different hymn books 
are in daily use. The boys use one 
kind, while the girls have a different 
kind. There are in use the following: 
Hellebusch, St. Basil's Hymn Book, 
Caecilia, Cantate, The Parish Hymn 
Book, not mentioning the numerous 
books used by Brothers and Sisters of 
the respective orders. "Ave Maria" is 
sung to the melody "How dry I am," 
"O Salutaris"' to the melody "We won't 
go home till morning," etc. How can 
such a congregation ever think of hav- 
ing congregational singing? The organ- 
ist — "poor boob" — has been trying his 
utmost to no avail. When he complains 
to the pastor he gets the answer : 
"What can I do in the matter," or, 
"That is the human element in religious 
life."' Here ends the organist's part. 
Next Sunday comes, he goes to the or- 
gan — not knowing what the good Sister 
or Brother will place before him. All 
he does is to play and try to follow the 
whims of the one who practised the 
songs with the school children. 

Instead of following the express 
wish of our Holy Father we find in 
many schools the phonograph as in- 
structor and the taste of the innocent 
children is spoiled by "popular" trash. 

Imagine fifty or sixty children in the 
fifth and sixth grade reciting their 
morning prayers in clear, distinct, sweet 
voices, followed by "I'm forever blow- 
ing bubbles," "Till we meet again," 
etc., etc. 

Need we wonder that those who are 
responsible for such crimes will criti- 
cize Singenberger's "Gregorian Mass," 
rendered in a creditable manner, by 
paying : "All we need in our church is 
a film, and we shall have a regular 
motion picture show"? 

As long as the taste for good Church 
music is not cultivated in the semi- 
naries, so long there will be no chance 
for betterment in that field. The good 
Sisters and Brothers will continue to 
do as they please. With some the 
Motu proprio and the express wish of 
the Holy Father are not worth the pa- 
per they are written on. J. B. 




Ven. Mary de Agreda and Her Alleged 
Miraculous Flights to New Mexico 

To the Editor: — 

In the F. R. for April 15, I read: 
"Father Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M., 
in the Franciscan Herald, upholds the 
authenticity and genuineness of Benavi- 
des's report concerning the miraculous 
flights of Ven. Mother Mary de Agreda 
to the Jumana Indians in New Mexico, 
early in the seventeenth century." 

Those of your subscribers who read 
the Franciscan Herald since last 
December, will be amused, mayhap 
amazed, to find me charged with up- 
holding Fr. Benavides's story. Let us 
set matters right. 

The Jumanas, who then dwelt a hun- 
dred leagues to the northeast of Isleta, 
New Mexico, claimed to have been 
visited for years by a beautiful "Lady 
in Blue." who urged them to call upon 
the missionaries among the Pueblos 
and to ask for admission to Christian- 
ity. Meanwhile, at irregular intervals, 
she continued to instruct the Jumanas 
in the Christian faith. Finally, in 1628, 
the Jumanas approached Fr. Juan de 
Salas at Isleta and told him of their 
remarkable experience. He accom- 
panied them to their country and found 
their people well prepared for the 
reception of Baptism. He urged them, 
however, to come and settle down in 
New Mexico. They did so, and all 
apparently became Christians. For this 
much of the case we are altogether in- 
dependent of Fr. Benavides. 

In 1629, Fr. Benavides went to Spain 
and discovered that the "Lady in Blue" 
was none other than Mother Mary. 
Abbess of the Conceptionist Nuns at 
Agreda. After several conferences 
with her, Fr. Benavides wrote his 
enthusiastic account of her flights to 
New Mexico. His version of the case 
is all that writers on the subject were 
acquainted with. On this they harped. 
and drew from it the conclusions that 
"harmonized with their notions. Far 
from upholding Benavides, and far 
from taking the part of a theologian, 
and much less that of an apologist, I 
■endeavored, like all solid historians, to 

ascertain the evidence of the chief wit- 
ness — Mother Mary herself. This is 
what all critics, your two correspond- 
ents included, should have done before 
passing judgment on the case with no 
other authority than that of Benavides. 

The evidence of Mother Mary I 
secured directly from Spain. It is con- 
tained in the work entitled Autentici- 
dad de la Mistica Ciudad de Dios y 
Biografia de Su Autora (Barcelona, 
1914). Details, of course, cannot be 
presented here. Suffice it to say that 
Mother Mary was summoned before 
the Inquisition nineteen years after Fr. 
Benavides visited her. From January 
16 to January 29, 1650, she was sub- 
jected to a grilling examination every- 
day, barring one, for three hours in the 
morning and three hours in the after- 
noon. During these days, eighty ques- 
tions were put to her. the greater por- 
tion of which concerned the conver- 
sion of the Indians. In places, Mother 
Mary complains bitterly of the inaccu- 
racies in Fr. Benavides's story, with 
which she had become acquainted only 
long after they had appeared in print. 
Some of the falsities and misconstruc- 
tions are reproduced in theFranciscan 
Herald. The result of the examination 
was that the inquisitors went away 
"filled with admiration and satisfaction 
as to the virtue, truth, and constancy 
of the servant of God," Mother Mary. 
The Inquisitors did not pass judgment 
on her flights ; but they did pass judg- 
ment, and that a very uncomplimentary 
one, on Benavides and others who 
abused their authority by representing 
her as saying what she did not want to 
say. She herself never asserted that 
she had in person visited the New 
Mexican and other regions of the New 
World. Still, she was aware of what 
was going on there. Whether she had 
been there "in the body or out of it," 
she did not know. 

All these observations are matters of 
history and not of theology. A solu- 
tion of the difficulty might be sought. 
however, and then we enter the prov- 
ince of philosophy, which looks for an 
adequate cause to explain a patent 



May IB 

effect. Last year, one of your corre- 
spondents gave it as his opinion that 
Mother Mary had simply entered 
dreamland, if I understood him cor- 
rectly. The other declared she had ob- 
tained her knowledge of New Mexico 
and its Indians through clairvoyance. 
What both ignore is the effect produced 
in New Mexico, namely the conversion 
of the Indians, which could not have 
been produced by dreaming about it 
five thousand miles away, and much 
less by the aid of a mental telescope. 
Both had only Benavides to rely on. 
They knew nothing of Mother Mary's 
testimony, otherwise they could not 
have offered explanations that explain 
nothing. Personally, as I stated in the 
Franciscan Herald (February, 1921, 
p. 116), "we believe that there is noth- 
ing incongruous for Him [God] to 
choose a frail creature to bring about 
the conversion of an apparently clean 
Indian tribe, which was harassed on all 
sides by infidel savages, and which 
seemed to be dying out, in order to 
save the remnant in the way it is re- 
lated." That is all the theology I put 
into it, and every Catholic will find it 
reasonable. As to the rest, the Church 
has not yet spoken. 

Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Apropos of a Queer Ad in a Catholic 

To the Editor: — 

Allow me to congratulate the writer 
of the article in your May 1st issue, "A 
Queer Ad in a Catholic Magazine," 
(signed) "An Engineer." That same 
question had often come to my mind, but 
I never had the courage to bring it up. I 
have noticed advertisements in many 
of our prominent Catholic publications 
'hat were absurd on their face. Catholic 
publications should investigate such ad- 
vertisements before accepting them, if 
for no other reason than to protect their 

Take our business, for instance. If 
a man is disappointed with a misrepre- 
sented advertisement, that settles him 
for a long time to come in purchasing 

through that source. Not only he suf- 
fers, but eventually the publication, too, 
because the honest advertiser will not 
receive any adequate returns, and 
naturally drops out. 

Our cigar business is a mail-order 
proposition with a card index follow-up 
system. We are now running 22,000 
names with 3,000 added each year, and 
are just receiving returns from literature 
started six years ago. The majority of 
the returns average from three to five 
years. (These people are called on at 
regular intervals). Our records show, 
and it goes to prove that the public 
is so misled by exaggerated advertise- 
ments that it takes time to gain their 
confidence. If the public would only use 
their thinking cap and reason that it 
lakes two and two to make four, and 
that nobody can produce something for 
nothing, men would not be so easily 

A. M. Wagner 
Buffalo, X. Y. 

To the Editor: — 

Apropos of "A Queer Ad in a Cath- 
olic Magazine" (F. R., No. 9) may I 
be allowed to ask "An Engineer" the 
following question ? Did you ever study 
L. L. Cooke's Correspondence Course? 
I may be mistaken, but I am absolutely 
convinced that a student having master- 
ed the course thoroughly, and having 
had some practical experience, could 
command a vearlv salarv of from 
$3500—10,000," considering that I had to 
pay to wire-splicers, calling themselves 
electricians, $1.60 per hour. One does 
not have to be a college man or a high 
school graduate to start the course, but 
he will miss a high school or college 
education before he has finished the 
tenth lesson. 

[Rev.] John Nigg, O.S.B. 
(Graduate of C. E. W.) 
JVindtliorst. Tex. 

* * * 

To the Editor : 

In the F. R. for May 1st there ap- 
peared a timely article under the head- 
ing, "A Queer Ad in a Catholic Maga- 
zine." The writer pointed out an abuse 
which has, to some extent, crept into 




the advertising columns of Catholic 
magazines and newspapers. It is true 
that a good deal of present-day adver- 
tising tends to exaggerate, and often- 
times facts are misrepresented. By this 
ruse many unwary readers are induced 
to take advantage of the offers made 
with the result that time and money 
are wasted on false propositions which 
are not able to produce the effects 

But there is another kind of adver- 
tising, appearing of late in Catholic 
newspapers, which produces results even 
more serious than those of exaggerated 
advertising. Ads featuring film pro- 
ductions of a doubtful character and 
pictures of society "belles'' dressed in 
the all too scanty attire of modern 
fashion, should not appear in Catholic 
papers. Readers are influenced in no 
small degree when they see a motion 
picture advertised or a certain kind of 
dress sanctioned by a Catholic paper. 

But we must not be too severe in our 
criticism of Catholic newspapers and 
magazines. For the past few. years 
they have had to fight against great 
odds and frequently the enormous cost 
of publication has almost forced them 
to run ads which would not have been 
considered in more prosperous times. 
It would be better, however, both for 
the Church and the interests of ;he 
paper itself, to carry a grade of adver- 
tising that defies criticism. The Catho- 
lic Church is the great teacher of truth 
and righteousness and all her colaborers 
should work in harmony, whether they 
be active teaching ministers or silent 
missionaries who teach through the writ- 
ten page. 
Milwaukee, Wis. ^^^^ J- J- B - 

— The spirit of the Red Cross in France 
and Belgium is one of intolerance. The Lon- 
don Daily Herald (April 6) reports from 
Geneva that when the international Red 
Cross Conference, lately held in that city. 
refused to exclude the German representa- 
tives from its meetings, - the French and Bel- 
gian delegates absented themselves. The con- 
ference showed its disapproval of this un- 
generous act by unanimously passing a reso- 
lution which calls upon all nations "to com- 
bat the war spirit that still hovers over 
the world." 

Godless Accounts of Religious Events 

To the Editor: — 

Instead of whining about the scant 
space given to Catholic doings by the 
secular press, our Catholic editors ought 
tc shake off their materialistic and 
pagan style of treating current religious 
events. In writing of a new church, for 
instance, the average Catholic editor 
minutely gives the dimensions, building 
material, cost, donors of windows, etc., 
and the picture of the pastor who 
"erected a lasting monument to him- 
self," but says not a word about the 
Eucharistic Christ — the great Dweller 
in the "house of God." 

If the theme is the consecration of 
a new bishop, the Catholic editor usual- 
ly adds to his hurriedly gathered bio- 
graphical data, choice bits from the con- 
secration sermon, telling of the noble 
deeds that "foreshadowed the deserved 
promotion," but not a word about the 
Epistle to Timothy and other sacred 
expositions of the mutual duties of 
bishops, priests, and people. A ban- 
quet with its menu and "toasts," usually 
"crowns the celebration." The idea of 
promotion is so strongly emphasized in 
our Catholic press that John the Baptist 
would almost look ridiculous should he 
suddenly appear in one of our sanctua- 
ries, saying : "There cometh one after 
me, whose shoes of his feet I am not 
worthy to loose. Men, brethren, and 
whoever among you fear God, to you 
the word of salvation is sent." (Acts, 

What an antipodal difference between 
our Catholic editors and the sacred 
writers who reported great religious 
events in the beginning of the Church. 
"Ye men of Israel," said St. Peter at 
the first Christian Pentecost, "hear 
these words : Jesus of Nazareth, whom 
you, by the hands of wicked men, have 
crucified, is risen again. Do penance 
and be baptized every one of you." 
(Acts, 2.) Men, even baptized ones, are 
still crucifying Christ by their sins; and 
a preacher might be tolerated saying 
from a pulpit : "Do penance, every one 
of you;" but it would hardly be con- 
sonant with the conceit of our "self- 



May li> 

made" and comfortable pious readers to 
be told this same thing in cold print. 

Naturally the secular press, whenever 
it "features" some Catholic event, close- 
ly follows in the footsteps of the Cath- 
olic editor, and confines its accounts to 
materialistic aspects, with every vestige 
of Christ or the Redemption eliminated. 
The secular editor or reporter, ac- 
customed as he is to render his "stories" 
more palatable to an undiscerning, 
sluggish-minded, and gullible public, by 
freely adding to them "color," incidental 
embellishment, and vraisemblancc, has 
the best of the religious editor, who 
is expected to be at least truthful. The 
highest officials of the Church are made 
to submit to this pagan treatment. Thus, 
the noteworthy papal statement which 
the newsgatherers sent out concerning 
the appointment of Cardinal Dougherty, 
was an expression of thanks for three 
American silk flags donated for the oc- 
casion by an American millionaire mer- 
chant. Our dailies duly announced that 
one hundred Philadelphians were to go 
to New York to greet the new Cardinal, 
and that the welcoming delegation, con- 
sisting of several hundred, would "as- 
semble in the hotel. . . .for breakfast on 
Wednesday at 6 A.M." In copying this, 
Catholic editors ought to have added 
that most if not all the priest delegates 
said Mass, and that many, if not most 
of the lay delegates received Holy Com- 
munion that morning. 

Said one daily : "The delegation will 
go in two boats, the John F. Hylan and 
the Correction. At quarantine his ma- 
jesty will be taken aboard the former." 
Catholic editors will hardly notice the 
incongruity of "his majesty" under a 
"red hat." because everything "goes" 
where "nothing is too good or too grand 
for the occasion." To keep within the 
spirit of the orthodox color, the press 
made much of red lights, red flowers, 
and red fires in connection with the two 
•.-pecial trains carrying the Cardinal with 
a delegation of 800 from New York to 
Philadelphia. To cap the climax of the 
"affair," the secular press announced: 
"The dinner to be given in honor of the 
Cardinal by the 4th degree K. of C. 

will be the biggest banquet in the his- 
tory of the Order." 

In these disastrous times, when entire 
nations are in agony because they are 
religiously bankrupt, and when America 
itself threatens to descend to a worse 
than pagan sensuality, the Catholic 
press ought to be made to teach faith 
and morality at every religious celebra- 
tion. If editors cannot detect any re- 
ligious features in our Catholic festivi- 
ties, our nascent Catholic schools of 
journalism may be of great service. Of 
course, the Catholic editor excuses him- 
self on the ground that he must "keep 
his nose to the grindstone" to make a 
living ; and the Catholic reader, that 
his religious paper is not worth sub- 
scribing for ; but God always provides a 
remedy, as he provided a ram for Abra- 
ham's sacrifice. "Whether you eat or 
drink, or whatever else you do, do all 
to the glory of God." (II Cor. 10:31). 
If we are asked to eat for the glory 
of God. how much more should every 
account of a religious function give, not 
only glory to men, but a modicum of 
honor «to God? G. Z. 
— <s>-~ 

Severe Judgments Upon Psycho- 

Condemnatory criticisms of the va- 
garies of the Freudian psycho-analytic 
methods are accumulating on all sides. 
One of the enthusiastic disciples of 
Freud has come to grief by a hard and 
fast application of the theories of the 
master to literature. In strict keeping 
with the latter's guiding motif, the 
writer, Albert Mordell, entitles his book 
"The Erotic Motive in Literature." 

The Times Literary Supplement 
(London) comments as follows on this 
book : 

"In this book psycho-analysis is seen 
trying to digest literature. We say ad- 
visedly 'trying,' for while the swallow- 
ing capacity of the infant science is 
enormous, it does not digest some 
morsels without effort. . . . Whether 
you love happily or unhappily, psycho- 
analysis will find you out. But a good 
deal of the weight imposed by Mr. 
Mordell's book was dissipated when 




we found that his method was only a 
tortuous way of saying that authors 
wrote of what interested them most. 
To bring this familiar fact within the 
scope of psycho-analysis, terms like 
"repression' and 'unconscious' must be 
freely stretched. Eventually the re- 
pressions and reactions are found to 
include conscious processes of which 
writers and their readers may be quite 
aware. The most convincing of Mr. 
Mordell's interpretations seem to us to 
depend upon close reading rather than 
psycho-analysis. That would not ac- 
count, of course, for the sexual symbols 
and the erotic clue, but we are really 
tempted to say that this obsession points 
to a complex in the theorists them- 
selves. In any case it has nothing to 
<lo with the value of a work of art." 

It seems that the traces of "a com- 
plex in the theorists themselves" will 
account for a good deal of this Freu- 
dian and pseudo psycho-analytic writ- 
ing. For if we rest the case with the 
.ardent disciples of Freud, there is abso- 
lutely no manifestation of the life of 
the spirit which is not capable of sexual 
interpretation. The good sense of man- 
kind will rebel against such a forced 
explanation and rather look for "ob- 
sessions" in the minds of the theorizers 

At least one eminent French psychol- 
ogist finds that the Freudian theorizers 
everywhere look for the "germs" of 
"forbidden complexes" that dominate 
their own minds. In a letter to the 
editor of the Nation (Dec. 7, 1916), 
Professor Frank Angell of Stanford 
University said : "There are several 
reasons why psychologists have been 
unwilling to mix in the Freudian mess 
"besides a healthy objection to nastiness 
in general. One of these reasons is 
nicely expressed by the revered Yves 
"Delage. He says: Tn my judgment, if 
in all these psycho-analyses is found 
that mess of sexual complexes whence 
has arisen the idea of pan-sexualism, 
the reason is that the psycho-analysts 
are chiefly persons in whom these com- 
plexes were most active. There is, in 
fact, frequent occasion in the practice 

of psycho-analysis to thrust to the fore 
one's sexual complexes under the sin- 
cere and honest guise of medical prac- 
tice.' " 

Mr. Angell comments as follows: 
"An argumentum ad homincm on this 
subject is not one that most people 
would care to make. Nevertheless I 
presume it an opinion that not a few 
psychologists have, and that they will 
not be sorry to have it voiced by a 
psychologist of the age and reputation 
of Delage." 

But to return to our literary psycho- 
analyst. Mr. Mordell is evidently an 
unsound guide to literary appreciation, 
judging from the criticisms that have 
been written on his book. The re- 
viewer in the Times concludes with 
these words : 

"The book pursues its way with such 
irrelevance to this value [of a book as 
a work of art] that it was a surprise 
to find the author confessing at the 
end that art has a magic beauty, and 
literature is a reality in itself. We 
agree with him as to the personal inter- 
est of art. But then the artist must 
express himself as a person; merely as 
the victim of a complex he expresses 
nothing. Even the sweet germination 
of an idea and its unconscious develop- 
ment at intervals are very different 
activities from Mr. Mordell's 'uncon- 
scious,' which is chiefly pathological. 
The unconscious may become a thrill- 
ing business in the consulting room ; 
but after reading these pages we are 
bound to say that as a guide to litera- 
ture it is a bore." 

We can hardly expect, therefore, 
any revolutionary discoveries from the 
rigid application of psycho-analysis to 
human activities, at least not for many 
a year. In fact, it may turn out that 
many of the widelv-heralded results of 
modern psycho-analysis have been fore- 
shadowed in the "psychology of the 

Albert Muxtsch, S.J. 

— Tlie general inanity of the "movies" is 
largely attributed to the fact that the produ- 
cers have tried to please too many people, 
and have succeeded in doing so. 



May 15 

The First White Converts in North 

In 1610, on the 24th of June, the first 
Indians were baptized in North Amer- 
ica, north of Florida. Port Royal, now 
Annapolis, in Nova Scotia, was the site 
where this memorable event took place. 
The first Indian converts were Member- 
ton, principal chief of the Micmacs, and 
twenty other Indians of the same tribe, 
whom Father Jesse Fleche, a French 
secular priest, baptized as the first fruits 
of God's harvest on that summer day. 

Regarding the first conversion of 
Protestants to the Catholic Church on 
American soil we are not so well in- 
formed. The secular priests and the 
Franciscans and Jesuits who had been 
laboring in Canada from 1604 to 1629, 
do not report any converts gained 
among the few Huguenots living in that 
country. In 1629 all Catholic priests 
were carried off by the English when 
they took possession of Acadia and 
Canada. Sir William Alexander, later 
Earl of Stirling, in 1629, established at 
Port Royal a colony consisting of na- 
tives of Scotland. Three years later 
Acadia was restored to the French. As 
soon as the French commander de Ra- 
zilly arrived at Port Royal, in the sum- 
mer of 1632, Captain Forrester, the 
Scotch commander, surrendered the 
place to him. 

The Scotch colony was at that time in 
an extremely feeble state. To most of 
its members, therefore, the order to re- 
turn to their native land was most wel- 
come. A few, however, decided to re- 
main and cast their lot with the French, 
who were come to occupy the country. 

These Scotch families who remained 
in Acadia in 1632 became entirely lost 
amid the French population in the 
course of one generation, and they are, 
to all appearances, the first white con- 
verts to the Catholic Church in North 
America. Cardinal Richelieu had ex- 
pressly stipulated that only Catholic 
Frenchmen were allowed to settle in 
Acadia, and the new commander, Isaac 
dc Razilly, a Knight of Malta and near 
relative of the Cardinal, carried out this 

injunction with the greatest diligence. 
Accordingly not a single Protestant set- 
tier was to be found in that colony from 
1632 to 1650. The Scotch settlers, 
therefore, who remained in the country 
in 1632, must have embraced the Cath- 
olic faith. We know that three families, 
possibly four, did not leave the country 
in 1632 and were soon merged in the 
French population. The names of them 
are known — Colson, Paisley and Mei- 
lanson. The spelling of the latter name 
was changed into the French form Me- 
lancon ( Richard, "Acadia," I, pp. 29 
sq.). These Scotch settlers "undoubt- 
edly mingled their blood with that of the 
Acadians, all Frenchmen and Catholics, 
and became the founders of Acadian 
families which still exist in Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick." (Hannay, Cana- 
dian Archives, 1905, I, p. viii). The 
Melangon family became very numerous 
and important. Another family name 
occurs, with the curious spelling of 
"Kriessy" or "Kuessyy' which might be 
a corruption of a Scotch name. The 
Colsons and Paisleys had no male issue 
and became extinct in the male line some 
time before 1671, while the Melanqons 
are numerous among modern Acadians. 
The first census of the Acadians, com- 
piled in 1671. records a daughter of Col- 
son married to Gaudet and having one 
son, likewise a daughter of Paisley mar- 
ried to Pitre and having a son. Accord- 
ingly, those three Scotch families are 
still in existence with a large progeny. 
The New Englanders who put the de- 
ported Acadians to the greatest indig- 
nities at Boston, in 1755, during the war 
between England and France, had not 
the slightest idea that some of those in- 
sulted papists were their own kin, able 
to trace their pedigree back to ancestors 
who had emigrated from Scotland in 
1629 and 1630. 

Since Catholicism was virtually 
stamped out in Scotland in those days, 
these Colsons, Paisleys and Mellansons 
at Port Royal or Annapolis are probably 
the first converts from Protestantism in 
North America. If the church records 
of those davs should turn up somewhere 




ill France, as there is reason to hope, we 
shall undoubtedly be informed about the 
exact dates of their conversions and 
learn the name of the Capuchin mis- 
sionary who received those first con- 
verts into the church at Port Royal in 
1632. J. L. 

Comparative Religion — Its Use and 

Father Ernest R. Hull, S.J., in a pa- 
per in the Bombay Examiner (Vol. 70, 
Xo. 14), makes some timely remarks 
about the science of comparative reli- 
gion, its use and abuse. 

Comparative religion, he says, is 
the clumsy, though expressive, name 
for a science of recent origin, which un- 
fortunately has acquired for itself a 
bad reputation. The term seems to 
have come into vogue more or less in 
this way. Formerly people used to 
study different religions separately, and 
this was called the "Study of Religion." 1 
In more recent times they began to com- 
pare one religion with another, and 
this was called "Comparative Study of 
Religion.'' Then the parts of the name 
got dislocated like the "lumena pas 
tecum fi" inscription, and so it became 
the "Study of Comparative Religion" ; 
and finally we got to "Comparative Re- 
ligion," tout court. 

Comparative religion is a science just 
as much as physics or biology. Its ele- 
ments are: (1) An analysis of the con- 
tents of different religions; (2) A com- 
parison showing likenesses and differ- 
ences; (3) a search into the origin of 
likenesses and differences; (4) conclu- 
sions drawn as to their connection and 

Comparative Religion, we have said, 
has got a bad name among the ortho- 
dox, because it has been taken up most 
energetically by rationalists, sceptics, 
materialists, and evolutionists, and 
turned into an argument against the 
truth of religion in general, and against 
the divine origin of Christianity in par- 
ticular. The greatest stress has been 
laid on the debased elements of various 
religions, while the nobler features are 
ignored; and the origin of all religion 

has been variously ascribed to such 
causes as (1) a fanciful endeavor to 
interpret the wonders of nature ; (2 ) 
awe and dread of nature's hurtful 
forces, and appreciation of nature's 
benefits, both personified into demons 
or gods ; (3) nightmares and dreams ; 
(4) incantations and magic ; (5) totem- 
i^m ; ( 6 ) animism ; and where these fail 
resort has been had either to (7) hero- 
worship or ( 8 ) worship of the dead 
and so on. These ideas, they say, grad- 
ually gave rise to myths ; and theology 
was merely an abstract expression of 
the ideas underlying these myths. 

There is so much truth in some of 
the.->e contentions, as regards savage 
and archaic religions, as to give ex- 
treme plausibility to certain theories, 
which were partly assumed at the be- 
ginning of the investigation, and partly 
deduced therefrom. Those theories 
were: ( I) that religion is throughout a 
subjective product of the human mind 
without divine or supernatural basis; 
and ( 2 ) that Christianity is merely one 
among the rest ; a theology based on 
mvlhology, and nothing more. 

Thus the Christian apologist has his 
work cut out for him, not merely to put 
forth the ordinary credentials of Chris- 
tianity , but also to refute the conclu- 
sions of comparative religionists by 
taking up the alleged facts, and either 
exploding them as false, or, if true, 
showing that they do not support the 
destructive conclusions of the critics. 

The study of Comparative Religion 
has meantime been of great service to 
the cause of religious truth by confirn,- 
ing, in a manner unknown to our ances- 
tors, the argument of the consensus hu- 
manus. namely, that the truth of reli- 
gion is proved by the universal belief 
of the human race. Formerly the ra- 
tionalists used to play the mischief with 
this argument, by claiming to have 
found many savage tribes who pos- 
sessed no religious ideas at all ; and 
then they tried to dispose of a number 
of other cases by alleging that religious 
ie'eas had filtered in from Christian 
missionary sources. Closer investiga- 
tion, however, has practicallv disponed 
of these two allegations. Tribes alleged 



May 15 

Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. 
The text lays down solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these principles, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 

The booklet has been highly recommended by experts and members of the hierarchy and clergry who have made 

the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by thi professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post free 

Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

to be devoid of all religious ideas were 
found on examination to possess them 
quite clearly ; while, in other cases, 
the alleged missionary influence could 
be eliminated, and still leave a residuum 
of traditional religious knowledge. 

Many important contributions have 
been made to this new science by Cath- 
olic missionaries, and Fr. Hull calls 
especially upon those engaged in India 
to devote their leisure hours to the 
problems raised by modern Rationalism 
in connection with comparative religion. 

immense energy, great if not supreme 
ability, and the desire, almost realized, 
to be a saint. Was there more than 
that in him? 

Shane Leslie's Book on Manning 

We agree with the Manchester 
Guardian ( weekly edition. Vol. IV, 
No. 15) that Air. Shane Leslie's 
"Henry Edward Manning: His Life 
and Labours" ( Burns, Oates & Wash- 
bourne) is a disappointment. The style 
is defective and. what is worse, the au- 
thor suffers so much from what Mac- 
auley called the lues Boswettiana, or 
disease of blind admiration, that he 
can see absolutely nothing but good in 
.Manning and nothing but evil in those 
who differed with him. In spite of 
these serious faults, however, the vol- 
ume is one of absorbing interest. Man- 
ning, in his long life as an Anglican 
and a Catholic, met almost every- 
one of importance in England, and 
indeed in European society, for the 
best part of half a century, and was 
himself not the least interesting fignre 
in every group. Taken with Purcell's 
"Life," this book supplies all the facts. 
We fed. however, like the Guardian's 
critic, "that one thing yet remains to be 
given — namely, a convincing character 
sketch of Manning himself." The his- 
torians have spoken; the psvchologist* 
have yet to speak. The present book 
leaves us with the picture of a man of 

Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

( Thirty-First Installment) 

On the ioth of December, 1890, the new 
church of the Sacred Heart in Peach 
Orchard was blessed by Bishop Fitzgerald. 

In April, 1891, at the request of Father 
Pius, O. S. B., Pastor of Doniphan, Missouri, 
I preached a mission in the little old church 
at Poplar Bluff. The mission was well at- 
tended. Seeing the need of a new church 
and the good disposition of the people, I in- 
duced them to pass a resolution to build a 
new church. Three gentlemen came forward 
with a subscription of $500 each, which was 
quite a sum for Poplar Bluff in those days. 
The stately capital of Southeast Missouri 
was not then what it is at present. Father 
Pius had been holding services in other 
places during the mission. He was highly 
pleased at the good news upon his return. 
In a few months a neat frame church was 
built, with four rooms in the rear for the 
priest, and at the same time a two-story 
house for the school Sisters next to the 

However, before the church could be 
blessed, the saintly pastor. Father Pius Preis- 
ser. O. S. B.. died at Doniphan, Mo., July 
6, 1891. Two Benedictine Sisters from Poca- 
hontas nursed him in his illness and were 
with him when he died. Great was the sor- 
row of the people. They prepared for the 
funeral at Doniphan, but the Archabbot of 
St. Vincent's, Pa., sent an order to forward 
the body to the Iron Mountain main line. 
The people at Doniphan imagined the burial 
would be at the Abbey in Pa., and it was 
only through this circumstance that Poplar 
Bluff got the honor of burying his remains in 
its cemetery. At his funeral I played the 
requiem, whilst the choir from Jonesboro 
sang and two Benedictine Fathers, PP. 
Fngelbert and Jerome, conducted the serv- 
ices. Many people asserted that for months 
after they saw a light every night over the 
grave of the departed priest. He was re- 
garded as a saint by Catholics and Protest- 


The Most Noteworthy Contribution to Sermon Literature of Recent Years 

Sermons for All the Sundays 

and for the Chief Festivals of the Year 

By the Right Rev. John S. Vaughan, D. D. 

Bishop of Sebastopolis 

With an Introduction by 
Most Rev. John J. Glennon, D. D. 

Archbishop of St. Louis, Mo. 

Two Volumes, octavo, about 640 pp. Per set, bound in cloth, net $6.00 

Bishop A r aughan, one of the famous six Vaughan 
brothers who went to the Altar, has devoted himself 
particularly to pulpit and missionary work, and 
while he gained distinction from the publication of 
a number of books of delightful literary qualities, 
his chief renown came to him through his remark- 
able performances in the pulpit. 

He is regarded as one of the greatest living pulpit 
speakers and hence this collection of his SERMONS 
will be received with the greatest interest. 

very spirit of virility that characterizes their vig- 
orous author. He treats his subjects in original, 
striking ways, and his command of effective illustra- 
tion is exceptional. 

Abreast of the times in feeling, these SERMONS 
will be found to be full of life and spirit, and a 
treasure trove of thought and suggestion for pulpit 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER, (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Barclay Street 

St. Louis: B. Herdei 


Book Co. 

ants throughout the whole country. His suc- 
cessor was the Rev. Father Donovan, O. 
Cist., of the Trappist Abbey of Mt. Mellary, 
in Ireland, a noted author. 

On Pentecost of this year, the Rev. J. A. 
McQuaid, later rector of St. Roman's Church, 
Jonesboro, was ordained priest by Bishop 
Fitzgerald. He had made his studies in St. 
John's College, Minn., at Canisius College, 
in Buffalo, N. Y., and, finally, with the 
Resurrectionists in Berlin, Ont., Canada. 
After that he went through a seminary 
course with the Sulpicians in Montreal. Until 
July, 1890, he resided with his mother near 
Gilkerson. seven miles south of Jonesboro, 
where his father owned a large farm. I met 
him the first time at a picnic on the 4th of 
July. I was trying to make some stands. As 
he saw that I was very awkward, he offered 
to help, and we began a conversation. I in- 
vited him to visit me. When he came to see 
me I found that he had made all his studies 
for the priesthood. I mentioned the great 
need of priests in Arkansas and succeeded 
in inducing him to give up his farm and come 
with his mother to live with me. I reviewed 
the whole course of theology with him. 
Whilst he was with me he gave singing 
lessons to our pupils, as he is a good violin- 
ist. On the 28th of May, 1891, the Feast of 
Corpus Christi, he celebrated his first Mass 
at St._ Paul's Church, Pocahontas. I acted 
as assistant priest. Father Furlong, of New 
Madrid, Mo., as deacon, and Father Bona- 

venture, O. S. B., pastor of St. Edward's 
Church, Little Rock, as subdeacon. In the 
early morning of the day previous to this 
solemnity five Sisters had made their pro- 
fession in the convent chapel. On this, 
occasion Father Bonaventure preached a 
suitable sermon and I received the vows in 
the name of the Bishop. The five Sisters 
were : Mary Rose, Mary Adelaide, M. Hilde- 
garde, M. Matilda and M. Felicitas. 

Father McQaid immediately took charge 
of the congregation at Pocahontas, Father 
Fuerst having left for a visit to Europe. 
Father McQaid became in the course of time 
one of the most useful and zealous mis- 
sionaries in Arkansas. To him the congre- 
gations at Paragould, Hoxie, and Stuttgart 
are indebted for a great part of their suc- 
cess. With zeal and prudence he has 
for a number of years directed St. Roman's 
congregation, at Jonesboro, together with 
the convent and hospital at that place, and 
also attended some missions. He did this 
work all alone, whereas I always had to 
have an assistant. Bishop Fitzgerald had laid 
down the rule that no convent in his diocese 
that had a novitiate should be without daily 
Mass the whole year round, and as there 
were always a number of outside places at- 
tended from Jonesboro in my time, there 
was work enough for two. 

On the 5th and 6th of July, the State 
convention of the German Catholics was held 
in Little Rock. In those days the relations 



May 15 

Wagner's Londres Grande Segars e m - &» i"» i* i» i« p» i* 


rpO SHOW the enormous growth of the segar and tobacco industry in the U. S., 
1 a few " 

figures from the year 1869. The report shows that, during that year, there were 
manufactured 991,500,000 segars; 1,750,000 cigarettes; and 64,300,000 pounds of manufactured 
(smoking, chewing, and snuff) tobaccos. Compare these figures with the figures of today. 
From the Report of the Internal Revenue Commissioner for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1917, we find that, during that year, there was revenue paid on segars to the number of 
8,266,770,593. Deducting 375.000.000 which were brought in from Porto Rico and the Philip- 
pine Islands, (Porto Rico 208,509,820; Philippines 166,547,493), we have remaining about 
7,891,000,000 segars manufactured in the I'. S. during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917, 
or 657,600,000 per month, or about 21,700,000 per day. On these segars a revenue of $3.00 
per thousand was paid, which amounted to over $24,800,000. 
lOn <T1 On Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N.Y. Draft— if not satisfactory. Tfl <£/ nfl 
I UU — 4> I .Oil pack and return by Parcel Post. Money & Postage refunded by return mail uU"4> c f.UU 

Matt. Wagner & Son 

58 North Pearl Street 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

between priests and laymen of both the Ger- 
man and Irish nationalities were most 
cordial. The meeting was opened by a solemn 
pontifical high Mass by Bishop Fitzgerald. 
The meetings were held partly in St. An- 
drew's Cathedral hall, partly at St. Edward's. 
No speaker was more applauded than the 
Vicar-General, Very Rev. Dr. Callahan. At 
the pontifical high Mass, in the Cathedral, I 
preached on the necessity of a thorough 
Christian education as the only bulwark 
against the avalanche of infidelity, and em- 
phasized especially the need of Catholic 
parish schools. 

During the summer months the Sisters' 
house in Paragould was built. In September 
the Sisters opened a school with sixty chil- 
dren, mostly non-Catholics. They taught at 
first in the church. From that time on to 
this day Paragould has always had its parish 
school, as well as Pocahontas and Jonesboro. 
Father Fuerst, rector of St. Paul's, Poca- 
hontas, returned from Europe, September 
14th, and Father McQuaid went back to 
Jonesboro, from where he attended the mis- 
sions in Paragould. Peach Orchard, and 
Noxie. In the month of October the Sisters 
of Maria Stein accepted two new mission 
schools: St. Boniface in Fort Smith and 
Poplar Bluff, Mo. They now had seven 
schools, namely: Pocahontas (white and 
negro) Jonesboro, Paragould, Fort Smith. 
Engelberg, all in Arkansas, and Poplar Bluff, 

In Pocahontas the Sisters also conducted 
a so-called academy, where advanced pupils 
were taught book-keeping and different 
higher branches. It was open to all school 
children, boys and girls. Catholic and Pro- 
testant, as the town at that time had no high 
school. The sisters also took in boarders, but 
onlv Catholic children were accepted as such. 
I always held it was best to avoid unneces- 
sary familiarity with those outside the faith. 
Tf the Church wishes Catholic families to be 
careful in that respect, I think Catholic in- 
stitutions of learning should be even more so. 
Tn the eyes of most Protestants it is con- 

sidered a kind of propaganda for the Church 
to have Protestant children in convents, 
whilst I am satisfied that religious indiffer- 
ence reaps the greatest harvest, against 
which an occasional conversion is like a drop 
of water in a bucket. Often, too, talented 
and prominent Protestant boarders are 
shown preference over the children of the 
household, and this leaves a sting in the 
hearts of the latter. Also as pastor, I never 
rejoiced or felt honored when crowds of 
curious outsiders would attend Mass on cer- 
tain occasions. Remembering how strictly the 
Apostolic Church kept even the catechumens 
from attending Mass, I always felt nervous 
when I had a group of politicians or non- 
Catholic saloon-keepers in church, sitting 
like sacks of flour during the Mass. In spite 
of this well-known antipathy, I had as many 
converts as any priest in Arkansas, and some 
of the leading and most zealous Catholics of 
my former congregations are former Prot- 
estants. (To be continued) 


— Mr. F. Guy Davis, manager of the Amer- 
ican Newspaper Advertising Association, 
thinks that one reason why we Americans 
are so provincial and so inclined to be fan- 
atical, is that we do not read books. '"I am 
sure," he says in a talk reproduced by the 
Publishers' Weekly (Vol. XCIX, No. 17), 
"that Americans generally need more good 
books, books of such a character that they 
will present in terms of sympathy and under- 
standing, unconventional points of view. In 
other words, we need to have our habits of 
thought softened so that we will be perhaps 
a little less inclined to want to see a man 
horsewhipped and thrown into jail because 
his views on certain matters differ from the 
views generally accepted. What I have in 
mind is the old question of more light and 
perhaps less heat, in a great many fields of 
thought and purpose." More light and less 
heat! that is a good motto for all of us. 



— Mr. Caret Garrett, in "The Blue Wound" 
(Putnams), forecasts an alli'ance of the 
European powers against the United States 
and an attack on America with a chemistry 
of elemental destruction. The book is in- 
tended for the American public, but the les- 
son which it is meant to convey is left 
rather obscure. 

— The Biblical Institute at Rome has begun 
to issue Verbum Domini, a monthly period- 
ical for the use of priests, written exclusive- 
ly in Latin. The relation of the new review 
to the learned quarterly, Biblica, is happily 
put in the explanation that it is the function 
of the latter to investigate Biblical questions, 
whereas / 'crbum Domini is to publish the 
results of that investigation. We wish the 
new monthly a long and fruitful career. 

— A reviewer of Viscount Bryce's "Modern 
Democracies" in the Literary Supplement of 
the London Times asks: "Has any other 
man ever produced a work of some twelve 
hundred pages, the result of laborious study 
and travel, at the age of eighty-two?" We 
answer, Yes. Leopold von Ranke, the 
great German historian, at the age of eighty- 
three, when weakness of the eyes made him 
almost entirely dependent on readers and 
secretaries, began a Universal History, of 
which he completed seventeen volumes be- 
fore his death, in 1886. 
— A contribution to that difficult contro- 
; versy — What has the real significance of the 
"betrayal" of Christ by Judas? — is supplied 
by Professor B. W. Bacon in the April Hib- 
bcrt Journal. What is meant, in his view, 
I is that Judas was able to prove to Pilate on 
unimpeachable evidence the very accusation 
which conspirators had been seeking to 
establish — namely, that Christ claimed to be 
King of the Jews : the evidence being the 
incident in the house of Simon of Bethany 
when an enthusiastic disciple had formally 
anointed Him King of the Jews and He had 
not rejected the tribute. 

—The Publishers' Weekly (Vol. 99, No. 
17) announces that G. P. Putnam's Sons 
bave stopped the sale of the fourth and last 
volume of "The Cambridge History of 
American Literature" and will recall all 
copies of it so far on the market. This 
I action was taken as a result of protests 
I] made by the Christian Scientists against the 
\ chapter on Christian Science which was con- 
tributed by Dr. Woodbridge Riley, of Vassar 
; College. Between 1500 and 2000 copies of 
I the book have already gone out, and it will 
I cost the firm considerable to blot out the 

edition. The offensive article is being re- 
written by the Rev. Dr. Lyman P. Powell, 
of Hobart College. The incident shows what 
even a comparatively small body of religious 
believers can accomplish if they will stand 
up staunchly for their convictions. 

— A catalogue of the names of the twelve 
Apostles is unpromising material for poetry. 
Here is how Mrs. Helen Parry Eden turns 
it to good purpose in her latest work, "A 
Str'ng of Sapphires : Being Mysteries of the 
Life and Death of Our Blessed Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ" : 

These are the twelve Apostles' names: 
Simon (called Peter), John anil James 
(Whom Christ most kept about Him). 
Partholomew (whom some folk guess 
To be Nathaniel), James the Less, 
Thomas (who was to doubt Him), 
Andrew and Philip, Matthew (he 
Who took the tolls in Galilee, 
And when our Lord said, "Follow Me," 
Left all things and obeyed Him), 
S'mon Zelotes (tenth) and Jude 
(Eleventh of that brotherhood), 
And Judas (who betrayed Him). 

— In the Hibbert Journal for April Dr. B. 
A. G. Fuller, in a thoughtful study of "The 
Mechanical Basis of War" gives us little 
hope that the spirit of good will can ever 
prevail in the world as at present constituted. 
He sees in the multitude of hostile groups 
a fatal bar to the elimination of war. So 
many countries bordering on one another 
will always struggle to expand at their 
neighbor's expense. There is only one rem- 
edy — a change of spirit. In these pages may 
be heard the voice of Ezekiel : "A new heart 
give them, and I will put a new spirit in 
their bowels : and I will take away the stony 
heart out of their flesh, and will give them 
a heart of flesh." So only can we find sal- 
vation, and the Hibbert does well to turn 
men's thoughts towards a new "conversion." 

—America (XXV, 1) pleads for the strict 
and consistent enforcement of the prohibi- 
tion law. "As matters now stand," says our 
contemporary, "our wealthy old topers are 
paying a little more for their liquors, while 
the poor man is making a fool of himself 
by squandering good money for poison, and, 
worst of all, our young men, and a fair 
number of our young women are learning 
how contemptible a thing law is, even when 
backed by the federal government." America 
is notoriously opposed to prohibition, and we 
can explain its present attitude on the sub- 
ject only on the supposition that its editors 
think, the more rigorously prohibition is en- 
forced, the sooner will the people vote it out 
of existence. 



2735-2737 Lyon Street, cor. Lynch 
Church Bells and Chimes of Best Quality 



May 15 

— In an article on the cost of imported 
English books the Publishers' Weekly (Vol. 
99, Xo. 17) shows why the low rate of ex- 
change has not made English books cheaper 
in the U. S. In the first place, customs du- 
ties are no longer levied on the price paid 
by the American importer, but on the as- 
sumed English wholesale price. English 
publishers, under the pressure of their in- 
creasing production costs, are constantly 
raising prices. Then there has been a great 
increase in freight rates and insurance 
and in the cost of packing. These different 
items have more than offset the saving made 
by exchange. 

— The Smith-Towner Bill has been re- 
introduced in Congress. The objections" 
raised against it have led to the introduction 
uf a few skillfully devised verbal changes; 
but essentially the new measure does not, 
differ from the bill introduced in October, 
1918. Hence, as America points out, the 
fight against the control of education by 
federalized bureaucrats, far from being over, 
is but just beginning, and according to all 
indications, it is going to be a hard light, 
for the Smith-Towner Bill, if we may be- 
lieve the X. Y. Evening Post, has powerful 
champions in both houses of Congress and 
is favored by President Harding. 

— The editors of America (Vol.25, Xo. 1) 
declare that "it would be too much to hope 
that they can, on every occasion, and on 
every point, voice the exact views of all 
their subscribers," and add: "Indeed such 
unanimity is scarcely to be desired; it would 
be a sign of waning vitality and a bar to 
helpful and constructive discussion." Yet the 
average Catholic subscriber does expect his 
Catholic newspaper or magazine to voice 
exactly his views on every occasion, and as 
he usually accompanies the expression of his 
views with a threat to discontinue his sub- 
scription the Catholic press finds it neces- 
sary to comply with this demand abjectly. 
America is hardly an exception to this rule. 
That the Catholic press, in consequence, 
gives signs of "waning vitality" is not to be 
wondered at, nor need it surprise anyone 
that there is among us but little of that 
"helpful and constructive discussion" that is 
needed to keep men from falling into a 
deadly rut. 

— The San Francisco Monitor (LXII, 49) 
objects to the title "Your Lordship" as ap- 
plied to bishops. "This is a European cus- 
tom," says our contemporary. "...As the 
late Archbishop Riordan said, it isn't done 
in America. We are supposed to be plain, 
blunt democrats over here, and 'Lordship' 
is taboo in addressing an American prelate." 
As long as we retain such titles as "Your 
Honor," "Your Excellency," etc., in civil life. 
the objection against "Your Lordship" and 
"Your Grace" is not likely to stamp out the 
custom. The plain truth is that most Amer- 
icans are democrats in name only. 

— The campaign for the prohibition of 
tobacco is under way. We may reasonably 
wonder where this business of "ending 
vices" is itself going to end. X'icotine has 
always had its enemies, but the practice of 
using it in various forms has endured, and 
the race with it. Some day toleration of the 
intolerant may break down and America be 
swept by an irresistible demand for the pro- 
hibition of all prohibition campaigns. Those 
who have been counselled to "burn their 
own smoke" might fairly request their men- 
tors to consume their own gas, and urge that 
the fires of excessive zeal are more destruc- 
tive to the nervous system than the smoke 
of a p'pe or cigar. There is a real "smoke 
nuisance" to be combatted in most of our 
large cities ; why not unite our efforts in 
abolishing that pest? 

— The Rev. E. J. Cussen, of Canadian, 
Tex., writes to the Daily American Tribune 
(Xo. 802) to say that if his plans had not 
miscarried, he would have erected the first 
church in honor of St. Joan of Arc in this 
country. Unfortunately, the town in which 
the edifice was to be built went bankrupt. 
Father Cussen "did the next best thing" by 
dedicating his entire missionary district, em- 
bracing six counties in Texas and one in 
Oklahoma, to the valiant Maid of Domremy. 
"I have a great admiration for her," he 
says: "she was a virtuous woman, a clean 
fighter and a fearless patriot. It took cour- 
age of the right kind to withstand a 'steam 
roller' bishop to his face. I do not like 
steam rollers in Church or State." 

Books Received 

"Some Fell Among Thorns." Open Letters to Farm- 
ers by Rev. M. V. Kelly, C.S.B. 72 pp. 16mo. 
Toronto: The Catholic Truth Society of Canada. 
( Wrapper) 

Examcn Confessariorwn ad Codicis Iuris Nor mam 
Concinnatuni. Auctore Caesare Carbone. xvi & 
368 pp. 12mo. Turin, Italy: Pietro Marietti, 12 
francs. (Wrapper). 

The Psalms. A Study of the Vulgate Psalter in the 
Light of the Hebrew Text. Bv Rev. Patrick Bov- 
lan, M.A. Vol. I.: Psalms I— LXXI. lxix & 300 
pp. Svo. Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son; St Louis, 
Mo.: B. Herder Book Co., $5.50 net. 

Epttiotiie Theologxae M oralis Universae Ex- 

cerpta e Summa Theol. Mor. R. P. H. Xoldin 
S.J. a Dr. Carolo Telch . . . et ab eodem secundum 
novum Codicem Iuris Can. denuo Recognitum. 
Ed. 5a. xlii + 602 pp. 16mo. F. Pustet Co. Inc. 



The latest modes complete with 
suitable lenses. Moderate prices. 

SOS two 511 N. 
1 OLIVE •»«"«• GRAND 

The Fortnightly Review 



June 1, 1921 

Apropos of the "Jewish Question." 
We desire to call the attention 
of the critic who has taken us to 
task for the condensed review of 
< 'The International Jew" (F. P., 
No. 8) to the following points: 

(1) Criticism, if pursued as a 
literary art, necessitates the appli- 
cation of the judicial faculty to 
the subject in hand. Its highest 
expression excludes every trace of 
prejudice and partisanship. 

(2) It is conceivable that a book 
written concerning a well estab- 
lished fact like, say, the sphericity 
of the earth, would be decidedly 
unscientific, unauthentic, and un- 

(3) It is more than conceivable 
that a book written concerning a 
much mooted subject like, say, 
relativity, would be equally un- 

"The International Jew," as it 
passed under the reviewer's no- 
tice, in no way measured up to the 
canons of scientific and historical 
criticism. If "the Jewish Ques- 
tion" were no longer a matter of 
speculation, but of a thoroughly 
demonstrable nature, the publica- 
tion of the Dearborn Publishing 
Co. would needs be condemned. 
Because a proposition is proved 
does not mean that every state- 
ment of that proof must needs be 
acceptable. We were reviewing 
' * The International Jew, ' ' and not 
the Jewish question. 

But the Jewish question', let us 
remember, is still a question, for 
the most part, the world over. It 
has not passed over completely to 

the problem stage, except in the 
minds of those who allow their 
prejudices to keep several paces 
ahead of their intellects. Theodore 
Herzi, the greatest authority the 
Jews ever had, called it "The 
Jewish Question," in his book, "A 
Jewish State," and the editors 
of the Dearborn Independent even 
stop to devote a whole chapter to 
"The Jewish Question — Fact or 
Fancy ? ' ' This simply means that 
we have not a completely demon- 
strable proposition, but a decided- 
ly speculative one. 

Now, the more mooted the ques- 
tion, the more careful the authen- 
tication that must precede every 
step. This is particularly true of 
a delicate subject touching on 
racial and religious prejudices 
like the one under consideration. 
Is this the method of procedure 
used by the editors of ' s The Inter- 
national Jew"? On the contrary, 
their work is decidedly unsatisfac- 
tory in this regard. In Chapter 10 
of the Dearborn publication, which 
is entitled "An Introduction to 
the ' Jewish Protocols,' " the sec- 
ond paragraph reads as follows : 
"The Protocols have attracted 
much attention in Europe, having 
become the center of an important 
storm of opinion in England only 
recently, but discussion of them in 
the United States has been limited. 
These are the documents concern- 
ing which the Department of Jus- 
tice was making inquiries more 
than a year ago, and which were 
given publication in London by 
Eyre and Spottiswoode, the offi- 




cial printers to the British govern- 

A few paragraphs farther on 
the editors continue : "If these 
documents were forgeries, which 
Jewish apologists claim them to 
be, the forgers would probably 
have taken pains to make the Jew- 
ish authorship so clear that their 
anti-Semitic purpose could easily 
have been detected. ..." 

It must be quite apparent from 
this that the Jews have not admit- 
ted the authorship of the Proto- 
cols ; the Dearborn editors, at any 
rate have no cognizance of any 
such admission and can offer their 
readers no more proof — if such it 
can be called — than that quoted 
above. In spite of this fact almost 
the entire indictment is based on 
the so-called Protocols. 

The same unscientific, unauthen- 
tic method is pursued throughout 
the entire book. Statement is piled 
upon statement without the least 
regard for sources, titles, dates 
or authors. Some of the chapters 
have a foreword, which consists of 
a quotation from some source 
bearing on the subject in hand, but 
often enough the author is merely 
mentioned, without a citation of 
book, page, etc. In one instance a 
quotation from the ' ' Seventh Pro- 
tocol" precedes chapter 6 in spite 
of the fact that the first mention 
of the origin of the Protocols ap- 
pears in Chapter 8 and later in 
Chapter 10, where the dubious 
character of these important docu- 
ments is sufficiently clear to him 
who reads with an unprejudiced 
mind. What, in all fairness, can 
be said of such sloppy work? Even 
if Jewish influence were a fact 
proved beyond all cavil, yet the 
true critic would have to condemn 
such writing. 

Let us proceed cautiously. Cath- 
olics must remember that all other 
religions are false and as such 
their influence upon the social life 
of the times in which they have 
their being is detrimental. The 
Jews constitute but one of many 
heretical bodies and as such are 
undoubtedly playing an important 
part in the social disintegration of 
our times. But it does seem 
strange that they should be so 
singularly marked out from the 
others, in spite of the obvious in- 
fluence the Protestant schism has 
had and is having upon our eco- 
nomic and industrial life. More- 
over it is extremely difficult to dis- 
tinguish sufficiently in practice 
between schism and schismatics, 
though it is the former alone that 
we must be intolerant of. It is 
futile to say that the Bolshevistic 
tendencies of our times are entire- 
ly Jewish in origin. They are the 
reactions of the capitalistic re- 
gime, which is undoubtedly a child 
of the Reformation, though the 
Jews have helped to bring it to 
maturity. Catholic leaders who do 
nothing to bring Capitalism to an 
end share the guilt of Bolshevism. 
And it little behooves us, a weak 
minority, to encourage a book 
which, however well intentioned, 
by no means proceeds cautiously 
and scientifically — a method made 
doubly necessary by the nature of 

the subject. 



By J. Corsox Miller 
Life is a rough, uncovered precious jewel, 
Uncut, unpolished, with its flame unshed; 
Men's dreams are instruments with which to 

shape it, 
Men's deeds are polishing-cloths with which 

to scrape it, 
Else were its heauty and its fire dead. 
To diamonds wit and wisdom bring much 

'T is love alone can make a ruby red. 




Austria in Distress 

The chief victim of the World 
War and of the Peace Conference 
has at last bowed to the inevitable. 
Affairs in Austria have reached a 
point where the nation is ready 
for a receivership. Complete gov- 
ernmental collapse is threatening, 
for the government has been ren- 
dered powerless by the stipula- 
tions of the Treaty of Versailles. 
In the history of the modern world 
there is no story comparable to 
that of Austria. Her resources, so 
far as the World War did not ex- 
haust them, were ruthlessly wrest- 
ed from her, in the partition of the 
country by the Allies. The prov- 
inces upon which she depended 
for food and sustenance, were un- 
justly taken from her and made 
independent governments. Her in- 
vestments in these provinces were 
lost to her. She is a monument to 
the ignorance and blindness of 
those who set about redividing, in 
a few months, a world which had 
taken centuries- to adjust itself. 
She is a standing condemnation 
and reproach to those who were 
responsible for her dismember- 

The League of Nations, of which 
our own country has refused to 
become a part, is to name a com- 
mission to try to revive the almost 
defunct industries of Austria. 
Will they revive or exploit those 
industries ? Judging from the past 
performances of the League, the 
leading nations composing it, with 
England as chief actor, will adjust 
State affairs in Austria so that 
these nations will derive the great- 
est benefit. This has been the his- 
tory of the League so far. Nations 
have fallen, partially collapsed 
and changed their physical make- 
up; rulers have fled ito exile and 

populations have been scattered 
by the fortunes of war. But in no 
instance, — thanks to the "merci- 
ful" policy of the Allies, a policy 
exemplified in England's treat- 
ment of Ireland to-day, — has a 
country fallen into national bank- 
ruptcy and been obliged to call 
upon its neighbors for sustained 
activity in its behalf. Ireland 
found herself approaching the 
same unhappy condition into 
which Austria has fallen, and this 
through England's exploitation of 
her industries for England's bene- 
fit, but being more fortunately sit- 
uated, she has thrown down the 
gauntlet to England. She asks no 
favors but demands independence. 

The future of Austria is indeed 
dark. Unhappy days have fallen 
to this ancient Catholic State. A 
once prosperous God-fearing peo- 
ple are prostrate through the 
machinations of the secret diplo- 
macy of the Allies. Their emperor 
was forced to flee. The once con- 
tented dual monarchy was divided 
into separate States and the gov- 
ernments handed over to schem- 
ing politicians. The industrial and 
economic life of Austria was shat- 
tered. The Allied powers have ex- 
pressed concern in Austria's fu- 
ture, for they know that Austria 
is too important a cog in the inter- 
national machine to allow com- 
plete governmental collapse in 
that country. Their decision, then, 
to name a commission to try to re- 
vive the almost hopeless condition 
of the country was not arrived at 
because of any desire to assist the 
Austrian people, but purely from 
a selfish motive of self-preserva- 
tion. It will be interesting to fol- 
low the trend of future events in 
the dealings between Austria and 
the Allies. (Rev.) F. J. Kelly 



June 1 

"Birth Control'' 
Father Lalande in a recent issue 
of La Verite, calls upon three fun- 
damental authorities as witnesses 
against the terrible practice of 
birth-control. "The first law," he 
says, "to condemn these outrages, 
comes from nature. Everyone 
knows it: it is not written, but is 
inherent in the soul of man. Noth- 
ing can silence it. Even the intel- 
ligence, stooping to the service of 
the senses and seeking to find a 
loophole to escape, cannot abolish 
it. Louder than desire and more 
firm than fear, the law declares: 
' It is forbidden. ' And if you would 
hear me speak in the living flesh 
and blood, listen to the reproach 
of a young wife in despair before 
the body of her only son : ' My hus- 
band, I knew that it was evil and 
that we should have to pay! You 
said to violated nature: "Only one 
child!" Today justice replies: 
"None." There is the stain of 
blood on our guilty desires. It 
reddens our lives; in this room 
there are two criminals. I see one 
in your eyes, and you find the oth- 
er in mine; and when the horror 
of it does not stop my ears, I 
hear the desperate outcries of the 
little ones who were not allowed 
to be born.' " 

The other two voices are 
those of God to Onan and of 
the Catholic Church crying in 
the wilderness of these immoral 
times. Let us strive with might 
and main for a better social 
order in which human beings and 
their happiness are paramount. 
The poor deluded fools outside the 
Church who see the immense 
amount of poverty and squalor in 
the world, will then realize that 
their energies spent in diminish- 
ing these twin evils to a minimum, 

instead of limiting the number of ' 
humans to conform to our condi- 
tions of poverty, would have been, 
well spent. Meanwhile no amount 
of temporal misery will ever jus- 
tify murder as a means to remedy 
these sad conditions. 

When all is said and done the 
Sangerites, and others who pro- 
fess "birth control" by means of 
contraceptive devices, are not so 
much concerned with poverty, 
over which they weep maudlin 
tears, as they are with the so- 
called "free expression of wom- 
an's nature." This, of course, 
means freedom from the moral 
law ; freedom to do as one pleases 
with legal approbation and the 
assent of a perverted public opiu- 
ion ; freedom in short to become 
as little gods with the right of 
God over life and death. It is an 
old, old story — the attempt to 
usurp the place of God — so old 
indeed as to make the advocates 
of this latest deification the con- 
temporaries of the devil. As for 
poverty, — well, that is a pretty 
thin cloak beneath which to hide 
such shameless practices. As all 
the world knows the true-blue ad- 
vocates and practitioners of 
"birth-control" are not those of 
moderate or even scanty means, 
but the much be-dogged, be-deck- 
ed, and be-deviled, rich, near-rich, 
would-be-rich and pleasure-loving 
parasites who are the abomination 
of abominations in the modern 



— Father E. P. Tivnan, S.J.. of Fordliam 
University, considers the country in danger 
of "a harvest of social demoralization." He 
writes: "The common boast is of our civil- 
ization and progress, and yet we turn to 
the dark forest and the dusky, untutored 
savage, loathsome of habit, for our modern 
music, dances, and, in some measure, dress. 
If this sort of progress continues, the fol- 
lowers of so-called evolution may well hope 
to find the long-missing link." 




One Result of War Propagandist 

The war-technique of clubbing- 
one 's opponent instead of meeting 
his argument, says The Freeman, 
is becoming a national tradition. 
Indeed, every problem, from the 
League of Nations to the movie 
censorship, from the nationaliza- 
tion of the railways to the depor- 
tation of the Mayor of Cork, is 
met with the same tactics. Did 
Maynard Keynes bring forward 
certain considerations of vital im- 
portance in his "Economic Conse- 
quences of the Peace"! Well, 
ostensibly serious people imagine 
they have answered him when 
they point out that he is quoted 
with approval by Mr. George Syl- 
vester Viereck. Is well-founded 
criticism directed against the 
Knights of Columbus? It is 
quenched by pointing out that it 
originated in theFoRTNiGHTLYfRE- 
view, whose editor "hates the 
Knights." Ireland is delivered 
over to a reign of militaristic ter- 
ror, which has revolted the soul 
of every decent-minded witness, 
whatever his nationality. But a 
considerable number of eminent 
j Americans (recte: Anglophiles) 
fancy they can evade the subject 
by pointing out, not that the re- 
port of the American Commission 
of Inquiry is false, but that it is 
associated with the Nation and 
Mr. Oswald Garrison Villard. 

These are the authentic touches 
of the war-propagandist method, 
the method which found its suc- 
cess not so much in the deliberate 
lie, as in the reiteration of half- 
truths and the association of half- 
baked ideas. The consequences of 
its introduction into this country 
are perhaps more unfortunate 
than elsewhere, for it lingers on 
as an invaluable aid to our natural 

fear of the free interplay of ideas 
and as a powerful stimulus to our 
hatred of "heresies." 

Fulsome Flattery 

After reading the eulogies pro- 
nounced upon deceased ecclesias- 
tics by the Catholic press, one 
wonders just where lies the divid- 
ing line between truth and ful- 
some flattery; or whether there is 
such a thing as truth at all in this 
connection. If American Catholics 
are unorganized, if their influence 
in the world about them is inap- 
preciable, if the directive force of 
the American Church is next to 
nothing in matters of great na- 
tional moment, how in the name of 
objective facts can our purring 
pen-pushers tell us coolly and 
calmly that this or that great ec- 
clesiastic had a pronounced influ- 
ence upon the times in which he 
lived or that he was a truly great 
leader ? 

Father Faber once remarked 
that the essence of sanctity con- 
sisted in calling things by their 
right names. And we might 
appropriate this for our purpose 
and observe that one of the mani- 
festations of virility in American 
Catholic life will come with our 
publicists calling a great and good 
churchman just that, and not a 
great leader and an influential cit- 
izen and many other things which 
the poor man never had it in his 
power to be. The really infantile 
character of our press is exhibited 
in no better manner than in the 
way in which things are said that 
should never have been mentioned, 
if only for the sake of conformity 
with the objective facts. Surely 
praise may be just without becom- 
ing obviously untruthful. If not, 
it certainly had better not be 
printed. F. 


June 1 

Comparative Religion and Theology 
The remarks by Fr. Ernest R. 
Hull, S.J., quoted in the F. E. for 

May 15, on ''Comparative Relig- 
ion, Its Use and Abuse," are very 
timely. But the author could have 
insisted much more strongly on 
the duty of some of our Catholic 
theologians to interest themselves 
in this held. It is admitted that 
"the study of Comparative Relig- 
ion has mean time been of great 
service to the cause of religious 
truth by confirming, in a manner 
unknown to our ancestors, the ar- 
gument of the consensus humanus, 
namely, that the truth of religion 
is proved by the universal belief 
of the human race." 

This of itself would be sufficient 
reason to direct the attention of 
our apologists to the study of 
Comparative Religion and the kin- 
dred field of ethnology. It is well 
known what an important place 
the former study occupies in the 
(Protestant) theologic faculties of 
many European universities. 

Until lately, however, the field 
had been tilled chiefly by writers 
like E. B. Tylor, J. G. Frazer, H. 
Spencer, D. G. Brinton, van Geu- 
nep, etc., all of them hostile to 
Revelation. Perhaps the very rea- 
son why they went ahead so reck- 
lessly, building up flimsy theories, 
was their assurance that no one 
from the camp of "believers" 
would oppose them. 

Now, however, we have a name 
of the highest importance in the 
field of the science of religion and 
general ethnologv. It is that of 
Rev. P. W. Schmidt, S.V.D., foun- 
der of AntJiropos, an "Interna- 
tional Journal of Ethnologv and 
Linguistics" (1906). Tlm'schol- 
arly journal, which has already 
achieved a deserved reputation in 
scientific circles, is still published 

by the Fathers of the Society of 
the Divine Word at Modling, near 
Vienna, Austria. 

To Fr. Schmidt the Catholic 
world owes one of the most ex- 
haustive studies in the field of 
Comparative Religion. It is enti- 
tled "L'Origine de l'ldee de 
Dieu," a historico-critical and 
positive study. The wealth of eru- 
dition and the familiarity with 
even remote sources of knowledge 
on points under discussion, shown 
in this study, is astonishing. This 
excellent contribution to Compar- 
ative Religion appeared in An- 
tJiropos, the first installment being 
in Vol. Ill, 1908, pp. 125 sqq. 

This series of well-documented 
articles, since published in book 
form, not only showed that Catho- 
lic dogma had nothing to fear 
from the new science, but made 
adversaries of Revelation more 
careful in their occasionally reck- 
less and unproved statements. We 
need refer only to a little contro- 
versy carried on between Father 
Schmidt and a narrow-minded 
French writer, M. A. van Geunep. 

Fr. Schmidt, discussing the atti- 
tude of theologians towards Ani- 
mism, i. e., the explanation of all 
the phenomena of nature not due 
to obvious material causes, by at- 
tributing them to spiritual agen- 
cies, finds reason to complain that 
Catholic scholars have not suffi- 
ciently taken note of this famous 
theory of E. B. Tylor, which long 
ruled supreme in ethnology. He 
writes: "Considering the high im- 
portance which the theory of Ani- 
mism certainly possesses for the 
conception of the idea of the origin 
and development of religion; see- 
ing its wide spread among ethnol- 
ogists and devotees of the science 
of religion; considering, finally, 
the hostility its defenders show 




either against religion in general, 
or against revealed religion in 
particular: we might have expect- 
ed that this theory would have 
been exhaustively studied by the 
defenders of Revelation and vigor- 
ously refuted. But has this been 
the case?" 

It is a matter of more than usu- 
al interest, therefore, for Catholic 
scholarship, that this great au- 
thority in ethnology, as already 
announced in the F. R., will tour 
the United States next fall in the 
interest of Anthropos. 

(Rev.) Albert Muntsch, S.J. 

St. Louis University 


A Laboringman's Comment on Col. 
Callahan's Article 

To the Editor: 

It was a pleasure to read in No. 
9 of the F. R. the splendid resume 
of the profit-sharing plan in force 
in the plant of the Louisville Var- 
nish Co., of which Col. P. H. Cal- 
lahan, the writer of the article, is 

It would seem that the outstand- 
ing lesson to be learned is not that 
profit-sharing will work in both 
good and bad times — although 
this, too, is a decidedly valuable 
piece of information — but that 
workingmen are, after all, really 
honest-to-goodness human beings. 
Those of us who have been en- 
gaged in industrial relations work 
for some time have been suspect- 
ing as much, and now Col. Calla- 
han confirms our wobbly opinion. 
Few will blame us for this, in fact 
many will undoubtedly be sur- 
prised, in view of the fact that the 
current opinion and propaganda 
is all to the contrary. Whenever 
labor difficulties arise, w T e invari- 
ably hear that the laborers have 
made "unreasonable demands" 

and the employers are invariably 
outraged angels, whose only 
thought is ever and always for 
established order, "good times," 
and the "peace" of the communi- 
ty. We are therefore pleased to 
be assured that with perfectly 
plain, honest dealing, workingmen 
give a healthy normal response 
and apparently are quite reasona- 
ble in their actions. 

In view of our own experiences 
along these and similar lines, we 
trust that Col. Callahan will now 
do one more thing. Seeing that his 
"partners" are quite capable of 
conducting the business, he should 
have no difficulty in devoting the 
remainder of his life to the propa- 
gation of the conclusion he has 
arrived at through the profit-shar- 
ing plan which he is using. And, 
as a last suggestion, if we are still 
in order, Catholic employers are 
perhaps the most needy of instruc- 
tion. My observations in many 
places lead me to believe that, for 
some strange reason, the Catholic 
employer is less a believer and a 
doer in democratic industry than 
his non-Catholic colleague. Col. 
Callahan has a great and good 
work ahead of him if he will bring 
his actual experiences to bear on 
the untoward industrial situation 
as we find it at present. In the 
end we do not believe that the new 
industrial society will be a profit- 
sharing one, but we do believe that 
this is an absolutely essential 
transitional form, in which the 
workers are to be educated in self- 
management. A Laboringman 


— The Catholic Times of London says 
(Xo. 2799) that Father Owen A. Hill S.J., 
in his new handbook of "Ethics," "expounds 
the Catholic doctrine rather in the way of 
obsciirum per obscurius." That is a defect 
of many of our text-books, which the F. R. 
has often noted and protested against. 


June 1 

A Ray of Hope 

The editor\of The Sower, an 
English Catholic educational jour- 
nal, is quoted' by the Ave Maria 
(No. 15) as saying that even "the 
sleepiest and most dignified Cath- 
olic journals [in England] and 
even the most irreproachably cau- 
tious of Catholic Writers, are now 
waking up to the realization that 
something has happened to our 
capitalistic system : that it has, in 
fact, broken down finally in all 
three of its departments of credit, 
production, and distribution. 'Can 
revolution be prevented ? ' is the 
fashionable question now : and the 
employing classes are invited to 
do something to put things right, 
though what they are to do is not 
indicated. Indeed, they may well 
wonder. We Catholics can do 
nothing beyond trying to contrib- 
ute a small leaven of steadiness to 
the nation : we cannot contribute 
any practical ideas, because we do 
not think courageously (though 
Father Plater did his best to make 
us. Requiescat!) while there Avas 
still time for thinking. It's not 
much use crying over spilt milk, 
however; and our only reason for 
these gloomy remarks is to draw 
the obvious moral from them. The 
moral is that the Catholics who 
are aware and active should give 
their whole mind, during the con- 
fusion and distresses of the com- 
ing years, to the children and the 
young people; with the conscious 
idea of raising up a generation of 
Catholic men and women who will 
be able to take in hand the very 
weary world in which they find 

We invite the editor of The 
Sower to come to America for a 
twelvemonth. We are certain he 
would not find here even that real- 

ization of the capitalistic debacle 
that he can boast of in "Merrie 
England. ' ' If there were such evi- 
dence of an awakening, a hopeful 
outlook would be justified. As it is, 
we still babble infantilely, for the 
most part, and what makes the 
matter worse, we are perfectly 
satisfied with ourselves. Indeed, 
criticism like that given by the edi- 
of The Sower is keenly and ear- 
nestly resented here. We wish 
The Sower godspeed; perhaps the 
realization which has come to our 
English Catholic brethren, and 
which is now so well voiced by this 
capable and zealous journal, will, 
with God 's grace, finally spread to 
America. There is no hope for us 
until it does. 

The History of Chicago's "Christian 

The Rev. J. Clover Monsma, 
editor of the defunct American 
Daily Standard, has published his 
promised history of that short- 
lived venture (see "Books Re- 
ceived," infra.) He says that the 
Chicago "Christian daily" was 
killed by the apathy of the Prot- 
estant preachers and the opposi- 
tion of the Catholic Church. 

On the last-mentioned point Mr. 
Monsma is mistaken. The Catholic 
Church never opposed the Stand- 
ard. The New World decried the 
effort, but it spoke only for its 
narrow-minded editor. Several 
other Catholic newspapers, among 
them the Messenger, the official 
organ of the Bishop of Belleville, 
"'cordially welcomed the new ven- 
ture and, Avhile not concealing the 
paper's defects, admitted its good 
•qualities and blamed the Catholics 
of Chicago for not supporting it. 

Dr. Monsma thinks a clean daily 
paper, without too much positive 




Christianity, could be made a suc- 
cess. Why not try that plan first ? 
A few clean and solid dailies 
would turn the thoughts of many 
readers to more serious subjects 
and thus prepare the way for a 
positive Christian press, which, 
we heartily agree with Mr. Mons- 
ma, is sorely needed. 

"Gamalielese,'' or the Presidents 

In an article in the Nation (Xo. 
2912) Mr. H. L. Mencken, the well- 
known litterateur, analyzes Pres- 
ident Harding's style. The follow- 
ing paragraphs give a fair sample 
.of his caustic criticism : 

In the first sentence of the his- 
toric address from the east front 
of the Capitol, glowing there like 
a gem, was that piquant miscege- 
nation of pronouns the one-lie 
combination, for years a favorite 
of bad newspaper reporters and 
the inferior clergy. In the fourth 
sentence of the first message to 
Congress is illy, the passion of 
rural grammar-teachers and pro- 
fessors of rhetoric in one-building 
universities. We are, as they say, 
getting warm. The next great 
state paper — who knows \ — may 
caress and enchant us with 
"Whom can deny?" And the next 
with "I would have had to have 
had.'" And the next with ''be- 
tween you and I." And the next, 
going the whole hog, with alright, 
to date the gaudiest, loveliest, 
darndest flower of the American 
language, which God preserve ! . . . 

Such is the Gamalian manner, 
the secret of the Gamalian style. 
That style had its origin under 
circumstances that are surely not 
unknown to experts in politico- 
agrarian oratory. It came to birth 
on the rustic stump, it developed 

to full growth among the chautau- 
quas, and it got its final polishing 
in a small-town newspaper office. 
In brief, it reflects' admirably the 
tastes and traditions of the sort 
of audience at which it was first 
aimed, to wit, the yokelry of the 
hinterland, naive, agape, thirsty 
for the prodigious, and eager to 
yell. Such an audience has no 
fancy for a well-knit and succinct 
argument, packed with ideas. Of 
all ideas, indeed, it is suspicious, 
but it will at least tolerate those 
that it knows by long hearing, 
those that have come to the estate 
of platitudes, those that fall read- 
ily into gallant and highfalutin 
phrases. Above all, it distrusts 
perspicuity, for perspicuity is 

Municipal Theatre 

In the Heart of Forest Park 

The Eight Weeks, Season of 1921 
Opens Tuesday, June 7 

June 7 — "The Chocolate Soldier 7 ' 

June 14 — "Fra Diavolo" 

June 21— "The Fortune Teller" 

Jnne 28— "San Toy"' 

July 5 — "The Beggar Student'' 

July 12 — "Pirates of Pezance" 

July 19— "The Chimes of 

July 2d— "Sari" 

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June 1 

challenging and forces one to 
think, and hence lays a burden on 
the mind. What it likes most of 
all is the roll of incomprehensible 
polysyllables — the more incompre- 
hensible the better. 

"Father" as a Title for Priests 
The practice of calling priests 
"Father" has lately been attacked 
in England, mainly on the ground 
that it is of Irish origin. Bishop 
Vaughan staunchly defends the 
custom in a letter to the Tablet. 
The pastor, he says, is ex officio, 
the true father of his flock. He 
lives in their midst. He baptizes 
them, and so they become his spir- 
itual children; he teaches and in- 
structs them; he feeds them with 
the supersubstantial Bread, which 
comes down from heaven. And, 
when their souls are sick and suf- 
fering from sin and spiritual ail- 
ments, he it is who attends to 
them, and heals them, in the sacra- 
ment of Penance. Further, he 
unites them in holy Matrimony; 
and he stands at their bedside, 
when they are dying, and prepares 
them for their last long journey. 
In short, like a loving parent, he 
is at their beck and call both night 
and day. In a word, the secular 
priest is — to a greater extent than 
any religious — their spiritual Fa- 
ther, and they are more truly his 
children than anyone else. So let 
them glory in the title of 'Father.' 
The old Cardinal [Manning] 
used also to say that it is a great 
help to the priest himself to near 
himself addressed as 'Father.' It 
reminds him of his duty to his 
nock. It helps him to realize the 
obligations he is under of watch- 
ing over them, and of counselling 
and advising them, and attending 
to all their wants." 

Notes and Gleanings 

— A glance at the total figures of book 
publication in the year 1920 reveals the fact 
that the decline in number which began in 
1917, extended to 1918 and 1919, was con- 
tinued in 1920 — the number in the latter year 
(8,422) being 2,023 less than in 1916. 

— Prof. A. F. Pollard says in the first 
chapter of his new book, "The Evolution of 
Parliament" (Longmans) : "We talk of 
democracy, but seldom pause to define it, 
except in magnificent phrases. Abraham 
Lincoln spoke of 'government of the people 
for the people by the people'; but the peo- 
ple have never been able to govern them- 
selves except in the sense of choosing be- 
tween two or more sets of governors and 
two or more party programmes. When it 
ccmes to matters of practice, the nearer we 
get to direct popular rule, the slighter the 
power we leave to the people." 

— We learn from the Builder that not only 
the Knights of Columbus honored the grave 
of Lafayette, but the Masons also, and with 
greater reason. "The grave of Lafayette," 
says our Masonic contemporary (May), 
"always had a strange attraction for the Ma- 
sons who visited Paris. At first the Paris- 
ians could not tell you where he was buried. 
At length they memorized his resting place 
for almost every visiting American would 
inquire, 'Where is Lafayette buried?' After 
the formation of the Paris Dugout of the 
S. O. L., the membership took frequent op- 
portunity to visit this sacred spot. On July 
14, 1919, the great 'Bastile Day,' a group of 
Masons entered upon a pilgrimage to the 
Rue de Picpns 35. and standing beside the 
grave of this great man, connected in a 
peculiar way to their ritual, they laid wreaths 
upon the tomb, at the same time rendering a 
portion of their ritual." 

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Whole life certificates with old age dis- 
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— An old colleague writes to us : "I can 
not see that the Catholic press of the coun- 
try derives any substantial benefit from the 
X. C. W. C. news service ; but I can see 
how that service is making our papers more 
monotonous. I for one, instead of- being 
induced to subscribe for more Cathlic pa- 
pers, have discontinued three or four, because 
they are so nearly alike. The 'news.' such as 
it is. is furnished by the X. C. W. C, and 
the 'editorials' — save the mark! — by syndi- 
cates. With the exception of two or three 
of our journals that make little or no use 
of the X. C. W. C. stuff, originality has de- 
parted from the Catholic press of America, 
and with it, interest. Whither are we drift- 
ing ?" 

— According to the Builder, a Masonic 
magazine (Vol. VII, Xo. 5). five members 
of President Harding's cabinet are Freema- 
sons. They are: (1) Attorney-General Harry 
M. Daugherty, who is an Entered Apprentice 
of Fayette Lodge Xo. 107, F. & A. M. s of 
Washington Court House, O., and ''has taken 
steps to have the remaining degrees confer- 
red in a Columbus, O., lodge as soon as 
possible" ; ( 2 ) Henry C. Wallace, Secretary 
of Agriculture, who is a member of Pioneer 
Lodge Xo. 22, A. F. & A. M., of Des Moines, 
Iowa.; (3) Edwin Denby, Secretary of the 
Xavy, who is a member of Oriental Lodge 
Xo. 240, F. & A. M., of Detroit, Mich.; 
(4) James J. Davis, Secretary of Labor, 
who is a Scottish Rite Mason, a Knight 
Templar, and a Shriner; (5) Postmaster- 
General Will H. Hayes, who is a member of 
Sullivan Lodge Xo. 263. F. & A.M., of Sul- 
livan, Ind., a Knight Templar, and a Shriner. 
— The Bishop of Bismarck writes to us 
to say that the statement made by our con- 
tributor F. in our May 15th issue, page 146, 
that the Xonpartisan League was at first a 
purely political movement, is false. "It was," 
says the Bishop, "from the beginning a 
Socialistic movement, and some of the lead- 
ers have expressly declared that, knowing 
they could not succeed as Socialists, they 
started the Xonpartisan League." As regards 
the investigation made by Dr. O'Hara, of 
the Catholic University of America, the 
Bishop says that "it was most superficial," 
and adds: "If he was anxious to find the 
truth, he should have taken the trouble to 
read carefully the laws passed by the Xon- 
partisan League. This he has not done." 

—A reader of the F. R., who is the father 
of several children, asks us to invite the 
opinions of competent educators on the 
practice of some teachers who retain the 
examination papers of their pupils and 
merely inform the latter of the "percentage" 
given. Our correspondent says that he has 



June 1 

Catholic Art and Architecture 

A revised and enlarged second edition, containing forty-eight pages of plates, plus twenty-five pages of text. 
The text lays down solid principles on Catholic art and architecture, and the plates exemplify these principles, as 

applied to modern parochial buildings 
The booklet has been hiffhlv recommended by experts and members of the hierarchy and clerjry who have made 
a study of the subject. It has also been very favorably reviewed by the professional and the Catholic press 

Price $1.00, post Iree 
Address, JOHN T. COMES, Renshaw Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


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extra well in the middle, @ $8.00 net, F. O. B. St. Louis 

repeatedly asked to see the work of his 
children, but was invariably refused on the 
ground that a professor of the Catholic Uni- 
versity of America had advised the Sisters 
against giving out the corrected examination 
papers as "unpedagogical." Why would it 
be unpedagogical to let the children and 
their parents know the reason for the notes 
given ? 

— According to the Daily American Trib- 
une ( Xo. 824) the body of Antony d'Andrea 
who had given grave scandal, was refused 
Christian burial by the pastor of the Church 
of Our Lady of Pompei, Chicago, in spite of 
the fact that d'Andrea had repented on his 
deathbed and received the last Sacraments. 
It was stated in explanation that "the order 
was issued that, as he lived, so should he be 
buried." But does not canon 1240 of the 
Code of Canon Law plainly intimate that no 
one who has given signs of repentance be- 
fore death, is to be deprived of Christian 

— We read in the Daily American Tribune 
(No. 825) that a new organization has been 
established in Iowa. It is known as "40 
"Homines 8 Chevaux" and "purposes to be 
the playhouse of the American Legion." The 
initiation is said to be a burlesque on the 
progress of a recruit from his entrance into 
the army until his discharge. "40 Homines 
8 Chevaux" (40 men or 8 horses) was the 
famous inscription on the box-cars in which 
the American doughboys were conveyed in 
France. Father J. L. Whalen was elected 
"Chef de Gare" ("stationmaster") of the 
organization for the fourth Iowa district. Tt 
is the intention of the American Legion to 
establish "40 Homines 8 Chevaux" branches 
in every congressional district. What next? 1 

— The reform of the "movies," like all 
reforms, is apt to be overdone. We notice 
that the bill prepared by the International 
Reform Bureau for presentation to Congress 

lists the familiar varieties of immorality and 
then goes on to contemn all "stories or 
scenes which ridicule or deprecate public 
officials, officers of the law, the U. S. army, 
the U. S. navy, or any other governmental 
authority, or which tend to weaken the au- 
thority of the law." In this fashion, witli 
the whole emphasis of its agitation thrown 
upon morality, the Bureau is preparing the 
way for the establishment of a political as 
well as a moral censorship of "the people's 
theatre." This must not be. Censorship 
must limit itself to the excision of obviously 
immoral films, else it will do more harm 
than good. 

— Complying with repeated requests from 
a number of our most valued readers we 
have adopted a larger size of type for the 
F. R. This will mean a little less reading 
matter in each issue, but perhaps we can 
make up for that by regularly, or at least 
occasionally, adding a few pages. We shall 
do so gladly if our readers will aid us in 
defraying the additional expense by sending 
us some new subscribers. The Editor is al- 
ways pleased to receive commendatory let- 
ters; but the highest commendation, and the 
kind most appreciated, is active co-operation 
in spreading the Review. Unfortunately, but 
few readers think of this simple and easy 
means of assisting in the good work to 
which the F. R. is devoted. It is only 
through the active co-operation of its sub- 
scribers that the magazine can be kept alive. 
Have you shown your appreciation of our 
efforts in a practical way, dear reader? If 
not, why not get us that new subscriber to- 
day or else send us a dollar and a quarter 
for a year's subscription, at the reduced rate 
($1.25) for some public library, charitable 
institution, or some poor missionary unable 
to pay for himself? 

— One sometimes expresses a sensible 
opinion and then worries over it from fear 
that it "will get him into trouble." 







Bishop of Paderborn 

Translated from the Eleventh Edition of the German Original 
Revised and Edited by the REV. HERBERT THURSTON, S. J. 

Cloth, net $3.50 

There has been of late a very large output of non- 
Catholic books dealing with the life after death. 
Every unorthodox and fantastic opinion has found 
supporters, and especially the present-day craze for 
Spiritism is well represented in this literature. 

The need of a sound and attractive exposition of 
the Catfiulic teaching on this subject has been .in- 
creasingly felt, and in its issue of July, 1918, 
CATHOLIC BOOK NOTES (London) voiced this 
urgent need, saying that "such a book, well written, 
abreast of the best scholarship, fair and courteous, 
critical but thoroughly Catholic, would be most wel- 

The present book is intended to supply this need 
and the names and the renown of both the author 

and the editor would seem to offer ample guarantee 
that the book will meet all requirements of a 
Church teaches on the subject. 

While thoroughly up to date in utilizing achieve- 
ments of science, and in meeting the objections of 
scientists antagonistic to the faith, the author has 
wisely taken the writings of the Fathers and Doctors 
of the Church as the foundation for his work, and 
his views and statements are invariably supported by 
unquestionable authorities, with the result that we 

JOSEPH F. WAGNER, (Inc.), Publishers 

23 Barclay Street 

St. Louis: B. 



Book Co. 

Literary Briefs 

— The Extension Press, Chicago, deserves 
commendation for "Bird-a-Lea" by dem- 
entia, a well told children's story with a 
pleasant setting on a Xew York estate. It 
does not lack a religious tone, though re- 
ligion is not obtruded, as is the case too 
frequently. "Bird-a-Lea" deserves well of 
the Catholic reading public. 

— In a review of Joseph Conrad's "The 
Rescue," in Studies (Vol. X, No. 37), A. E. 
C. makes an observation which must strike 
many of Conrad's readers as very true. "I 
doubt," he says, "whether Conrad has en- 
tirely mastered English. He has full com- 
mand of its strength, but not of its ease. In 
a language really his own. he would produce 
greater work. For on the side of emotional 
description, he has extraordinary power, a 
power over ideas rather than over words." 

—Father Willibald Hackner, of the Dio- 
cese of La Crosse, Wis., has published his 
"new theory" on the "The Essence of the 
Holy Mass" also in the form of an English 
brochure. He applies to sacrificium the dis- 
tinction of ratum and consummatum. The 
Sacrifice of the Cross, he says, was the 
sacrificium consummatum, the Mass is the 
sacrificium ratum, i. e., a contract, which 
requires and receives ratification in the 

epiklesis. The new theory is striking and 
merits discussion in the theological reviews. 
(B. Herder Book Co.). 

— Father J. P. Conroy, S.J., is known to 
the Catholic reading public through his 
books on the boy problem ("Out To Win" 
and "Talks To Parents"). His latest piece of 
work is of a different sort. In "A Mill Town 
Pastor" (Benziger Bros.) he gives us a 
sketch of one of the many diocesan priests 
whom he met while on the missions. The 
story manifests a fine charity between the 
secular and the regular clergy, which is de- 
cidedly pleasant to note. As a piece of litera- 
ture, it is quite promising and we hope that 
Father Conroy has not written his last book 
of this kind. 

— "Les Precurseurs de Nietzsche" is the 
title of a recent volume by Charles Andler, 
in which the French critic traces the origins 
of Nietzsche's philosophy. He shows that the 
German thinker derived a great deal not 
only from his own compatriots, Goethe, 
Schiller, Fichte, and Schopenhauer, but also 
from the French, • especially Montaigne, 
Pascal, La Rochefoucauld, Fontenelle, Cham- 
fort, and Stendhal. In two final chapters the 
author establishes Nietzsche's debt to Emer- 
son and more particularly to the Swiss his- 
torian Burkhardt. 



May 15 

Wagner's Londres Grande Segars b in* - W* s i«h i° p p r* 


THERE were in operation on Tanuary 1, 1917, 14,576 tobacco factories. Assuming that 
these factories all continued business up to the end of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1917, it would give each factory an average output of about 541,000 segars per year. (A fac- 
tory is considered a factory by the U. S. government, whether it employs one hand or a 
thousand hands.) 

We trust these figures will be of interest to the reader, and repay him for his time and 
patience in reading the installments of this advertisement. Give us a trial! 

inn <T1 On Sent Post Paid on Receipt of Money Order or N.Y. Draft— if not satisfactory, 
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Matt. Wagner & Son 

— The Extension Press, Chicago, has done 
well in giving to the Catholic reading public 
"The Greater Love", by Chaplain McCarthy 
of the U. S. Army. The book is excellently 
gotten up, with sixteen splendid illustrations. 
Msgr. Wm. M. Foley, V.G., has written a 
preface, in which he well remarks that Chap- 
lain McCarthy's "message is clothed in the 
narrative of adventure — personal experiences 
of the author — and every page at) epic of 
absorbing interest. No one is better qualified 
to bring us a message from Over There." 
There are few consolations to be derived 
from war — even spiritual, yet those that are, 
Father McCarthy seems to have gathered to- 
gether in befitting literary style, and we can 
heartily recommend his book. 

— Fr. Zephyrin Engelhardt, O.F.M.. the 
eminent historian, is following up his classic 
work, "The Missions and Missionaries of 
California," with a new series devoted to 
the local history of these same missions. 
The first installment deals with "San Diego 
Mission" (San Francisco, Cal. : The James 
H. Barry Co.). Like the author's general 
history of the missions, this local account 
is compiled almost exclusively from docu- 
mentary sources and clears up a good many 
mistakes and errors that have been set 
afloat by ignorant or biased scribes. San 
Diego Mission is, in a sense, typical of all 
the old Franciscan missions of California. 
Fr. Zephyrin's account, and the extensive 
inventories reproduced in this volume, ef- 
fectively demonstrate the difference between 
the management of unselfish missionaries and 
that of hired administrators. 

— "In the problem of the Pentateuch, a 
New Solution by Archaeological Methods," 
Prof. Melvin Grove Kyle, D.D.. of the Xenia 
Theological Seminary, tries to show that a 
close literary and archaeological study of the 
Pentateuch tends to discredit the "documen- 
tary theory" (which would break it up into 
fragments by different authors writing at 
different dates), and to establish the trust- 

worthiness of the record at its face value. 
The peculiarities of style and arrangement 
and vocabulary, on which the documentary 
theory bases itself, can be fully accounted for 
by the differences in the kinds and uses of 
the laws presented, and the journalistic in- 
stinct of presentation. Archaeological evi- 
dence, Dr. Kyle maintains, does not support 
the Babylonian origin of the Mosaic system 
of sacrifices. The position defended by Dr. 
Kyle involves the acceptance of the time of 
the wilderness wanderings as the time of the 
composition of the Pentateuch, and assigns 
to Moses himself the responsibility of author- 

— "The Central Conference of American 
Rabbis" (Yearbook, Vol. XXX, Rochester, 
N. Y., 1920) is a symposium of the work 
of this organization at its annual meeting 
of last year. It speaks well for the collective 
strength of the leadership of American Jew- 
ry. Just how far this spirit of unification 
extends to the masses, is a moot question. 
In a discussion of the religious influence of 
the Hebrew faith the present volume makes 
it clear that these leaders at any rate are 
much perturbed at the loss of lay adherence. 
Their yearbook in no way helps to clear 
away the doubts raised by the work of the 
Dearborn Publishing Co. during the past 
year. Indeed, in some cases it merely aug- 
ments the difficulty. Thus "The Jew in 
Economic Life with Special Reference to 
Poland" presents the very facts that have 
been used by the Dearborn Independent in- 
vestigators to prove the predominance of 
Jews in the industrial life of modern society. 

— Audrey Tressider, a young and beauti- 
ful girl, sacrifices an opportunity for a bril- 
liant marriage with a non-Catholic and a 
tine home in London, to live in an unattrac- 
tive milling town with an older brother 
whom she scarcely knew. He is cold and 
selfish, engrossed in business, and denies her 
all company and pleasure. She meets Adam 
Kemp, a gutter genius, beloved by the poor, 




but a Socialist and her brother's political 
enemy. The only drawback to their mar- 
riage is that she is Tressider's sister. But 
in the end she becomes the wife of Kemp. 
Through her influence he returns to the 
Church and devotes all of his time and tal- 
ents to the uplift of the poor. This, in brief, 
is the story of Isabel Clark's latest novel, 
"Tressider's Sister," in which this indus- 
trious author maintains her well-deserved 
reputation. ( Benziger Bros.) 

Books Received 

Blessed Peter Canisius. By Francis S. Betten, S.J., 
51 pp. 16mo. St. Louis, Mo.: Central Bureau of 
the Central Society, 20cts. (P. per). 

Scientific Theism versus Materialism. The Space- 
Time Potential. By Arvid Reuterdahl, Dean of the 
Dep't. of Engineering and Architecture, The 
College of St. Thomas. 298 pp. 8vo. New York: 
The Devin-Adair Co. $6.50 net. 

The Visible Church. Her Government, Ceremonies, 
Sacramentals, Festivals, and Devotions. A Com- 
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Church" by Rev. John F. Sullivan. With 120 
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ix + 275 pp. 8vo. New York: P. J. Kenedy & 
Sons. $1.10 postpaid. 


Forty Years of Missionary Life 
in Arkansas 
By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 
( Thirty -Secon d Install m eni) 
Chapter XVI 
The great event of the year 1912 was the 
silver jubilee of the Right Rev. Edward 
Fitzgerald as Bishop of Little Rock. This 
truly great prelate deserves more than a 
passing notice. I expected a full-length bio- 
graphy of him to be published for a long 
time. As none is forthcoming I shall insert 
in a later chapter a short biographical sketch 
which I wrote for the year book of St. 
John's Church, Hot Springs, in 1909. 

The Cathedral was beautifully frescoed 
and decorated for the occasion, at a cost of 
$17,000, a jubilee gift by the small diocese. 
The bishops of the province of New Orleans 
presented the jubilarian with a costly crozier, 
whilst the priests had ordered a set of beau- 

tiful pontifical vestments for the occasion. 

The celebration took place February 3rd, 
in Little Rock, with one archbishop, twelve 
bishops and forty-five priests present. Para- 
gould, the youngest congregation in the State, 
anticipated the jubilee celebration, when 
Bishop Fitzgerald on the first Sunday of the 
year, 1892, the 3rd of January, blessed the 
convent of St. Gertrude at that place. On 
that occasion the school children presented 
to the Bishop a beautifully executed address, 
a master-piece of penmanship and painting. 
It was read by one of the scholars, John 
Kirchhoff. The children and people sang a 
beautiful jubilee hymn. 

On the 24th of April the new church of 
All Saint's, at Hoxie, was dedicated by the 
Bishop. This was more extensively noticed 
by the newspapers of the State than any 
other Catholic celebration in Northeastern 
Arkansas. "Hoxie," said the Arkansas Echo, 
of April 24, "is but a small town, but it lies 
at the crossing of two main lines, the St. 
Louis Iron Mountain and the Kansas City 
and Gulf railroads, and for that reason is 
quite an important business center. The sur- 
rounding country possesses rich land. One 
and a half miles north, on the Iron Moun- 
tain Railroad, lies Walnut Ridge, a beautiful 
small city with good hotels, banks, and a 
fine opera house. It is conected with Hoxie 
by the I. M. Railroad and a street car line.... 
About three miles south of Hoxie are the 
towns of Mintern and Lindsy. Seven miles 
west, along the Kansas City and Gulf R. R., 
are the towns of Portia and Black Rock, 
the former a very lively business place, sur- 
rounded by a rich farming country, and the 
latter on the Black River, with a number 
of big saw-mills. Six miles east of Hoxie, 
along the same railroad, is Sedgewick, an- 
other important saw-mill town on the Cache 
River. In every one of these towns there 
are some Catholics, and Hoxie lies almost 
in the center. The church in Hoxie is 50 
feet long, has a beautiful altar, with a splen- 
did oil painting, 4x9 feet, representing the 
Crucifixion, by the celebrated painter, Fuh- 

If Hoxie in the course of time did not 
justify expectations, it was certainly not the 
fault of the priests. The people at Hoxie 
were given more opportunities than those of 
any other mission. For a time Mass was 
celebrated there every Sunday. The Benedic- 
tine Sisters erected an addition to the church 
and paid for it themselves. For quite a while 
they lived there and taught school. The 
people at Hoxie knew how to work success- 



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fully. At one time, on the 4th of July, they 
realized a much larger sum than they paid 
out the whole year for priest and Sisters. 
But they seemed to care mostly for show. It 
was the same thing with the Protestants in 
that place. I was told that a revivalist who 
held forth at Walnut Ridge and Hoxie re- 
ceived much more money for his services 
than the pastor did throughout the year. It 
is as Ruskin says in the "Crown of Wild 
Olives": "People as a rule only pay for being 
amused, or being cheated, not for being 
served. Five thousand pounds a year to your 
talker and a shilling a day to your fighter, 
digger and thinker, is the rule." 

In Mintern, Alicia, and other places near 
Hoxie, Mass was always held in private 
houses. The natives have their own habits 
and customs. The old ladies in Arkansas 
used to smoke their pipes. Whilst the priest 
was saying Mass one day in one of those 
large log houses, consisting of two rooms 
and a hall, an old lady, who had been smok- 
ing in the rear, wanted to relight her pipe 
at the altar. As the priest asked her to go 
away, she remarked : "I always did hear that 
priests are cranks ; I now see it is true." 

From Hoxie the Bishop went to Jones- 
boro, where he blessed the two new jubilee 
bells, dedicated to St. Edward and St. Mary, 
and gave confirmation at St. Roman's 
Church. Father Furlong of New Madrid, Mo., 
preached the sermon. On the flat top of the 
tower near by a band played betwen times. 
This band consisted of the school-boys of 
St. Roman's parish school and played quite 
well. The oldest boy was not over twelve 
years, and the little fellows looked like 
dwarfs on their lofty height. 

During this year Jonesboro became a city 
of the second class, the census recording 
3,200 inhabitants. Paragould was a proud 
rival. Though only existing a few. years, 
Paragould had at this time already seven 
important lumber mills, two banks, a 
foundry, several good hotels, two railroads, 
and electric lights. Jonesboro at that time 
had no electric lights and only three facto- 
ries; but it was on the main division of the 
Cotton Belt Railroad, with a round-house 
and repair shops, and the local division of 
the K. C. and Gulf Road also had a small 
round-house and a repair shop there. It 
was an old town with a number of well- 
established business houses, a foundry, and 
two strong banks. This healthy rivalry has 
been kept up, and both places are now 
prosperous small cities with about 10,000 in- 
habitants each. 

The spiritual work was not neglected ; 
while I baptized quite a number of converts 
in Jonesboro that year, Father McQuaid re- 
ceived several into the Church at Paragould. 

This year New Subiaco was made an 
abbey. The Rev. P. Ignatius Conrad, O.S.B., 
at that time rector of the Cathedral at St! 
Joseph, Mo., was elected its first abbot. He 
invited me to his benediction, by Bishop 

Hogan, at the Cathedral of St. Joseph. On 
my journey to that place, I stopped in Peace 
Valley, Mo., where I said Mass on a Sun- 
day. There was quite a congregation at that 
place, consisting mostly of Germans. Al- 
though belonging to the great Archdiocese 
of St. Louis, this mission was so isolated 
that Jonesboro, Ark., over 100 miles distant, 
was the nearest parish with a resident 
priest. The place is now called White Church 
and has a resident pastor. There are at 
present also other churches in the neigh- 
borhood, — at West Plains, Thayer, Birch 
Tree, Cabool, and Brandyville ; but in those 
days Peace Valley was the only church and 
had to be attended, as already stated, from 
Poplar Bluff, Mo. The pastor at Poplar 
Bluff, Father Donovan, O. Cist., had asked 
me to stop at White Church and give the 
German Catholics an opportunity to confess 
in their own language. He asked me to do 
what I could for the people. Whilst there, 
I found that a gentleman, who had charge 
of the public schools, had taught the children 
the catechism and had thirty-three pupils 
ready for first Communion. I found them 
well instructed and resolved to remain for 
a while, to give the children a week's re- 
treat, and afterwards to admit them to first 
Communion. It was a beautiful and touching 
ceremony. I never had a better prepared 
class. Instead of going to St. Joseph, I went 
later to Subiaco to pay my respects to the 
new Abbot. (To be continued) 

A Valuable Reference Work 
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By the 

Rev. Joseph J. C. Petrovits, J. C. D., S. T. D. 

Catholic University of America 
Washington, D, C. 

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The Fortnightly Review 



June 15, 1921 

The Church and the Laboringman 

The article entitled "The Strain 
of Overwork," in the Homiletic 
and Pastoral Review (No. 8, pp. 
718—721), by Father Husslein, 8. 
J., is surprising for its anachron- 
isms. Those of us who have to deal 
with men in the very industry with 
which Mr. Whiting Williams had 
such interesting experiences, real- 
ize that these workers are sur- 
prised beyond words that such dis- 
coveries as Mr. Williams' and 
Father Husslein 's are being made 
about them, when, in matter of 
fact, these conditions are and have 
been the rule. Indeed, Mr. Wil- 
liams found the steel industry in- 
finitely better than he would have 
found it some years ago, and it is 
quite possible that, excepting a 
few changes, no more betterments 
of a radical nature can be made. 

The "strain of overwork" has 
particular interest just now in 
view of the conditions existing in 
the plants of the U. S. Steel Cor- 
poration. The striking thing about 
this particular phase of the ques- 
tion is the fact that the reform ad- 
vocated by Fr. Husslein has not 
been clamored for, to the extent 
imagined, from the inside, i. e., by 
the men themselves. This is attrib- 
utable to two reasons: 1) the men 
fear a substantial decrease in their 
earning capacity and hence a low- 
ering of their standard of living; 
2) they realize that a reform of 
this nature would not affect the 
situation fundamentally. 

It would be well worth the cost 

in time and effort if this much un- 
derstanding of the real nature of 
the present industrial difficulties 
could be injected into our so-called 
sociologists and reformers. The 
eight-hour day, or any length of 
time that will satisfy sociologists, 
physiologists, and others, will not 
relieve us materially. The difficul- 
ty lies, not so much in accidental 
characteristics like wages, hours, 
and working conditions, about 
which there has been so much ado, 
but far more really and funda- 
mentally in the very nature of in- 
dustry as conducted at present. 
The workers themselves may not 
be conscious of this, but they do 
realize that something more far- 
reaching must be done in order to 
make work likeable. 

Let us take Mr. Williams ' tired, 
dissatisfied, and discontented la- 
borer, as he found him in the steel 
mills. The shrewd observations of 
this unique experimenter led him 
to believe that the separation of 
the management from the men had 
a great deal to do with this labor- 
er's disaffection. Too long hours, 
unseemly conditions, etc., undoubt- 
edly accentuate the trouble ; but at 
bottom it is the lack of close per- 
sonal contact between the manage- 
ment and the men that is respon- 
sible for the existing discontent. 

Mr. Williams very logically at- 
tempted to make closer contact 
possible. The tired steel worker, 
under his plan, becomes a partici- 
pator in managerial affairs, and 



June 15 

his new responsibilities make of 
him no longer merely a numbered 
cog in a huge industrial machine, 
but an artisan with a new and be- 
fitting dignity. He now has a voice 
in the determination of the con- 
ditions under which he must spend 
so large a portion of his waking 
moments. No matter how long the 
hours or how hard and menial the 
work, there is a new joy in the 
great blessing of hard work and 
anew capacity that befits his hu- 
man dignity. There is a security, 
too, in the knowledge he has of the 
status of the business in which he 
has become the next best thing to 
a part owner. 

But will Mr. Williams' new ar- 
tisan be content to continue long- 
in such a role ? We are inclined to 
agree with those who hold that this 
closer contact between manage- 
ment and men does not represent 
the final phase of the new move- 
ment. In the end, it seems to us, 
We shall be face to face with a 
development which will end in the 
ownership of industrial undertak- 
ings by the laborers, banded to- 
gether in large guilds. This would 
seem to be a logical deduction 
from the very nature of the human 
make-up and the industrial devel- 
opment itself. Why should there 
be a stopping at a stage which, 
after all, must prove unsatisfac- 
tory to human nature? Will there 
be satisfaction in the heart of Mr. 
Williams' worker when he realizes 
that he has the ability to partici- 
pate in the management, and yet 
can do so only in the capacity of 
safeguarding other people's in- 
vestments? This is not only an 
incomplete development, but not 
quite fair to the capitalist. In fact, 
the present status of industry is 
satisfactorv neither to the worker 

nor to the capitalist. Both are vic- 
tims of a system, though, as it 
happens, the laborer suffers more 
than the employer. 

This rather informal presenta- 
tion of the case fairly represents 
the conclusions of discussions that 
have often taken place among 
groups with which the present 
writer has been connected. There 
is an extremely unsatisfactory at- 
titude existing between the labor- 
ers and the Church. They feel, for 
the most part, that little of practi- 
cal value is being done for them 
by those from whom they expect 
much; that a vast deal of energy 
is being expended on just such 
fruitless work as Father Husslein 
is doing, and, finally, they have 
come to the settled conviction that 
the Church in America pretty well 
represents or expresses all that is 
known by the disliked and even 
hated word, "Privilege." 

These serious charges are 
drawn from observation of a natu- 
rally limited though undoubtedly 
representative field. In other 
words, what is coming to pass in 
Catholic circles in America is 
this: The Catholic laboring ele- 
ment is being alienated from the 
Church for three well-defined rea- 
sons : (1) The large body of the 
clergy are apparently apathetic to 
the problems of the laborer; (2) 
Only too often their influence is on 
the side of "the existing order," 
which is always construed as being 
set over against the interest of the 
workers; (3) What little well-in- 
tentioned work has been done is, 
in the first place, inadequate and, 
secondly, for the most part mis- 

I do not say that these charges 
can be substantiated, but I put 
them down because I believe thev 



correctly represent the attitude of 
the workers. It would be well for 
the proper authorities to investi- 
gate and determine for themselves 
whether or not there is ground for 
these grievances. 

In this connection let me call at- 
tention to the fact that the eccle- 
siastical authorities could do no 
greater service to both Church and 
State than to base their pro- 
gramme of social reform on the 
training of the workers through 
parish organizations, conducted 
along truly Catholic lines. English 
Catholics are now discussing this 
proposal, and the laborers in that 
country have established "Work- 
ers Colleges," which are an at- 
tempt to provide the education 
necessarv in the new era. 

The N. C. W. C. could do no 
better than to make itself a truly 
representative laymen 's society by 
gathering together the Catholic 
laboring men and educating them 
along truly Catholic lines of in- 

dustrial society. If this is not 
done, I fail to see that this body 
will really accomplish anything 
for the Catholic laborer. The con- 
cern which it has shown as re- 
gards hours, wages, the "open 
shop," etc., shows it to be of ex- 
cellent intentions. The question 
that is continually being forced 
upon those of us who are in daily 
contact with the industrial situa- 
tion, as we note the attitude of the 
men, on the one hand, and the at- 
titude of our leaders as expressed 
in programmes and articles like 
Father Husslein's, on the other, 
is this: When are our leaders go- 
ing to realise that the existing situ- 
ation is far beyond the control of 
their present efforts, and that the 
vast body of the Church's laboring 
children are being alienated from 
her true spirit by the lack of ade- 
quate interest and co-operation in 
a matter so vital to their material 
and spiritual well-being? 

A Catholic Labor'uizman 

Dangerous Tendencies in Catholic Exegesis 

The recent papal encyclical, 
"Spiritus Paraclitus," again re- 
minds us that some present-day 
writers need to change their view- 
point considerably to bring them 
into harmony wdth the Church. 
The Rev. Walter Drum, S. J., con- 
tributes to the Homiletic and Pas- 
toral Review (No. 8) a rather 
trenchant article in which he con- 
cerns himself with the exegetical 
methods of his fellow-Jesuits 
Fathers Lebreton, Calmes, and 
Martindale. The Holy Father in- 
sists on the absolute truth of the 
historical statements contained in 
S. Scripture. He insists that the 
same principle of interpretation 
should be applied both to the phys- 

ical and to the historic facts con- 
tained in the Bible. "Physical 
statements," says Father Drum, 
"have to do with that which ap- 
pears to the senses; they must 
agree with the phenomena or ap- 
pearances. Historical statements 
have to do with facts; they must 
agree with the facts. The principal 
rule of history is that the written 
facts must agree with the facts as 
they actually took place. When the 
inspired John witnessed to that 
which Jesus said, it is infallibly 
true that Jesus said that which is 
reported by John." 

In what way do the interpreta- 
tions of the exegetes under criti- 
cism differ from this rule? Pere 




Lebreton, in his book, "Les Ori- 
gines du Dog-me de la Trinite" 
writes (p. 379) : "Since the Johan- 
nine Gospel is of such character, 
we deem it superfluous and, 
chancehap, impossible, in the theo- 
logical analysis of the book, to dis- 
tinguish between the discourses of 
Jesus and the reflections of the 
Evangelist. Decidedly the two 
sources are distinct; but the wa- 
ters therefrom have so inter- 
mingled that only the skilful eye 
may distinguish them. The revela- 
tion comes authentically from 
Jesus, but we may to-day perceive 
it only through the medium of St. 
John. It is the Apostle who has 
chosen the words of his Master 
in keeping with the end he had de- 
cided upon; it is he who develops 
and interprets them; it is he who 
unlocks the secret of their inter- 
pretation in his prologue, at the 
very threshold of the Gospel. The 
Gospel of St. John is Christ's 
tunic, his seamless tunic. Only in 
its entirety may it be grasped ; else 
the warp were torn from the 
woof. ' ' 

"This," as Father Drum re- 
marks, "reads very beautifully, 
and yet it is hopelessly destructive 
of the historical worth of the 
Fourth Gospel. In the texture of 
the discourses of the Christ of St. 
John, both the warp and the woof 
are substantially the very sayings 
of Jesus. We cannot admit that, 
when John bears witness to that 
which Jesus said, the Evangelist 
weaves the evolutions and fabri- 
cations of his own consciousness 
with the de facto sayings of Jesus, 
so skilfully that John's warp may 
not be distinguished from Christ 's 
woof. Nor can it be said that, in 
these discourses, the stream of the 
consciousness of John so inter- 

mingles with the stream of the 
consciousness of Jesus as to rend- i 
er it difficult to discriminate the 
commingled waters. When John | 
reports to us a saying of Jesus, 
there is only one stream of thought 
reported, and the source of that I 
stream is Jesus, not John." 

Father Martindale, in his book- | 
let on "St. John the Evangelist," 
cites Lebreton and calls his "Ori- 
gines" "a book of incomparable 
value as an aid to study and pray- 
er alike." He, too, carries forward 
the idea of two sources whose wat- 
ers are commingled almost beyond 
discrimination and calls to our at- 
tention (pp. 31 — 32) "how exactly 
in proportion as the Evangelist's 
force of inspiration, as it were, in- 
creases, his language becomes 
more and more personal, phrased 
as his personal instinct prefers. 
Chap. 1, 26, already is Johannine, 
rather than Baptist's diction; 
Chap. I, 29 — 34 grows utterly Jo- 
hannine in style ; it is hard to say 
whether 34 is even meant to be in 
the mouth of the Baptist, and not 
rather an ecstatic summing up of 
the Evangelist himself. In fact, 
here is a good example of the two 
streams intermingling: both Bap- 
tist and Evangelist are making, in 
substance, an identical affirmation. 
Evangelist wishes to say the thing 
Baptist said ; Baptist can be shown 
saying it in the way Evangelist 
would speak." 

Father Drum makes the rather 
startling charge that "Converts, 
like Father Tyrrell and Monsignor 
Benson, have recently had an un- 
due influence upon the trend of 
thought among Catholics, whose 
pre-occupation and lack of educa- 
tion have precluded the study of 
the great Catholic classics in Bib- 
lical interpretation. Such an undue 




influence is now being exercised by 
Father Martindale, who is also a 
convert. His attractive style lures 
the unknowing into ways that are 
devious from tradition. He is not 
to be unreservedly trusted in 
Biblical exegesis. . . . An attractive 
style is no guarantee of either a 
knowledge of theology or a pond- 
ering of textual Biblical evidence. 
A woeful ignorance of theology 
may be noted in the writings of 
the disloyal Fr. Tyrrell and the 
loyal Monsignor Benson. Of Fath- 
er Martindale 's errors in theology, 
we may later on write. At present 
we have to do with his slapdash 

methods in textual criticism and 
interpretation of the Bible." 

There are other serious charges 
made against the English Jesuit 
by his American brother, e. g., on 
account of his textual criticism of 
St. John and his disregard of such 
a great scholar as Father Comely, 
S. J. Father Martindale is a bril- 
liant scholar who has been at- 
tempting so many varied lines of 
activity that it is not at all sur- 
prising that his writings are call- 
ing forth such severe criticism 
from the ranks of his fellow- 

H. A. F. 

Mr. Edison's Educational Test 

Mr. Edison's declaration that 
college men "don't seem to know 
anything" has raised a storm of 
criticism. It is by no means cer- 
tain that the intelligence of the 
college graduate must be assessed 
on the basis of what he knows con- 
cerning the subjects included in 
the list of questions propounded 
by the inventor. It has been dis- 
closed in the course of an intimate 
study of Mr. Edison's questions, 
that many of them relate to topics 
about which controversies have 
raged for years. He asks for ex- 
ample : ' ' Who invented printing ? ' ' 
If the matter of naming some sort 
of characters is implied by the 
question, then we shall have to go 
back to the days of the Egyptians, 
Chaldeans, Babylonians, and prim- 
itive human races. Possibly the 
art of communication by means 
of characters is as ancient as the 
universe itself. If by "printing" 
is meant the use of mechanical 
agencies, such as presses, type, 
etc., we find the field of discussion 
crowded with a variety of expres- 

sions and answers. Many have con- 
tended that the inventor of print- 
ing was Lourens Janzoon Coster, 
of Haarlem. Gutenberg, who was 
an employee of Coster, is said 
never to have claimed the credit 
for inventing printing type and 
subsequent appliances. 

This is but a single example to 
show that many of Mr. Edison's 
questions are not capable of a defi- 
nite answer. 

The test of an educated man in 
these days of the complexity of 
knowledge is the ability to know 
how to acquire information rather 
than to possess it in every case. 
The distinguishing, mark of the 
educated youth is his knowledge 
of how to learn, for he has been 
trained in the scientific method of 
acquiring detailed information. 
Not the man whose bin of facts is 
empty, but he who in an emergen- 
cy cannot learn, is truly ignorant. 
Mr. Edison's verdict is too sweep- 
ing. He assumes that the man who 
has been trained to think will ne- 
cessarilv have accumulated a re- 



June 15 

spectable store of every-day 

knowledge, some of which will 
never come under his powers of 
observation. Take the question, 
"What is copra?" How is it im- 
portant save to grocery clerks . ; 
Again, in the financial world Mr. 
Edison's questions Avould never 
be regarded as anything like a 
satisfactory test of intelligence. A 
man may be ignorant of who is 
the author of Yankee Doodle or of 
the chemical contents of scrapple, 
and yet know all the intricacies of 

There are among Mr. Edisoirs 
questions some that can be answer- 
ed by the average school-boy. 
Moreover, careful readers of news- 
papers, magazines, and books of 
information probably can answer 
a large percentage of the ques- 
tions. Of what possible benefit it 
can be to know that Montezuma 
was emperor of Mexico when Cor- 
tez landed there, I fail to see. It 

is interesting to know that most of 
the coffee used in the world comes 
from Brazil, and it may surprise 
many to know that Russia con- 
sumed the most tea before the out- 
break of the world war. That a 
"monsoon" is a periodic, alter- 
nating wind in the Indian Ocean is 
not essential, most people will 
agree. That Roentgen, a German, 
invented or rather discovered the 
X-ray in 1895 is interesting, but 
not very important. 

But if Mr. Edison does no more 
than stir up a renewed interest in 
commonplace things, perhaps, 
after all, he will have served his 
fellows in a way. But we must not 
get too serious about things which, 
generally speaking, are of no con- 
sequence. As a basis for a test of 
the intelligence of the college grad- 
uate his questions have no value 

(Rev.) F.J.Kelly 
Detroit, Mich. 

A Union of Catholic Students in Germany 

After the Revolution of 1918 the 
"Free German Youth," under the 
leadership of AVyneken, raised the 
cry of war against parents and 
teachers. In many places this cry 
was taken up eagerly and a large 
portion of the youth of the country 
seemed likely to come under its in- 

Catholics at once recognized 
that the best means of meeting 
this danger would be to found a 
counter-organization for the youth 
attending the secondary schools. 
The bishops declared themselves 
in favor of this plan, and, in obe- 
dience to their wishes, the Union 
called "Neu-Deutschland" was 

The central offices of this Union 
are at Cologne. Priests, Catholic 

parents, teachers and representa- 
tives chosen from among the stu- 
dents by the students direct the 

In opposition to the other stu- 
dent-organizations, which ignore 
or are hostile to religion, "Neu- 
Deutschland" seeks above all 
things "to saturate the Catholic 
youth through and through with 
the spirit of the Church, to see 
that love for their holy faith grips 
alike their intellects and their 
hearts, to assist parents and 
teachers in giving them a truly 
Catholic outlook on the world and 
on life, and thus to make sure that 
they grow up to be strong and 
faithful men, Catholics in thought, 
word, and act!" 

The members of "Neu-Deutsch- 




laud" are bound to act towards 
one other in the true spirit of 
comradeship. They are interested 
in literature, music, and art. 
They are enthusiastic for the 
beauties of nature and so under- 
take, particularly on holidays, ex- 
cursions and tours to the hills, 
woods, and sea. As a matter of 
principle they are devoted to the 
old German folk-songs. Politics are 
strictly banned from their gath- 
erings. The primary idea amongst 
the members of the organization 
is the development, by personal en- 
deavor, of their own characters. 
Religious development is fostered 
with special care ; indeed the Holy 
Eucharist may be called the pivot 
of the whole movement. The back- 
bone of each branch is formed by 
the members who compose the lo- 
cal Sodality of the Blessed Virgin. 
"Neu-Deutschland" can look 
back with pride on its achieve- 
ments. Within a year and a half 
the number of members has ex- 

ceeded 25,000. Our Holy Father 
the Pope and the German bishops 
have shown themselves lavish in 
their praises of the movement and 
furthered its growth in every pos- 
sible way. The organ of the organi- 
zation, Der Leuchtturm, edited bv 
the Rev. Fr. Habrich, S. J., Seve- 
rinstrasse 71-73, Cologne, appears 
twice a month. A smaller paper, 
called Aufstieg, which appears in 
connection with the Leuchtturm, 
gives the news of the association 
in a somewhat abridged form. 

Two general conferences have 
already been held, at Cologne and 
Fulda. The religious and patriotic 
fervor manifested at these confer- 
ences proved conclusively that a 
magnificent spirit is still to be 
found in the Catholic youth of 
Germany. How pleasant it would 
be if the wish of our Holy Father 
the Pope were fulfilled and the as- 
sociations of Catholic youth all 
over the world gathered into one 
great Catholic Union ! P. W. 

One Reason for Collapses in Adult Life 

Father E. R. Hull, S. J., un- 
doubtedly touches upon one of the 
weakest points in the teaching- 
methods employed in most of our 
Catholic schools when, in his latest 
booklet, "Collapses in Adult 
Life, ' ' he calls attention to the fact 
that the appeal to natural motives 
is not made use of as much as it 
should. He mentions particularly 
four such motives, namely, (1) The 
appreciation of the ideal and the 
beautiful, (2) Respect for public 
opinion, (3) A realization of the 
hurtful consequences of sin or 
vice, and (4) "Pure and simple 
fear of the police." 

Father Hull in this connection 
recalls a conversation with a Jesu- 

it Father in Bombay, who main- 
tained that one of the defects of 
our educational system was a neg- 
lect of the appeal to the stimulus 
of the natural. "Members of re- 
ligious orders," he said in sub- 
stance, "fall into the fallacy of 
looking upon their pupils as if 
they were members of religious 
orders too. Religious are so satu- 
rated with doctrinal and moral 
knowledge, and high supernatural 
motives, and their lives are so dom- 
inated by these sources of inspi- 
ration and stimulation, that they 
forget the natural side of human- 
ity. They are apt to think that 
falling back on natural motives 
would be a sort of apostasy from 



June 15 

their high vocation. Pious relig- 
ious in fact are quite afraid of let- 
ting natural motives enter into 
their work, and imagine that its 
supernatural value is diminished 
or destroyed thereby. They wish to 
do their work purely for the love 
of God, and get frightened at the 
pleasure they feel in it, or the suc- 
cess which attends it. The idea of 
a nun being stimulated to do the 
right thing because it is honorable 
or creditable or admirable from a 
natural point of view would most 
likely be looked upon as a tempta- 
tion of the devil." 

One result of this system is that, 
in time of temptation, the highest 
motives go first and there remains 
nothing upon which men can call 
for aid in the struggle. "When it 
comes to the practical struggle, the 
highest motive is always the weak- 

est. It is something so ethereal, so 
intangible, and so unobtrusive 
that it is sure to be smothered 
under the brute mass of evil im- 
pulse, passion, and the attractions 
of sin, which are not only tangible 
and appreciable and obtrusive, but 
are so overwhelming that they 
hardly leave any room for any- 
thing else to occupy the mind." 

Who that has attended a Cath- 
olic school does not realize the 
truth which Father Hull emphasiz- 
es so well in this latest booklet of 
his? Unquestionably there are 
many other causes for the numer- 
ous "collapses in adult life" which 
we witness all around us; but 
Father Hull has elucidated per- 
haps the most important of them, 
in his own clear and interesting 


The "Sovereign People" and the Peace 

Robert Keable recalls in Black- 
friars (II, 2) how an English bat- 
talion commander said to his of- 
ficers in 1915: "There is nothing 
wrong with the army. The men 
love and trust their officers; but 
if the officers were withdrawn 
from all the armies now at the 
front, in a fortnight the first Allied 
soldier who fired at a German, or 
the first German who fired at the 
Allies, would be shot by his own 

Mr. Keable adds the remarkable 
comment : ' ' That this was so, was 
known up and down the armies as 
early as Christmas, 1914, but it 
could not then be said. It marked, 
however, the commencement of the 
passing of the old delusion [of the 
sovereignty of the people]. With a 
growing conviction the peoples of 
Europe have come to see that the 

sovereignty which has been dinned 
into their ears for their own, is 
even more than a delusion, it is a 

Ireland has found that out since 
the close of the war. An over- 
whelming majority of her repre- 
sentatives asked for liberty and 
self-determination and received — 
Black and Tans! 

Popular sovereignty is a delu- 
sion; it is also a delusion, Mr. 
Keable thinks, that the people will 
ever seize the sovereignty which 
rightfully belongs to them. They 
cannot do so for three reasons: 
(1) The people have no means of 
knowing the truth. They depend 
on a press which does not want to 
tell the truth and could not if it 
tried; (2) The people cannot speak 
their mind because they have no 
mind to speak, but are an ignorant 



mob with nothing but impulses; 
(3) The people cannot deal with 
realities because they are sur- 
rounded by unrealities and uncer- 
tainty. ' ' To-day no one makes any- 
thing; he feeds a machine that 
makes a part of something. No 
man knows for what anything 
ought to be sold. There is no fair 
and open market. No man can tell 
if the merchant asks an honest 
price. No one knows who is honest 
and who is not." 

For these reasons the people can 
never be sovereign. Nor can they 
ever be contented. "The mass of 
men are sick of strife, sick of wor- 
ry, sick all but of life. So sick and 
despairing are they, that they have 
already turned away in great 
numbers from any further hope of 
those things, honest and of good 
report, which go to make up life. 

They despair of clean, honest, 
wholesome labor for a plain honest 
reward. The joys of simple men — 
a home, a garden, free unshadowed 
homes with wife and child — these 
they know can never be for them. 
It is a fact that modern complex 
life in cities, growing daily bigger, 
cannot provide these. They grasp, 
then, at pleasure, or its shadow. 
Selfishness grows among them. 
Weary of false prophets and lying 
councillors, they distrust prophecy 
and counsel at all. True wisdom is 
not to be found, they say, nor un- 
selfish men. Let us eat and drink, 
while we can ; to excess if possible ; 
to-morrow we die. Such is the Sov- 
ereign People. Such is the peace." 
This sombre picture may be 
somewhat overdrawn; but who 
will dare to assert that essentially 
it does not correspond to the facts ! 

Phallic Romanticism" 

Mr. Edward M. Chapman, in the 
Literary Review for May 7, heads 
a very sensible discussion of con- 
temporary literature significant- 
ly, "Phallic Romanticism." He 
declares that the American novel- 
ists enjoying the greatest vogue at 
present call themselves" realists"; 
"and since cant phrases are al- 
most as readily accepted in the 
realm of literary criticism as in 
that of politics, their claim is hon- 
ored. "Realists they are admitted 
to be, and sex is their slogan. The 
gusto with which the slogan has 
come to be shouted, is fascinating. 
Psychologist has joined forces 
with the novelist. The world bids 
fair to become Freudian. Even 
men whose art is of the most 
rudimentary description, feel the 
incompleteness of their efforts ex- 
cept the master word be uttered. A 

book came to my table for notice 
the other day that was frankly 
amusing in its crude Jack London- 
ism. All the paraphernalia of 'red 
blood' and 'virility' were there. 
The jacket assured me that the 
author has the punch in both fists, 
and his portrait was printed to 
substantiate the claim. Of course 
there is a fight: the girl of the 
story looks on, less frightened 
than enthralled, and her soul goes 
out toward the blind Berserker 
who is the protagonist, while the 
author comments: 'This was sex, 
primitive, predominant. ' There 
was little in the tale to justify 
such a conclusion ; but none the 
less the formula must needs be 
dragged in or the book would fail 
of orthodoxy." 

"It was incidental and uncon- 
scious testimony to the extent to 


June 15 

which sex has become an object of 
literary worship. The romanticist 
must bring it in by violence if it 
will not come otherwise. The 
realist must put it in first place, 
make it the pivot upon w T hich all 
else turns, and measure his success 
as a student of reality by his as- 
sault upon life's accustomed 
reticencies. He fails to see that in 
the process he passes over from 
the ranks of realism proper into 
those of romanticism which his 
soul abhors. So enamored is he of 
phallic worship as to lose his sense 
of proportion ; so loud in shouting 
the praises of the great god sex 
as fairly to deafen himself to a 
hundred other voices quite as real 
if not always so vociferous." 

Who will say that this criticism 
is not well-deserved ? Surely there 
are other things in life to be cross- 
sectioned — if it be insisted that 
this is the essence of the realistic 
method — than unhealthy, unnatu- 

ral sexuality. Let us even suppose 
that all the affaires d' amour which 
fill the pages of the modern novels 
are healthy, wholesome episodes. 
Yet surely this is not all of life, 
nor even a goodly portion of it. 
The older novelists, whose place is 
secure in the literature of the 
world, could ramble on for whole 
chapters without the slightest hint 
that they were reserving for us at 
some place along the line a bit of 
a love story. Nor did their art re- 
quire it. It was true to life and 
therefore completely sufficient. It 
satisfied because it took for its ob- 
jective the whole of life and not 
merely that portion concerned 
with love and marriage, the ob- 
stetric room and the divorce 
court, or, worse still, "the eternal 

"Phallic Romanticism" is a fit 
title for much of contemporary 
American literature. 

The Servile State 

The more we see of the prevail- 
ing school of Catholic social re- 
form, the less our admiration for 
it. There seems to be an ingrown 
idea among us that the State, as 
at present constituted, is an all- 
holy, omnipotent, and omni-com- 
petent creation, to which we can 
go for our economic and social sal- 
vation and upon which we can un- 
load all our ever-increasing diffi- 
culties, and from which we can ex- 
pect something like relief 

The plain fact is that the mod- 
ern State is a deformed social in- 
stitution — the result of the diseas- 
ed capitalistic system. We are at- 
tempting to cure the latter by 
means of the former, though both 
are essentially rotten and should 
be scrapped. 

Mr. G. D. H. Cole, in his "Guild 
Socialism" truly remarks in this 
connection (p. 20) that "There 
was a time in the Middle Ages, 
when the State was only one of a 
number of social institutions and 
associations, all of which exercis- 
ed, within more or less clearly de- 
fined spheres of operation, a recog- 
nized social power and authority. 
During the period which followed 
the close of the Middle Ages, these 
other bodies were for the most 
part either swept away or reduced 
to impotence; but the effect of 
their disappearance w r as not, ex- 
cept to a limited extent for a time 
in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, the assumption of their 
powers by the State, but the pass- 
ing of the social purposes which 




they had regulated outside the 
sphere of communal regulation al- 
together. Thus the ground was 
cleared for the unguided operation 
of the industrial revolution in the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centur- 
ies, and the vast structure of 
modern industrialism grew up 
without any attempt by Society, as 
an organized system, to direct it 
to the common advantage. This un- 
regulated growth in its turn 
created the urgent need for inter- 
vention ; and, all alternative forms 
of communal structure having 
been destroyed or submerged, it 

was the State which was called 
upon to intervene. Thus took place 
the vast extension of the sphere 
of State action which, whilst it was 
partly protective in its origin, led 
to the confrontation of the pigmy 
man by a greater Leviathan, and 
produced a situation extremely in- 
imical to personal liberty, of its 
real inroads upon which we are 
only now becoming fully sensible. 
As Mr. Belloc would say, it created 
the conditions in modern society 
which are making for the Servile 

Rents and Rent Commissions 

The Rev. Dr. John A. Ryan 
writes sympathetically of the re- 
cent decision of the Supreme Court 
of the United States in regard to 
rent laws. The highest tribunal of 
the land has declared, by a major- 
ity decision of one, that it is legal 
for the rent commissions that have 
been created here and there during 
the past few years, to regulate 
rents and renting. 

Dr. Ryan justifies the decisior. 
of the Supreme Court on the basis 
of Catholic principle. We are 
pleased to find the majority mem- 
bers of the Supreme Court in such 
good company, but in precisely 
what manner will this decision ef- 
fect the lowering of rents! Here 
and there illegal profiteering has 
undoubtedly occurred, and it is 
with these cases that the rent com- 
missions could deal if the harassed 
renter had the time and inclination 
to fight the issue. But with the 
present high cost of building, the 
stiff rates of interest, and the pre- 
vailing scarcity of money, who will 
say that, for the most part, the 

rents as they are at present are 
not justified? 

It is significant of the impotency 
of the prevailing Catholic social 
reform movement that, as yet, 
there has not appeared even an 
inkling of what could be called a 
solution of this most pressing evil. 
Are we to conclude that there is 
no remedy and that the poor 
renter is to be crushed between 
high rents and low wages? Un- 
earned increment is a hasty thing, 
economically, but until it is tackl- 
ed, there is no hope of obtaining 
relief from the present difficulties. 

There is little use in justifying 
'-rent commissions" on the basis 
of Catholic principles, until we 
know whether or not these new 
bodies can be of any real help. 
Meanwhile by accentuating State 
control, we add to the expense of 
governing. If it does not rather 
help to increase the cost of every- 
thing without doing anything 
whatever by way of reducing 
rents, we shall be very much sur- 
prised. F. 



June 16 

Prohibition and Crime 
According to the Chicago Trib- 
une of May 24th, our legislators at 
Washington voted another large 
sum for the enforcement of the 
Volstead Act. Which proves that 
public sentiment is not in favor of 
a law which interferes with the 
personal liberty of a large number 
of the people, and which is radical 
and unreasonable. Those who ad- 
vocated the passage of the bone 
dry law, especially non-Catholic 
and non-Lutheran clergymen, were 
convinced that the prohibition of 
the manufacture and sale of liquor 
would help to bring the men into 
their churches, and that, the drink 
evil being abolished, all social 
problems would be satisfactorily 

But whoever will impartially 
compare conditions prevailing in 
society before and after the for- 
cible abolition of liquor manufac- 
ture and traffic, must, I think, ad- 
mit that, instead of improvement, 
deterioration has come upon us. If 
we have to wait for bone dry pro- 
hibition to bring men into the 
churches, they will never come; 
and social problems can not be ef- 
fectively solved by the enactment 
and enforcement of unreasonable 
laws. As one of the enforcement 
officers is said to have remarked 
recently: "The people at large 
don't want this law, and because 
of this it is impossible to make 
the country absolutely dry." 

Had the Drys contented them- 
selves with the abolition of whis- 
key, they might have succeeded, 
but they took advantage of war 
conditions, which happened to be 
in their favor, and became radical 
in their demands. But Radicalism 
must beget Radicalism, and it is 
no wonder that the people begin to 

rebel against and violate a law 
that is offensive to a great many, 
if not most of them. 

So the Volstead Act cannot but 
defeat the purpose for which it 
was forced upon the people. It cer- 
tainly will not bring the men back 
into the churches, and as far as 
social conditions are concerned, we 
are worse pit than before this law 
became operative. We have never 
had as many holdups, thefts, mur- 
ders, and "soulmate" cases as 
since the doubtful blessings of 
bone dryism have come unto us; 
never as many adulteries, divorc- 
es, and broken up homes. 

In spite of all police protection 
no one is safe on the streets of our 
large cities unless he carries a 
gun, and the professional crooks 
and "vamps" and murderers are 
not, as a rule, and never have been 
habitual drunkards. 

In the summer of last year an 
adult probation officer of the crim- 
inal court of Chicago spent his va- 
cation with the writer. When asked 
about the beneficial results of the 
bone dry law in his city, this man, 
who certainly is in a position to 
know, responded: "While it is 
true that some homes are benefit- 
ted by it, it is also true that crimes 
of violence have increased by 100 
per cent." Fr. A. B. 

The I. W. W. 

Dr. John A. Ryan in the current 
issue of the Catholic Historical 
Review, reviews Paul F. Brissen- 
den's book, "The I. W. W., a 
Study of American Syndicalism." 
Dr. Brissenden spent more than 
ten years in gathering the mate- 
rials for this work, which is char- 
acterized by his critic as "unbi- 
ased, adequate, and scholarly." 

The I. W. W. has never been 




strong numerically, and at the 
present time probably does not 
contain more than 100,000 paid-up 
members. They are distinctively 
"the underpaid and the unskilled 
in the labor world, — those who 
have been neglected by the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor." They 
regard themselves as the "prole- 
tariat," in contrast with the aris- 
tocracy of labor, which composes 
the Federation. 

Some time ago the I. W. W. 
split into two branches, known 
generally as the Detroit and the 
Chicago factions, * the "intellec- 
tuals" and the real wage-earners 
of radical tendencies. The latter 
group insists upon "direct action" 
as a necessary policy. 

Dr. Ryan thinks that "until the 
Federation makes greater head- 
way than it has made in the past 
in organizing this underpaid and 
unskilled element, the I. W. W. 
and kindred organizations will 
continue to obtain a foothold. 

A noteworthy fact is that the I. 
W. W. organization is Syndicalist 
rather than Socialist, that is, it 
does not believe in a centralized 
ownership and management of in- 
dustry by the State. It is more 
akin to the French Syndicalists or 
• even the English National Guilds- 

"Whatever its excesses of doc- 
trine and of conduct," concludes 
Dr. Ryan, the I. W. W. "does raise 
an important problem which must 
some time and somehow be solved : 
it is the problem of enabling the 
worker to participate in a more 
vital way than at present in the 
conditions of production and the 
disposition of the product." 

Such problems cannot be solved 
by the penitentiary or deportation. 

The Morning after the Night Before 

A correspondent of the New 
Age (London) who has been in 
America recently, writes to that 
estimable journal in the course of 
an interesting recital of his ex- 
periences (No. 1494, p. 305) : 

"America went into the war at 
last by chicanery; and for this 
reason they were and still are op- 
posed to her entry into it. They 
are not concerned with the fact so 
much as with the excuse. Wilson 
was returned for his second term 
largely as the man who had kept 
America out of the war! He 
promptly brought the country in- 
to it. But he and his supporters 
in press and pulpit expounded the 
war as a 'fight for democracy' and 
all that sort of thing. As a fight 
against a definite evil, the war was 
never understood in America; she 
went into the war ostensibly to 
make the world better, not to 
save it from becoming worse. 
Every force of coercion, violence, 
and hypocrisy was exerted to 
rouse the country against the 
new enemy. I need not give 
examples of this; it was notori- 
ous even in Europe. The reaction 
has come now. America is suffer- 
ing from the morning after the 
night before. The intellectuals 
tried to counterbalance the war 
hysteria when it began; they 
failed, and their very failure made 
them move over much more to the 
anti-war side than they would 
naturally have proceeded. But to- 
day the whole country is with 
them. America hates the war, 
hates England, hates Europe as a 

We do not know about the ha- 
tred of Europe, but there can be 
no doubt that America "hates the 



June 15 

Great Britain Preparing for War 

In the third year of peace Great 
Britain is reported to be once more 
leading the world in armament 
building-. The scrapping of obso- 
lete vessels was heralded as a 
British challenge to the U. S. to 
discuss the question of disarma- 
ment. Super-battleships, enorm- 
ously stronger in gun-powder, 
speed and armor, will be the latest 
word in naval construction. The 
Hood battle cruiser, now in com- 
mission, embodies the improve- 
ments which war experience sug- 
gested, but the latest battleships 
to be laid down show a consider- 
able advance as compared with the 
Hood type. Of the. fleet now in 
commission, the greater part is 
concentrated in the Altantic, 
where the battleships are exclu- 
sively armed with 15-inch guns, as 
compared with 13.5 inch guns in 
the battleships of the Mediter- 
ranean fleet. 

The guns of the newest type of 
British battleships will, it is re- 
ported, be of the 20-inch type de- 
signed during the war, but never 
constructed. This gun weighs 200 
tons and fires a shell of 5,000 
pounds. The battleships of the 
U. S. are armed With 16-inch guns. 

The official explanation of this 
strong concentration in the Atlan- 
tic is that it is necessary for pur- 
poses of tactical and sea training, 
but this explanation does not ap- 
pear to be regarded as satisfac- 
tory by officials at Washington. 
Nor is it satisfactory to the To- 
ronto Statesman, whose editor 
comments (iv, 23) :" History seems 
to be repeating itself. Concentra- 
tion in the North Sea before the 
Great War convinced Germany 
that war was inevitable and war 
followed. Is it wise to force the 
pace on the Atlantic seaboard ! ' ' 

The N. C. C. M. 

The Catholic Charities Review 
(No. 5) remarks that "If the. 
National Council of Catholic Men 
can attract young men to social 
work and help them create* their 
own opportunities, it will be rend- 
ering a splendid service to Church 
and country." 

We do not enjoy all the news 
advantages of our Eastern breth- 
ren; but if this so-called National 
Council of Catholic Men really ex- 
isted, we should have heard the 
rustling of its wings in some of the 
parishes of our mid-West cities. 
On the supposition — this is the 
only pleasure left these dour days 
— that this organization does exist, 
may we rise to remark that the 
N.C.W.C. would do well first to 
train and educate a body of social 
workers and organizers, who can 
perhaps, be attracted to social 
wprk? As things stand at present 
we do not believe it to be pessim- 
ism, but a plain statement of truth, 
to say that the possibility of the 
N.C.C.M. attracting anything but 
obituary notices is as meagre as 
the camel-needle combination. 

Let us get right down to bed- 
rock before we do a lot of publicity 
work about something that does 
not and can not exist. This means 
honest-to-goodness parish organi- 
zation, a press, and an educated 
body of workers in the field who 
will be able to hold all this to- 
gether. So far there is nothing in 
sight, and we cannot but feel that 
it will be years before the Catholic 
element in the United States can 
even attempt unification, though 
that is the most sorely needed 
thing in American Catholic life to- 
day." F. 

— Swords may be beaten into plowshares, 
but a silk shirt can't be converted into a 
pair of overalls. 




The "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" 
A refutation of the authenticity 
of the documents called " Proto- 
cols of the Wise Men of Zion," on 
which present-day Anti-Semites 
largely base their attacks upon the 
Jews, is undertaken by Herman 
Bernstein in "The History of a 
Lie" (J. S. Ogilvie Co.) He con- 
tends that the "Protocols," in 
substance, originated in a story of 
Herman Goldsche, who under the 
pen name of ' ' Sir John Retcliffe ' ' 
wrote a series of German novels 
in 1866 sqq. A chapter from one of 
these, entitled, "The Jewish Ceme- 
tery in Prague and the Council of 
Representatives of the Twelve 
Tribes of Israel," was published 
as a separate booklet in a Russian 
translation in 1872, — first avowed- 
ly as a work of fiction, later, for 
some unknown reason, as a state- 
ment of fact. The dialogue of the 
novel was consolidated into one 
continuous speech and put into the 
mouth of an imaginary rabbi in 
such a way as to make it appear 
to be an address delivered by him 
to a secret convocation of Jews. 
It has been asserted that the 
"Protocols" are the plans of 
world conquest read to a so-called 
"Council of Elders" by Theodore 
Herzl at the first Zionist Congress 
at Basle, in 1897. Mr. Israel Zang- 
will, who attended all the sessions 
of that congress, denies this asser- 
tion in his book, "The Voice of 
Jerusalem" (Macmillan). He 
classes the "Protocols" with the 
numerous other forgeries by which 
it has been attempted at various 
times to link the Jews with world 

Mr. John Spargo has also felt it 
incumbent upon himself to protest 
against the so-called documents 
which seek to connect the Jews as 
a class with aspirations of world 

conquest, and his book "The Jew 
and American Ideals" (Macmil- 
lan) should be read in connection 
with this controversy. Mr. Spargo 
is not a Jew. 

A Modern "Tom Sawyer'' 
1 ' Mitch Miller " is a novel by the 
author of the "Spoon River An- 
thology," Mr. Edgar Lee Masters. 
It is a tale of thirty years ago and 
its hero is the impersonation of 
the poetry of boyhood. If he had 
lived, so his creator says, he would 
have suffered. Such natures will 
always suffer, but he would have 
suffered particularly from the 
changes in America. A note of re- 
gret for this sounds in an under- 
tone throughout the book, and 
sounds loudly in the epilogue. 

"If he had lived through as 
many years as I have lived, he 
would have passed through the 
chaos, the dust, the hate, the un- 
truth that followed the Civil War. 
He would have seen an army or- 
ganization exercising a control in 
the affairs of the Republic beyond 
its right ... he would have seen 
wealth amass through legalized 
privilege into the hands of treas- 
ure hunters; and he would ha f ve 
seen these treasure hunters make 
and interpret the laws their own 
way ... he would have seen his 
country spend ten times what it 
spent in the Civil War, and lose in 
battles or disease half as many 
young men as it lost in the Civil 
War in the crusade of making the 
world safe for democracy ; and he 
would have seen democracy 
throttled and almost destroyed at 
home, and democracy abroad help- 
ed no whit by this terrible war . . . 
The America his father hoped for 
and the America he would have 
hoped for sits, for the time beings 
anyway, in dullness and in dust." 



June 15 

"Brother" Harding 
We read in The Nation (No. 
2914): "At the one hundred and 
second anniversary of the Inde- 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, 
President Harding told the assem- 
bled 'boys' how, at a lodge meet- 
ing, he had found himself sitting 
next to his 'shofer.' Business of 
mutual surprise. 'Ever after,' said 
the President, 'he was a better 
chauffeur and I was a better em- 
ployer.' The twofold moral adorn- 
ing this tale is clear. A better 
boss for being a lodge brother, 
Warren G. Harding should surely 
make a grand president. Is"he not 
a Mason, a Shriner, an Odd Pel- 
low, and for all we know, an Elk, 
Owl, Eagle, Moose, Red Man, and 
Knight of Pythias? For all his 
lodge brothers he becomes a better 
president. But how about those 
benighted outsiders to whom he 
does not belong? The Knights of 
Columbus and the Independent 
Order of B'nai B'rith should 
promptly forward their applica- 
tion blanks to the White House. 
As for the residuum of non-join- 
ers, they should take steps to 
secure the maximum of service 
out of their chief executive by 
electing him immediatelv High 
Cockalorum of the B.U.N. C.O.M. 
B.E. — the Benevolent Unassociat- 
ed Non-Conformers of Mentality 
Beyond Elevation. ' ' 



To the Editor: — 

I f vou will kindly publish these re- 
marks, I hope to trouble you no further 
with this disagreeable matter which has 
been forced upon me — unless compelled 
to do so in self-protection. 

1 am happy to say that the Annee 
Dominicaine (Paris) for March saves 
me the trouble of answering Father 
Devas' letter in your May 15th issue in 

cxtenso. Readers who wish to know will 
find in the Annee Dominicaine' s review 
of "Ex Umbris" quite sufficient about 
Father Devas' "strange book," the im- 
pression which it made, and the spirit 
in which it was written, as well as 
about Foisset, Lacordaire, suppression, 

However, I cannot refrain from pass- 
ing a few strictures of my own on 
Father Devas' letter. 

1. He writes: "These letters and 
papers are what Fr. Jandel expressly 
wished to be in the hands of every 
member of the Order interested in the 
Croat questions involved." These words 
should have been supplemented by 
Father Jandel's no less express state- 
ment that these letters and papers "are 
not written with a view to publication." 
With Father Devas we believe that his- 
tory should be truthful. So should it be 
constructive. Unless it is such, it will 
do little good, if it is not quite useless. 
Nor can any ex parte presentation of a 
cjuestion, written with a view of prop- 
agating one's own pet ideas, claim all 
the honor of telling the truth. 

2. Father Devas' half-hearted con- 
tention that Canon 1385 of the New 
Code derogates from the rule of the 
Dominican Constitutions requiring the 
names of the provincial, or General, 
and two censors of the Order to be 
printed in a book published by a mem- 
ber of the institute, must appear strange 
to a canonist. Father Devas should 
read Canon 489, which is fundamental. 
Furthermore, his remarks about his 
book, "Ex Umbris," being published 
"cum superiorum licentia' are not to 
the pont. The Order's constitutions. 
\"os. 1153 — 1156, give the rule and the 


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method to be followed in regard to the 
publication of a book. The only case 
in which, as far as the present writer 
can see, the printing of merely "cum 
supcriorum licentia" can be permitted, 
is when a work is published anonym- 
ously. This may be seen from Consti- 
tutiones, 1153, VII. The old law still 
stands, and neither provincial nor 
bishop can set it aside. No, Father O'- 
Daniel does not wish to know the cen- 
sors of "Ex Umbris.'' 

3. I do not fear the verdict of those 
who read ''Ex Umbris," though it might 
pay them to read the other side of the 
case too. Father Devas may continue 
to hold his own opinion ; he has certain- 
ly not changed mine. 

V. F. O'Daniel, O. P., 
Washington. D. C. 


Notes and Gleanings 

— "Wholesale Prices Decline 43 Per 
Cent in Twelve Months."' The decline 
in retail prices is being figured out with 
a micrometer. 

— There is a powerful little plea in 
the current Month, by Mr. Louis Vin- 
cent, for the use of "movies" in the 
cause of religion. Mr. Vincent makes 
out quite a good case, but can the real 
quality of a Benson or an Ayscough 
story be conveyed on the film? 

— The Bollandist Society ( Boulev'd 
Saint-Michel, 22. Brussels, Belgium ) 
has for sale a set of the famous "Acta 
Sanctorum," complete sets of which are 
very scarce. The purchase money will 
he a sensible aid to the work of this 
famous company of Jesuits, whose re- 
sources have been seriously impaired 
by the war. 

— After it gets through with the 
Jews, we suppose Henry Ford's Dear- 
born Independent will undertake a 

campaign against the Knights of Co- 
lumbus. Already the paper (June 4) is 
declaiming against "knighthood gone 
to seed'' and denouncing all "titular 
distinctions" as "trappings of royalty" 
incompatible with democracy. 

— Readers of The Month will have 
noticed with regret the announcement 
made in the May number, that Father 
Sydney Smith, S. J., who has been 
among the magazine's contributors for 
many years past — his first article having 
appeared as far back as 1869 — has at 
length been compelled to retire from 
the editorial staff, a veritable miles 
emeritus, who has done good service in 
his day. and may now be content to rest 
from his labor and leave the work in 
the hands of younger men. 

— Twenty-four of the fifty-six sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence 
are asserted to have been Masons in a 
recent statement by Past Grand Master 
W. W. Clarke of Louisiana. In this con- 
nection the Christian Cynosure (Chi- 
cago, Vol. LIV, No. 2, p. 35) quotes 
the following declaration of Past Grand 
Master G. W. Baird, District of Co- 
lumbia, from the "Proceedings" of the 
Grand Lodge of the District of Colum- 
bia, 1919, p. 418 : "We have been search- 
ing for evidence on this for the past 
twenty years, but we cannot verify 

— The Dial has been examining into 
the case of Mark Twain. It is undoubt- 
edly pathological, and not only Clements 
himself, but America, were the victims. 
Mark Twain undoubtedly had talent, 
but instead of using it for the good of 
his fellowmen he prostituted it for their 
amusement. As Mr. Lovett says, Mark 
Twain "flattered a country without art, 
letters, beauty or standards to laugh at 
these things." If he could come back 
and judge of things sub specie aetcrni- 


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June 15 

tatis, as he was too blind to do whilst 
in the flesh, he would no doubt ac- 
quiesce in this severe judgment. 

— There has been an alarming de- 
crease of candidates for the Methodist 
as well as for the Episcopalian and 
ether pulpits, so that a "life service 
commission" has been organized, with 
Bishop Henderson of Detroit at its 
head, to begin a "vigorous campaign" to 
supply Methodist needs. The Episco- 
palian theological schools have so fallen 
ofT in attendance that the anxiety of 
those concerned has been aroused. 
"Thus," comments The Nation (No. 
2917), "we have another interesting 
side-light upon that great spiritual re- 
vival which was scheduled by the war- 
makers to follow upon the holy busi- 
ness of wholesale slaughter on behalf of 
democracy and humanity." 

— The Catholic doctrine of dogmatic 
intolerance is frankly adopted by the 
Protestant Sunday School Times, of 
Philadelphia, which says in its edition 
of May 7, 1921 : "True love is always 
intolerant. . . . God was so intolerant 
of sin that 'He gave His only begotten 
Son' in order that, by the shed blood 
of that Son, He might deliver men from 
intolerable sin and its intolerable con- 
sequences. The whole message of the 
Bible makes it plain that whoever wil- 
fully, persistently tolerates things that 
God cannot tolerate becomes necessarily 
intolerable to God. What a sad mistake 
it is, in these last days, when men ac- 
tually make a virtue of toleration in 
directions where God makes it a vice. 

Some one has written, Tt is as if people 
were so afraid of intolerance that they 
are beginning to have no convictions 
at all.' " 

— The Rev. Dr. MacEachen, of the 
Catholic University of America, says 
(Cath. Hist. Review, N. S., I, 1, p. 124) 
that the first catechism to come into 
general use was that of "the Saint 
Peter Canisius." This is a little "pre- 
vious," as Bl. Peter Canisius has not yet 
been canonized. To-day, by the way, 
the number of catechisms used through- 
out the world is almost innumerable. 
Dr. MacEachen says there are 110 of- 
ficially adopted in French dioceses, 25 
in English, 20 in Spanish, 20 in Italian, 
20 in German, 15 in Portuguese, 3 in 
Hungarian, 3 in Polish, and so forth, 
besides innumerable non-official texts. 
Dr. MacEachen has a collection of 4,000 
catechisms, said to be the largest in the 

— In his series of papers on "Some 
Physical Phenomena of Mysticism," 
in the Month, Father Herbert Thurston. 
S. J., discusses, inter alia, the incorrup- 
tion of the mortal remains of pious per- 
sons. He institutes an inquiry into the 
state of the mortal remains of forty- 
two saints of the last five centuries, who 
have been included in the Roman cal- 
endar. He finds that in twenty-two 
cases the body was found incorrupt 
after an interval which normally would 
bring about a state of advanced decom- 
position or complete decay ; in seven 
cases there were indications of unusual 
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whilst in the remaining cases the nega- 
tive evidence against incorruption was 
not always conclusive. 

— That the Dearborn Independent's 
campaign against the Jews is at bottom 
nothing but a piece of ordinary anti- 
semi tic agitation, transplanted to this 
country from Europe, appears plainly 
frcm the latest installment (June 4). 
There the Jews are blamed, inter alia, 
for objecting to the Red Cross, to the 
Gideons, to the Salvation Army, to the 
Y. M. C. A., and to Theodore Roose- 
velt's choice of a battle hymn for the 
Progressive party. In matter of fact 
Jewish opinion is divided on these 
points, as is Catholic opinion. We, for 
one, share all these dislikes ; are we 
for that reason inferior Americans, who 
deserve to be ostracized and persecut- 
ed ? We are sorry to see Mr. Henry 
Ford lending his name to such an un- 
just and silly agitation. 

— In the current issue of the St. 
Louis Catholic Historical Review, the 
editor, reviewing Fr. O'Daniel's Life of 
Bp. Fen wick, points out that the rela- 
tive rigorism existing in continental 
Europe at the end of the 18th century, 
and transplanted to America by such 
early missionaries as Frs. Nerinckx and 
Badin, was not so much the result of 
Jansenism, as a reaction against the 
baneful principles of the French Revo- 
lution. The missionaries simply follow- 
ed the theology they had been taught 
and in the absolute soundness of which 
they implicitly believed. Dr. Souvay 
thinks most of the weird stories of 
strange penances, extravagant abstin- 
ences, etc., imposed by these priests 
were invented by malcontent parishion- 
ers and penitents, or induced by mis- 
understanding. Fr. Nerinckx, for ex- 
ample, "never could speak English de- 
centlv and was often misunderstood.'" 

—Mr. O. F. Englebrecht, of Mil- 
waukee, presumably a Protestant min- 
ister, in a paper contributed to the 
Christian Cynosure (Vol. LIV, No. 2), 
calls attention to the significant fact 
that politicians are increasingly using 
secret societies as a means to further 
their individual fortunes. "On what 
other theory," he says, "could one ex- 
plain the fact that the vast majority of 
politicians are connected with some 
secret society, often with many, prefer- 
ably with the Masons? How else could 
one account for the fact, as was the 
case in Nebraska a year ago, that twen- 
t /-one of the twenty-four State Sena- 
tors were Masons, that the majority of 
the Supreme judges, the governor, and 
most other office-holders were Masons, 
unless one assumed that the Masons are 
in politics, all claims to the contrary 

— A Georgia cotton farmer, writing 
in the N. Y. Independent ( Xo. 3/76), 
says the Ku Klux Klan which is so rap- 
idly spreading over the country, is not 
the old Ku Klux Klan of the post- 
Civil War period, but an entirely new 
organization, whose chief objects are: 

( 1 ) to protect white moonshiners and 

(2) to stop the making of whiskey by 
negroes, for themselves or for white 
men. These may be some of the ob- 
jects of the Klan, perhaps its principal 
objects, in the South. But the organiza- 
tion is spreading also in the Xorth. 
What are its aims and purposes here, 
where the negro is not a dangerous 
competitor of the white man in the 
manufacture and sale of illicit whiskey? 
One thing is certain : the Ku Klux 
Klan everywhere is both nativistic and 
anti-Catholic and therefore a serious 
danger to the country. 

—Volumes XVIII and XIX of the 
"Jahrbuch" of the German Historical 

Catholic Art and Architecture 

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June 15 

Society of Illinois, for the years 1918 
and 1919, has just appeared. Like the 
previous three or four volumes, these 
two, bound in one, are edited by Prof. 
Julius Goebel, of the University of 
Illinois. The longer articles deal with 
Swiss emigration to America, Christian 
Wolff and the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, Hoffmann von Fallersleben's 
"Texanische Lieder," reminiscences of 
the historian H. A. Rattermann, a neg- 
lected factor in the anti-slavery triumph 
in Iowa in 1854, and the late Paul 
Cams. There are the usual obituary 
notices of deceased members and a re- 
port of the 1919 meeting of the society. 
It is discouraging to learn that this ex- 
cellent society can continue its work 
only through the generosity of a few 
of its wealthier members. 

— Princess Bliicher, in her interesting 
book, "An English Wife in Berlin," 
tells that in the course of the world 
war a reduction was effected in the pay 
of all officers in the German army, from 
the minister of war to the youngest 
lieutenant. This leads a correspondent 
of the Tablet to ask: Is there any rea- 
son why this principle of the equality 
of sacrifice should not be applied to in- 
dustrial concerns? If the reduction in 
the cost of living and the need of meet- 
ing foreign competition render advis- 
able the lowering of wages in a great 
industry, ought not the salaries of di- 
rectors, managers, and the better-paid 
officials to be reduced in proportion? 
Questions of equity apart, it would pro- 
mote good will. If the principals an- 
nounce their intention of reducing their 
own salaries, subordinates will certainly 
be more ready to accept reductions in 

— The current issue (Vol. Ill, No. 
1—2) of the St. Louis Catholic His- 
torical Review is a double number of 
150 pages. The leading articles are: 
"The Old Cathedral Conference of the 
St. Vincent de Paul Society," by the 
Rev. Paul Schulte ; a "Historical Sketch 
of the Parish of Opelousas, La.," by the 
V. Rev. B. Golliard; "The Old St. 
Louis Calvary," by the Rev. John Ro- 
thensteiner; "The Beginnings of Cath- 

The Western 
Catholic Union 

A Catholic Fraternal Society 
with Adequate Rates 

Forty-three Years of Successful 

Accumulated Fund Almost $500,000 

Rates Based on Fraternal Congress 

and American Experience Table 

of Mortality at 4% 

Catholic Men and Women admitted 
at age 16 to 50 years 

Benefit Certificates in Amounts 

from $250 to $2,000 on the 

Whole Life Plan 

Benefit Certificates in the Twenty 
Pay Life from $250 to $3,000 

Juvenile Section for the Children 

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Community is a Positive Asset 

For furtlur paiticu'ars address 

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olicity in Cape Girardeau, Mo.", by the 
Rev. E. Pruente. To these are added 
the usual historical and bibliographical 
notes and a selection of documents 
from the archives of the Archdiocese. 
The editor-in-chief of this interesting 
and valuable quarterly, Dr. Charles L. 
Souvay, C. M., of the Kenrick Sem- 
inary, on May 30th celebrated his silver 
jubilee as a priest. We beg leave to add 
to the many felicitations offered to him 
on this occasion those of the Fort- 
nightly Review, to whose pages he 
has contributed. Ad multos annos! 

— Dr. R. Willman, of St. Joseph, 
Mo., says that the failure of the "Cath- 
olic Press Month" is attributable to the 
fact that the movement was neither 
properly announced nor judiciously 
conducted. He adds that, the Catholic 
newspapers themselves are partly to 
blame because they did not endorse his 
own little publication, "The Lay 
Apostolate," of which specimen copies 
with order blanks have been mailed to 
the clergy. Of what benefit this monthly 
leaflet by a well-meaning but inex- 
perienced amateur could be in a matter 
where the ordinary press organs and the 
pulpit have practically failed to ac- 
complish the desired result, is hard to 
understand. Those who are eager to 
further the apostolate of the press 
should not start new publications, but 
take as many legitimate Catholic journ- 
als as they are able to pay for, distribute 
them among their friends, remind every 
negligent Catholic they meet of his 
duty towards the press, and undertake 
to gain new subscribers gratis or at a 
nominal commission. 

— A majority is quite as arrogant in its 
belief that it "can do no wrong" as any king 
ever was. 

— A religious education is the richest gift 
a parent can bestow upon a child ; the want 
of it can never be made up by wealth. 

Literary Briefs 

—Father F. S. Betten, S. J., in a letter 
to the Catholic press calls attention to the 
fact that an important sentence was omitted 
(no doubt inadvertently) in the English 
translation of Janssen's History of the Ger- 
man People, Vol. III. After the words, "an 1 
raised up a storm and insurrection," at the 
middle of page 192, the text should read : 
"The following day, April 18, at the second 
hearing, Luther showed the steadfastness 
expected by his friends, and with fearless, 
unterrified voice refused to make any kind 
of retraction." 

— "Collapses in Adult Life," by the Re-'. 
Ernest R. Hull, S.J., is a sequal to the 
same author's "Formation of Character." Fr. 
Hull attempts here to answer a question that 
has been often propounded, namely, why do 
so many graduates of our Catholic schools 
fail when they come in contact with real 
life? Xo one can prove to a demonstration 
that Father Hull's views, as expounded in 
this pamphlet, are correct until they have 
been fairly weighed and tried out. They 
have the advantage of being practical and 
sensible and capable of incorporation into 
the prevailing teaching methods. Part VIII, 
"The Appeal to Natural Motives," contains 
Father Hull's answer to the present difficul- 
ty, and it merits consideration by every 
Catholic educator. We have too long .glossed 
over the failures of our educational system, 
and it would seem that the remedies pro- 
posed by Father Hull were worthy of a 

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June 15 

thorough trial. Parents, too, would do well 
to peruse this valuable little book on the 
proper education of their chidren. (Retailed 
in this country by the B. Herder Book Co., 
St. Louis. Mo.) 

—Dr. Charles Telch's "Epitome Theologian 
Moralis," based upon Noldin's "Summa," 
has appeared in a new (the fifth) edition. 
This useful summary of moral theology has 
been revised according to the new Code 
and is consequently apt to serve more ef- 
fectively than before the harassed student 
before examination as well as the busy priest 
on the missions. A recent reply of the Com- 
mission for the Authentic Interpretation of 
the Code will modify the view expressed 
(p. 288) in reference to percgrini and re- 
served sins. It is confusing to speak of clan- 
destinity as an impediment (p. 330- (F r - 
Pustet Co., Inc.). 

Books Received 

A Woman of the Bentivoglios. By Gabriel 
Francis Powers. 79 pp. 8vo. Notre Dame, 
Ind. : Ave Maria Press. 

Why the American Daily Standard Failed 
and How it is Going to Win. By J. Clover 
Monsma. 109 pp. 8vo. Grand Rapids, Mich. : 
Seymour & Muir Printing Co. 50 cts. post- 

Aehrenlese. Erlebtes und Erwogenes von Se- 
bastian von Oer, Benediktiner aus der Beu- 
roner Kongregation. Zweite Reihe. vi & 
248 pp. i2mo. Freiburg i. B.: B. Herder & 
Co.; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. 

A Son of the Hidalgos. By Ricardo Leon. 
Translated by Catalina Paez (Mrs. Seumas 
MacManus). xx & 296 pp. i2mo. Garden 
City, N. Y. and Toronto, Canada: Double- 
day. Page & Co. $1.75 net. 

A Catechism of the Social Question. By Rev. 
John A. Ryan, D.D., and Rev. R. A. Mc- 
Gowan, National Catholic Welfare Coun- 
cil Social Action Department. 47 pp. i6mo. 
New York: The Paulist Press. (Paper). 

Die hciligen Schriftcn des Neuen Bundes. 
Aus dem Urtext itbersetzt, mit Erlauterun • 
gen und einer Einfiihrung von Dr. Nivard 
Schlogl, O. Cist. 428 pp. 8vo. Vienna : Burg- 
verlag (Richter und Zollner) ; St. Louis: 
B. Herder Book Co. $1.25 net. 

Die Scclenleiden der Nervusen. Eine Studie 
zur ethischen Beurteilung und zur Behand- 
lung kranker Seelen von Dr. med:- Wilhelm 
Bergmann. xv + 240 pp. 121110. B. Herder 
Book Co., $1.50 net. 

The Vitreous Body. Its Origin, Development, 
and Structure, as Observed in the Eye of 
the Pig. By Aloysius W. Fromm, O.F.M. 
43 PP- 8vo. Washington, D.C. (No publish- 
er given). Wrapper. 

The New Church Law on Matrimony. By 
the Rev. Joseph J. C. Petrovits. With an 
Introduction by the Rt. Rev. Thos. J. Sha- 
han. xvi + 458 pp. 8vo. Philadelphia : John 
Joseph McVey. $4.50 net. 

Missale Romanum. Ex Decreto SS. Concilii 
Tridentini Restitutum, S. Pii V Pontincis 
Maximi Iussu Editum, Aliorum Pontificum 
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Vulgatum. Editio iuxta Typicam Vati- 
canam. ("Ratisbon Edition" ). Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc., Ratisbon. New York, and Cin- 
cinnati, O., 481110. $3.25 ; 181110, leather. 
$3.25, sheepskin, $4.25. 

The Pauline Formula "Induerc Christum" 
with Special Reference to the Works of 
St. John Chrysostom. By the Rev. Leo 
Joseph Ohleyer, O. F. M. (Doctoral Dis- 
sertation), in pp. 8vo. Washington, D. C. : 
The Catholic University of America. 

Jahrbuch der Dcutsch-Amerikanischcn Hi- 
storischen Gescllschaft von Illinois. Her- 
ausgegeben von Dr. Julius Goebel, Profes- 
sor an der Staatsuniversitat von Illinois. 
Jahrgang 1918— 19 (Vol. XVIII— XIX). 
388 pp. 8vo. Chicago : The University of 
Chicago Press. 

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Forty Years of Missionary Life 

in Arkansas 

By the Rev. John Eugene Weibel, V.F. 

(Thirty-Third Installment) 

Bishop Fitzgerald took a great interest in 
the young community of Maria-Stein. He ad- 
vised them to form a corporation and hold 
their property as a legal body under protec- 
tion of the State. The canonical standing of 
the Sisters was rather uncertain. I was satis- 
fied with the existing conditions, but the 
Bishop did not agree with me. He spoke 
about this repeatedly, and on June 23rd, he 
wrote to me as follows (I quote from mem- 
ory; the original must be in the archives in 
Jonesboro) : "I do not agree with you con- 
cerning the religious orders, especially those 
of women, that they should depend upon the 
Bishop. The Bishop of to-day may favor 
the Benedictines, the Bishop of to-morrow 
may not. What then shall the poor Bene- 
dictines do if they are only diocesan foun- 
dations? I prefer that thev should depend 
on a central authority outside of the diocese. 
Of course, if all bishops were as good as 
1 am, it would be all right, but you see it 
is not easy to find such a good man as I 

Although joking about himself, the Bishop 
was in earnest about the Sisters. I had 
modified their statutes somewhat, and sub- 
mitted them to him. He told me to have them 

revised in Rome and to try to procure a 
canonical standing for the Sisters. Soon after 
he sent me to Rome in the interest of the 
community. The Abbot of New Subiaco 
offered me a substitute for Jonesboro, in the 
person of Father Ulrich, O.S.B. This amiable 
Father had not been in Jonesboro long, when 
he got sick and had to be sent to St. Joseph's 
Hospital in Memphis. His life was despaired 
of for some time, but he recovered sufficient- 
ly to be able to return to his mother house 
in Einsiedeln, Switzerland, where he died 
soon after. Thus the care of Jonesboro and 
Paragould, with their missions, devolved 
upon Father McQuaid, who proved himself 
a real missionary, capable of the hardest 
kind of work day and night. 

The fall of 1892 was a very sickly sea- 
son. Father McQaid, as I have been told by 
reliable witnesses, for two weeks had a 
distant sick-call every night. Having lived for 
years in the Arkansas country, he knew the 
needs, ways, and manners of the people, and, 
without compromising his priestly dignity, 
he walked and talked with them as one of 
their own. He enjoyed the confidence of 
all and has proven himself for a quarter of 
a century by his prudent zeal and his charity 
a most successful laborer in the Lord's vine- 

For the rest, as a rule, it is much easier 
to get along with common folk than with 
those who have been overeducated. I traveled 
on hand-cars from station to station to hold 



June 15 

services in section houses or in boarding 
cars, and in the sheds of the saw-mill hands. 
The woods of Arkansas were then crowded 
with saw-mills. I have the most pleasant 
recollections of most of these places. The 
people were full of respect and had common 
sense. The priest invariably got the best 
room. The first thing the lady of the house 
would do after his arrival was to make him 
comfortable and give him something to eat. 
In the evening one room was placed at the 
priest's service to hear confessions. If the 
house had the things to fix up an altar, it 
was invariably done, but more often a sew- 
ing-machine had to be used for the purpose, 
or the end of one of the long boarding-house 
tables, on which the breakfast plates were 
ready on the other end. There was so much 
joy over the priest's presence and so much 
earnest zeal that these visits were a delight 
to the missionary. The greatest trials were 
met with whenever Mass had to be said in 
the fashionable house of a lady raised in one 
of our grand academies. Very often these 
ladies, unlike the girls of the parish school, 
were married to some rich Protestant, and the 
vanity show had to be kept up at anv once. 
Thus, when the missionary came, it took hours 
before the altar was arranged. Whether the 
people and the priest were waiting did not 
matter. The saddest part of it was that the 
common people generally did not venture to 
enter the rich parlor with its carpets and 
paintings and therefore missed Mass. The 
priest himself, in view of all the bric-a-brac 
on the improvised altar, would hardly dare 
to move for fear of breaking something. And 
then the wait for the exquisite meal ' I had 
repeatedly to wait on common weekdays un- 
til one or two o'clock in the afternoon to get 
something to eat. Nn matter how grand the 
repast was. the good humor was lost bv the 
lone- fast. Such ladies meant well, but in the 
artificial atmosphere of the academies thev 
had lost their common sense. For fear of 
snoiline the priest's appetite thev would not 
offer him a cud of coffee, but let him wait 
until he would be entirely out of humor. 

These academic flowers happily do not grow 
in the parochial school gardens. Of course, 
there are exceptions, but most missionaries 
will be forced to acknowledge that this cross 
exists. By the way, I think that, whenever the 
attack on the Catholic schools comes, as it 
surely will, our enemies could well afford 
to overlook most of the fashionable acad- 
emies, because these, unknowingly perhaps, 
but very successfully, promote religious in- 
difference. The Protestant boarders exert a 
bad influence on their Catholic fellow-pupils. 
No wonder that the Catholic alumnae so 
often contract mixed marriages! Sisters 
often have a very good eye to the temporal 
prosperity of their house, but seem to be 
very short-sighted, if not blind, to many 
of the dangers that threaten their charges. 
On one of my visits to the section house in 
Kuobel, Mrs. Wm. Foley warned me if I 
should have any money with me to be care- 
ful as they had some New York flunkies in 
the house who stole like rats. I had with me 
$1200 to be deposited for Mr. Peters of 
Pocahontas in a bank in Little Rock. In my 
desire to be careful I put the money under 
my pillow. At 5 o'clock A.M. I heard con- 
fessions said Mass, took breakfast and was 
brought with the handcar to the train. When 
I was asked to show my pass, I realized that 
T had left my pocketbook under my pillow. 
There was at that time but one train a day 
from St. Louis to Little Rock. I impatiently 
waited for the train to bring me back to 
Knobel. When T arrived there Mr. and Mrs. 
Foley were at the garden gate. For a while 
Mrs. Foley teased me, but Mr. Foley told her 
to stop keeping me in suspense. She said she 
would not allow any of her helpers to attend 
to the priest's room and thus haonily she had 
found mv pocketbook herself. Little I 
dreamed then that at mv next visit in that 
section bouse the good Mr. Folev would be 
brought in as a corpse. He was shot by the 
town marshal in Corning without anv pro- 
' vocation. We buried him in the Catholic 
cemetery of Pocahontas. 

(End of Part One) 

Quincy College and Seminary 

^ St. Francis Solanus 

Quincy, Illinois 


Sixty-second Year Opens September 8, 1921 
Academic, Collegiate, Commercial, Philosophical, Musical Courses 

Only Catholics .Admitted as Boarders 
For Information and Year Book address THE REV. RECTOR 

The Fortnightly Review 



July 1, 1921 

Prejudice and Politics 

By P. H. Callahan, Chairman of the Commission on Religious Prejudice 

We are now far enough away 
from the late political campaign 
to prevent any wrong construction 
being put on a frank discussion of 
the attempt made to inject relig- 
ious prejudice into the contest. 

From all accounts it was a 
sorry attempt, shamefaced and 
anonymous, which happily failed 
to create any great stir. It appear- 
ed in spots all over the country; 
but nowhere, except in sections 
where bigotry is systematically 
cultivated between times, was it 
taken seriously; and, generally, it 
was as a thing outlawed. This is a 
great improvement over condi- 
tions as they have existed in prior 
campaigns, when no pains were 
taken to conceal responsibility for 
stirring up prejudices; when 
people grew wrought up and em- 
bittered, and deep, gaping wounds 
were opened that it took months 
and even years to heal. 

We of the older generation can 
remember the time when in one 
campaign men running on anti- 
Catholic platforms were elected 
governors in half a dozen States. 
More than twenty congressmen 
elected at the same time were out 
and out anti's. Both of the great 
political parties truckled to the 
bigots; and everywhere over the 
country communities were divided 

* The Commission on Religious Prejudice 
was started in 1914 under the Auspices of 
the Knights of Columbus and terminated in 

and embittered, and friends sus- 
pected one another and neighbors 
were afraid of one another. 

Bigotry in those days was the 
stock-in-trade of almost every pol- 
itician, regardless of party or 
religious belief. Political cam- 
paigns were the rich harvest sea- 
son for professional propagan- 
dists, who usually managed to 
bleed all the parties in the contest. 
There is a delphic peculiarity 
about religious prejudice propa- 
ganda that adapts it to use on all 
sides. It was common in the old 
days to see the same stuff used 
by opposing parties in different 
communities. Even in the same 
community it was employed by 
both sides, one for the flare-up, the 
other for the flare-back. The pro- 
paganda makers calculated on 
both. It was all of a piece to them 
which side grew excited first, as 
they could trust the managers on 
the other side to answer in kind. 
And it was all the same to the 
managers what deep passions they 
set aflame, so long as they rallied 
support to their party or candi- 

The propaganda anonymously 
circulated during the late cam- 
paign was typically delphic in 
character. It was adapted to use 
by Republican politicians to incite 
susceptible Protestants to vote 
Republican, and it was adapted to 
use by Democratic politicians to 
induce susceptible Catholics to 



vote Democratic. There was no 
way of telling who prepared it, and 
the" only means of judging as to 
who was circulating it, was by ob- 
serving the class of persons re- 
ceiving it and the effect it was cal- 
culated to have on them. 

If they were of that class of 
Protestants who pay any attention 
to such things, they were likely to 
vote Republican, and it is safe to 
say Democratic politicians were 
not responsible for circulating it 
to them. On the other hand, if it 
was being sent to Catholics, the 
idea was that those who would 
consider it at all, would likely vote 
Democratic, — which makes it safe 
to say that the Republican poli- 
ticians were not circulating it to 

As a matter of fact, it is virtu- 
ally a waste of time to try to fix 
the blame on the politicians of 
either party, as it is not the blame 
they care about, but the votes. 
What is more worth while is for 
us to try to find some way of con- 
vincing the people generally of the 
fact that all such propaganda, 
whether circulated among Catho- 
lics or among Protestants, by Re- 
publicans or Democrats, and 
whether anonymous or not, is just 
so much professional trickery that 
makes political dupes of all who 
take it seriously. 

The situation in Michigan was, 
of course, different with very little 
politics and mostly all bigotry at 
the root, and the way Catholics 
and non-Catholics stood together 
to lay the ax to the root is an ex- 
ample of what we can expect al- 
most everywhere in this country, 
when the bigots are in earnest, in- 
stead of merely playing into the 
hands of politicians. 

But take the case in New York, 

where Governor Smith lost votes 
because he is a Catholic, and re- 
ceived other votes for the same 
reason, while his opponent like- 
wise lost and gained votes because 
his wife and children are Catholic. 
We see here a typical play of big- 
otry by the politicians, with the 
cards all known and most of them 
marked before the game opened 
with the nomination of candidates. 
If Protestants were urged by Re- 
publicans to vote against Smith, 
Catholics were urged by Demo- 
crats to vote for him, with the 
same argument in both cases. And 
while Protestants were being 
urged by one set of Republicans 
to vote against Smith, because he 
was a Catholic, Catholics were be- 
ing urged by another set of Re- 
publicans to vote for his opponent 
because his wife and children were 
Catholic, and this same cut-and- 
shuffle was being played by Demo- 
crats. It is a great game. 

When we were conducting the 
work of the Commission on Re- 
ligious Prejudice some years ago, 
and particularly around election 
time in 1916, a number of com- 
plaints were made to us about big- 
otry' being injected into the cam- 
paign and of candidates for this 
or that office being defeated on ac- 
count of their religion, but we in- 
variably found that religious pre- 
judice had been injected into the 
contest by some politician, not in- 
frequently by the candidate him- 
self, whose tactics usually proved 
a boomerang. The professional 
bigot 's part was merely to furnish 
the propaganda for which he was 
paid, and that was the extent of his 
interest in the matter. 

In those sections of the country 
where Catholics are few in number 
and the observance of Catholic ac- 




tivity and practices is not common, 
the case is different. Religious pre- 
judice in such sections is, as a rule, 
one-sided. It is systematically and 
continually cultivated, not only at 
election time, but between times. 
The professional propagandist, 
whether a writer or an itinerant 
lecturer, goes over these fields as 
regularly as a travelling salesman 
drumming up trade. He has a cli- 
entele and constituency that he 
knows almost as well as a politi- 
cian knows the ''fences" in his 
district. Election times are his 
flush season, furnishing him an op- 
portunity to dispose of a greater 
quantity of his "wares" than at 
other times, but they are not neces- 
sary to his business, which goes on 
independently of election. » 

Taking the country at large, 
there is every reason to say that 
the last thing to enter the minds 
of the politician who stirs up re- 
ligious excitement on one side or 
another, is to injure religion. A 
politician, as a rule, has no other 
business but politics. 

Most persons, of whatever party 
or religion, who allow themselves 
to get excited over the injection of 
religious prejudice into a political 
campaign, are merely pliant tools 
in the hands of the unscrupulous 
propagandist or the political 
trickster. Ignorance on the one 
hand and lack of sufficient ex- 
perience to give poise of thought 
and that insight which sees 
through underlying motives and 
aims, on the other hand, combine 
to produce a rich supply of vic- 
tims. These good people enter into 
the contest and sometimes take it 
very seriously, some feeling that 
the country is in danger from the 
activities of the Catholics, others 
feeling that the Catholic religion 
is attacked and put on the defen- 

sive on account of the attitude of 
some seeker for office; while the 
professionals laugh up their sleeve 
at both sides. 

It will be a long time, if ever, 
when religious prejudice ceases to 
exist. The Religious Prejudice 
Commission in one of its Reports 
made this observation: "While we 
feel that the individual personal 
sentiment of prejudice can never 
be eradicated as long as human 
nature harbors likes and dislikes, 
we firmly believe that social pre- 
judice will yield to a systematic 
and persevering treatment aim- 
ing to correct the misinformation, 
cause and influence that abound, 
in regard to those things which 
divide people into groups and 
classes, separating them wider and 
wider with each generation, until 
some great common danger or 
great common sorrow brings them 
back to a realization of their com- 
mon brotherhood." 

It seems just as true to say that 
the prejudices which are injected 
into our politics will also yield to 
a systematic and persevering 

The main thing, however, is for 
the people of all denominations 
to learn, and there are no signs 
wanting £o indicate that they ate 
learning, that to inject religious 
prejudices into a political cam- 
paign is simply a political tactic, 
and in no real sense an attack 
upon religion, and that to notice 
it, whether to oppose or denource 
it, while the campaign is in prog- 
ress, is only to play into the 
hands of the politicians. Then we 
may soon see the last of this in- 
decent spectacle paraded in our 
national political campaigns and 
the recrudescence of bigotry at 
election time will at most be con- 
fined to a few backwoods sections 
of the country. 




A Clarion Call to Duty 

The Living Age (No. 4009) re- 
prints from the Manchester Guar- 
dian a letter which, because of the 
signers, is well worth perusal: 

''Sir: — No lover of mankind or 
of progress, no student of religion, 
of morals, or of economics, can re- 
gard the present trend of affairs 
without feelings of great anxiety. 
Civilization itself seems to be on 
the wane, and everything that 
makes life really worth the living 
in process of extinction. The na- 
tions are filled with mistrust and 
antipathy for each other, the class- 
es have rarely been so antagon- 
istic, while the relation of indi- 
vidual to individual has seldom 
been so frankly selfish. The vast 
destruction of life by war and the 
acute suffering which the war 
created seem to have largely de- 
stroyed human sympathy. Hence 
the unprecedented misery into 
which the war has plunged so 
many nations often fails to excite 
those feelings of humanity, which, 
prior to the war, thrilled the peo- 
ple of every country when the 
world was visited by misfortunes 
quite insignificant in comparison 
with the present disaster. 

i ' Never was greater need of all 
those qualities which make the 
race human, and never did they 
appear to be less manifest. For 
the conditions now existing the 
statesmen blame the private citi- 
zens, while the latter blame their 
statesmen; the employer seeks to 
throw responsibility upon the 
worker, the latter denounces the 
selfishness of his employer, and 
nations accuse each other. Already 
the consequences of the breakdown 
of international, national, and pri- 
vate morality are becoming every- 

where apparent. The growing ub; 
employment at a time when thi 
need of production was never fifJ 
urgent is but an outward manifes 
tation of moral and spiritual fail; 

"It is becoming increasingly 
evident that the world has taker, 
a wrong turn, which, if persistecj 
in, may lead to the destruction o.j 
civilization. Right-thinking meii 
and women of all classes are fillec| 
with anxiety, not only because oi{ 
existing conditions, but on accounll 
of the still more distressing situa-| 
tion likely to develop in the earljji 
future — a situation which they feel; 
powerless to prevent. In these-: 
circumstances we appeal to thej 
right thinking of all nations and of I 
all classes, whether they be states- 1 
men or humble citizens, employers 
or workmen, and invite their co- 
operation in the work of applying! 
the true remedies, for it is only by 
maintaining the highest possible! 
standard of right between nations, 
between classes, and between indi- 
viduals that the present situation 
can be adjusted and the dangers 
overcome. So long as each nation, 
through its statesmen, considers 
exclusively its own interest, and 
refuses to consider the common 
welfare of all nations, the dangers 
cannot be overcome. Nor can they 
be overcome while everyone is 
seeking to benefit himself at the 
expense of the community and re- 
fusing to perform the best service 
he is capable of performing. 

"Many, no doubt, are conscious 
of the truth and the air is full of 
recriminations; but a renewed 
sense of the right is needed, as 
well as a renewed determination 
both to do what is right and to 


maintain what is right, interna- 
tionally as well as nationally and 
individually. When statesmen and 
citizens, employers and employed 
acknowledge joint responsibility 
and decide to stand for the right 
even when it is apparently against 
their interests as well as when it 
favors them, only then can the 
spiritual and moral health of the 
nations be renewed, progress be 
resumed, and the general economic 
wellbeing be once more re-estab- 
lished. — Yours, etc." 

Follow the signatures of E. W. 
Barnes (Canon of Westminster), 
Francis Balfour, Hugh Bell, Lord 
Buckmaster, Edward Carpenter, 
John Clifford, D.D., Kate Court- 
ney of Penwith, W. Moore Ede 
(Dean of AVorcester), Alfred E. 
Garvie, D.D., (Principal of New 
College, Hempstead), L. P. Jacks, 
(Principal of Manchester College, 
Oxford), Walter Lock, D.D., 
(Lady Margaret Professor of Di- 
vinity), the Bishop of Manchester, 
the Bishop of Oxford, George 
Paish, Lord Parmoor, the Bishop 
of Peterborough, and W. B. Selbie, 
D.D., Principal of Mansfield Col- 

This is indeed a memorable let- 
ter. We have seen fit to quote it 
in full and add all the signers' 
names. It is nothing if not signifi- 
cant and, in a limited sense, repre- 
sents the opinion of intellectual 
England. The ideas expressed in 
the communication can stand by 
themselves, though the names at- 
tached thereto and the circum- 
stances of the writing make for 
additional effectiveness. 

Our particular interest in the 
letter lies in the relationship be- 
tween the ideas expressed therein 
and the Catholic position at the 
present moment. 

Let us first recall that one of 
the chief concerns of the corre- 
spondents is the maintenance of 
the "highest possible standard of 
right between nations, between 
classes, and between individuals 
that the present situation can be 
adjusted and the dangers overr 
come." Now, in what sense are 
Catholics interested in just this 
very problem! Are we, as a body, 
vitally concerned with these ques- 
tions, or does our religion mean 
nothing to us beyond the limited 
sphere of our own lives! If non- 
Catholics are seriously asking 
themselves these questions, whith- 
er should Catholic opinion and ac- 
tion have already gone! In short, 
are we as a body making the prin- 
ciples of our Catholic faith felt 
in the present crisis and can we 
truthfully say that the Catholic 
Church is a vital factor — it should 
indeed be the sole determining in- 
fluence — in this era, which is cer- 
tainly one of the most important 
turning points in history! Ameri- 
can Catholics have cause to be 
alarmed. Perhaps never before 
have twenty million people, with a 
definite faith and a definite world- 
economy, presented so disordered 
a front to an approaching cata- 
clysm. H. A. F. 

— The new Archbishop of Birming- 
ham, Msgr. Mclntyre, in a letter to the 
Universe, of London, applies to that 
excellent Catholic journal, of which he 
has been a reader for many years, a 
famous saying of Cardinal Newman. 
"Speaking for myself," he says, "I ap- 
ply to the Universe a sentence of Car- 
dinal Newman's : 'A [newspaper] 
which can please in youth and age 
seems to fulfil (in logical language) the 
accidental definition of a classic.' " 
This is high praise, indeed, coming from 
a critic of Dr. Mclntyre's taste and 



July 1 

A Serious Defect in Our Higher Teaching 

Father Hull, in his "Practical 
Philosophy- of Life," puts into the 
mouth of "Mr. Watson," a fic- 
titious theological student, words 
which must recall the college days 
of many a student of the sacred 
sciences. Watson was suspected of 
liberal theology. "The points of 
the indictment were reducible to 
two: (1) He was a "dark horse" 
to his superiors; and (2) he was 
suspected of liberal tendencies in 
theology and philosophy. As to the 
dark horse accusation, that was 
soon disposed of. In matter of 
fact, he was the most transparent 
of characters, and was always dy- 
ing to confide everything to every 
body. But he had a reverential f ear 
of persons in authority, resulting 
from the fact that in childhood, 
whenever he was naughty, his 
parents always threatened to call 
in a policeman — so that he always 
felt shy in the presence of official 
persons, and his lips were para- 
lysed whenever he wanted to tell 
them anything. 

But like others similarly com- 
posed, Watson overcame this diffi- 
culty by sheer use of will power. 

The suspicion of Liberalism, 
however, was another matter. 
Watson "was noted for the radical 
way in which he attacked the 
theses and the tenacity with which 
he persevered in the attack. Most 
students regarded objections to 
theses assort of academic exercises 
or at most a dodge for clearing 
up their meaning. But Watson was 
of different calibre. With almost 
fierce earnestness he seemed bent 
on destroying the thesis; and it 
looked as if he did not believe a 
word of it. What was worse, he 
used to encroach on preserves 

which his more reverential fellow- j 
students regarded as sacred. He J 
would search for fallacies in the { 
argument for the existence of Godj 
with all the keenness and pertinaci-' 
ty of an atheist. He would try to 
undermine the very foundations of; 
the Bible and the Church. Those j 
companions who came in for his I 
attacks got frightened, and ran to 
the superiors to report. When such 
denunciations came in from all 
sides, and on a number of vital 
questions, no wonder if alarm was 

But Watson explained himself 
to those who cared to know his 
reasons in the following way : " It 
is claimed (he said) that our theol- 
ogy and philosophy embody the 
truth, not only on the basis of 
faith, but on the basis of reason 
and evidence. Now, when it is a 
question of accepting the doctrines 
of religion by faith, I have no diffi- 
culty in doing so with the greatest 
simplicity of mind. But when I 
find professors promulgating thes- 
es, and claiming that they are 
proved to the hilt by irrefragable 
facts and logic, I say to myself, 
'Hoc est aliud rem'. Every thesis 
becomes a challenge to the world; 
and I say to myself : ' If you appeal 
to fact and reasoning, to fact and 
reasoning you shall go.' I don't 
want to stuff myself up with text- 
book matter swallowed implicitly. 
I cannot stand before the world 
and claim that my thesis is irre- 
fragably proved until I am per- 
sonally convinced that it is. I say 
to* myself: 'If your proofs are 
valid, they ought to be invulner- 
able; they ought to be like bullet- 
proof jackets. As soon as an in- 
ventor produces a thing which he 




calls a bullet-proof jacket, our 
business is to hang up that jacket 
and pelter it with dum-dums for 
all we are worth. If the inventor 
gets nervous and asks us to be 
merciful, our obvious inference is 
that he has little confidence in his 
own invention. So we say there 
must be no shirking. Let us try 
our very worst against it. If we 
manage to get a bullet through, we 
shall deliver the world from a 
piece of humbug. If it stands the 
test, we are only contributing to 
the inventor's triumph." 

It is hardly a wild guess that 
Father Hull is here, as in many 
another place, to a great extent 
autobiographical. Besides serving 
the purpose for which it was in- 
tended, the above quoted page 
from his latest book also lays bare 
a decidedly weak spot in the teach- 
ing methods employed in the phi- 
losophical and theological courses 
of our Catholic universities and 
seminaries. The essence of the 
Scholastic method, qua method, 

consists in refuting objections 
based on the finely divided dis- 
tinctions brought against a thesis. 
The value of such philosophizing 
lies in the originality and sincerity 
of the objections and the honest 
attempt to uncover any weakness 
in the attacked thesis. As currently 
practiced in the so-called circles 
the better philosopher is he who 
is able to do the best research 
work in ferretting out objections 
from the works of the standard 
authors. In the face of honest ob- 
jections based on the latest scien- 
tific researches, many an ancient 
thesis cannot stand. The masters 
of Scholastic philosophy them- 
selves, were they still alive, would 
change these theses in the presence 
of the newer scientific data. 

Unfortunately, for the most part, 
we seem more concerned with the 
preservation of a system than with 
the extension, clarification, and 
promulgation of the truth. Father 
Hull has done well in calling at^ 
tention to this defect. 

A Disappointing Book 

Father Joseph Husslein, S. J., 
associate editor of the N. Y. Am- 
erica, in the dedication of his 
latest book, ' ' Evolution and Social 
Progress," remarks that " [Evolu- 
tion] is at the basis not merely of 
our science and popular literature, 
but also of our commercial trans- 
actions and our labor troubles, of 
our public morality and the wel- 
fare or ruin of nations. All this 
is made abundantly clear to the 
reader in the present volume." 
The reverend author dedicates his 
book to the "classes and the 

Here, then, is a foreword filled 
with much promise. A volume deal- 

ing with the evolutionary theories 
as they affect social progress, and 
brought within the range of "the 
classes and the masses," is cer- 
tainly a prodigious undertaking. 
Yet Father Husslein took upon 
himself similar tasks in two previ- 
ous books, "The World Problem" 
and "Democratic Industry." The 
former was published immediately 
after the World War, at a time 
when, as now, people were strain- 
ing their vision to discern the out- 
lines of a new economic order. The 
term "World Problem" was most 
apropos. The disappointment was 
all the greater when the book was 
found to be merely a readable ac- 



count of the hoary old problems 
that had perplexed the western 
world long before the war. The sec- 
ond disappointment was even more 
severe when, in "Democratic In- 
dustry, ' ' the author gave his read- 
ers a loosely connected series of 
amateurish essays on the develop- 
ment of the guild idea and its ap- 
plication in the Middle Ages. The 
third disappointment is no less 
keen when we find ourselves pre- 
sented with twenty four loosely- 
knit chapters on evolutionary 

Father Husslein gives us a 
sketchy resume of these theories 
and states the Catholic attitude in 
their regard. We can feel the hand 
of a well-read and an orthodox 
guide as we are led hither and 
thither through these mazes of er- 
ror. And yet we are keenly disap- 
pointed. At no time does the author 
fulfill the promise held out in the 
title and the foreword. The great 
problem of the evolution of society 
is left absolutely untouched. In 
what sense, for example, can we 
speak of the "development of 
Capitalism"? A recent writer be- 
lieves that Capitalism has but just 
begun, for all of Asia has as yet 
not known this form of industrial, 
society. In what sense, for that 
matter, can we speak of the "de- 
velopment," "unfolding," or 
' ' evolution ' ' of society in any of its 
forms, composed of beings en- 
dowed with a free and imperious 
will which may and can and has 
often asserted itself collectively, 
under the proper direction, so as 
to interrupt, at a certain stage, an 
apparently obvious and uniform 
social development? These are 
highly important considerations, 
to be dealt with almost entirely in 
the light of the modern historico- 

critical method. Father Husslein, 
despite his promise, has not done 

The disappointment is accen- 
tuated by the fact that English- 
speaking Catholics have no ade- 
quate appraisal of history, where- 
as our German brethren in the 
faith have lately had added to a 
splendid array of such studies, a 
booklet by Dr. Wilhelm Koppers, 
S.V.D., "Die Anfange des mensch- 
lichen Gemeinschaftslebens im 
Spiegel der neueren Volkerkun- 
de," which is excellent and truly 

Fr. Husslein 's volume is not the 
work of a scientist at all, but that 
of an editor and a compiler. The 
writer has gathered much good 
material and passed upon its worth 
with the aid of a solid training in 
philosophy and theology. But he is 
not in any sense an expert. There 
is little that is fresh and new in 
the make-up of his book and noth- 
ing whatever to show up the influ- 
ence evolution has exercised upon 
the social sciences. An author who 
writes of an automobile, for ex- 
ample, as fitted up with a motor 
that "has the power to convert the 
gasoline^ with which it is daily fed, 
into glass for the lamp, oil for the 
wick," etc., can hardly escape the 
criticism of being bookish and un- 
observant. Perhaps he is rather the 
victim of inexact titles, ambitious 
dedicatory promises, and extrava- 
gant press agenting. Strangely 
enough, he has been victimized 
three times in succession. 

— Which of pur American poets 
would you expect to appeal most to 
the Japanese? According to Prof. No- 
guchi, of the University of Tokio, Walt 
Whitman and Amy Lowell are the two 
most widely' read in Japan. 




The Next Step on the Road to Social Reform 

Every now and then some one 
with a flair for the practical de- 
mands of us a social programme 
which will bring the new era near- 
er. There is considerable show of 
logic in such requests in view of 
the constant insistence that Capi- 
talism must give way to a new 
order that will afford ample op- 
portunity for the expression of 
man's whole nature. 

But we do not propose just yet 
to lay down what we consider to 
be the right course of action for 
the realization of the above objec- 

In the first place, that is not the 
work of a journal which is at- 
tempting primarily to educate by 
means of making its clients more 
critical, more judicial, and more 
exacting in their intellectual de- 
mands. Moreover, to outline a pro 
gramme would, at present, be an 
utterly useless task, comparable to 
informing a man of a route, the 
beginning and termination of 
which he knew not. What does it 
avail the world to know the means 
by whichit may go from Capitalism 
to Solidarism (or by whatever 
name we wish to call the new or- 
der) when men for the most part 
do not yet realize that Capitalism 
is the cause of so much of their 
misery and naturally know next 
to nothing of Solidarism and the 
Catholic ideals of social justice 
and statecraft? 

There is, however, a very practi- 
cal suggestion which may be made 
— not so much as part of a pro- 
gramme, but as indicating the next 
and most feasible step in the eco- 
nomic solution of the difficulties 
that confront us. The education of 
the people, especially the laboring 

element, is, in our opinion, the 
very next and, in fact, the most 
necessary step. The N. Y. Free- 
man (No. 57), in speaking of this 
matter, remarks that "Labor is far 
from such knowledge. What, then, 
is the point of asking for a detail- 
ed programme of action that must 
be based upon the knowledge which 
Labor as yet has not? The only 
suggestion that is of any practical 
value to Labor at present is that of 
Solomon, 'Get wisdom, and with 
all thy getting get understand- 
ing \" 

This is precisely the point of the 
suggestion made above and the 
point, by the way, of much that 
we publish on the social question. 
In view of the dismal failure 
of the various "programmes" 
that have come from Catho- 
lic reformers, it would not 
seem to be foolhardy or rash to 
translate this little suggestion into 
practice by the institution of or- 
ganizations of workingmen in the 
city parishes and of similar or- 
ganizations of farmers in the agri- 
cultural districts. Surely, the re- 
sults can be no worse than they 
have been after several decades of 
reform by legislation, and we 
make bold to say that, if the possi- 
bilities of education are examined 
into carefully by our "liberal" 
friends, they will come to see that 
much of our salvation rests right 


— Apropos of the note (F. R., No. 10, 
p. 160) regarding the first church in 
America dedicated to St. Joan of Arc, 
Father Fridolin Tembreull, O.S.B., of 
Watson, Sask., informs us that a chapel 
in honor of the Maid of Orleans was 
erected in Canada about the year 1910 
by the Rev. E. V. Reynolds. He does 
not say where. 




The Commercial Recovery of Central 

Despite the many handicaps 
under which the people of Central 
Europe are laboring, it at least 
will have to be frankly acknowl- 
edged that commercially, so far as 
her relations with the U. S. are 
concerned, Germany is making a 
magnificent showing. American 
sales to Germany for the fiscal 
year ending this month are the 
largest for any year in the entire 
history of American trade rela_- 
tions with Germany. Before the 
World War, Germany was buying 
about $300,000,000 of American- 
made goods every year. The high 
water mark was reached in 1913, 
when German purchases in this 
country reached $352,000,000. This 
year our German exports will ex- 
ceed $400,000,000. This is a larger 
volume of export business than we 
are doing with any other country 
in the world, with the possible ex- 
ception of France and England. 
For the last few weeks, the aver- 
age has been considerably in ex- 
cess of one million dollars a day. 

But what about German exports 
to the U. S.I you will ask. These 
figures, of course, are hardly so 
favorable, but they are far from 
being discouraging. The year im- 
mediately preceding the war, Ger- 
many shipped $185,000,000 worth 
of goods to this country. This 
year, the total will be more than 
$100,000,000. The rapid growth of 
German exports to the U. S. is 
shown by the fact, that for last 
February the total was $4,952,000, 
in comparison with $7,368,000 for 
March. Everyone must acknowl- 
edge that Germany has made a 
remarkably quick recovery in her 
commercial relations with the U.S. 

Germany is making a like pro- 

gress in rehabilitating her mer- 
chant marine. The past month saw 
several new ships make their 
maiden trip to South America. At 
Hamburg the tonnage is already 
about two-thirds of the tonnage 
for 1913. This does not look like 
a decrepit attempt to take a share 
of the world 's carrying trade. And 
despite all handicaps, the Germans 
continue to astound the world with 
their ingenuity. During the war 
they overcame the shortage of fuel 
by using a fuel composed of one- 
third coal oil and two-thirds coal, 
but how they managed to utilize it, 
no one knows. 

In five years, it is predicted, 
Germany will have a new mer- 
chant marine of economical, cargo- 
carrying fleets, while other nations 
will be loaded down with expensive 
ocean-going junk. Their one handi- 
cap is a shortage of lubricating 
oil and that they are about to over- 
come by means of a synthetic oil 
lately discovered. But Germany is 
not out of the race by a great deal. 
Despite the injustice of the Treaty 
of Versailles, her people have tak- 
en heart and will give an example 
to the rest of the world of how a 
nation can "come back" with the 
greatest possible odds against it. 
(Rev.) F. J. Kelly 
Detroit, Mich. 


— In the Journal of Roman Studies 
(Vol. IX, Part I) Mr. Gilbert Bagnani 
publishes an account of the subterranean 
basilica discovered by accident on April 
21. 1917, at Porta Maggiore on the 
Rome-Naples railway. It is, he says, 
''one of the most important discoveries 
ever made in Rome." He describes the 
basilica and indicates its place in the 
archaeology of the subject. The stucco 
decoration of the interior is the "great- 
est attraction of this extraordinary 




The Catholic Press 
The Catholic Historical Review, 
of Washington, D. C, in No. 1 of 
its new series, prints a list of 
Catholic publications in the U. S. 
This list contains a number of er- 
rors. Our only Catholic daily 
newspaper in English is not 
named The Daily American, but 
Daily American Tribune, and our 
only German Catholic daily is call- 
ed, not Die Amerika, but simply, 
Amerika. The Herold des Glau- 
bens has been incorporated with 
the semi-weekly edition of the last- 
mentioned journal, which is now 
known as Amerika und Herold des 
Glaubens. My Message, the official 
organ of the Bishop of St. Cloud, 
died of inanition long ago. The 
Nord-Dakota Herold, of Dickin- 
son, is not regarded as a Catholic 
publication. We doubt whether 
The Common Cause, of New York, 
is still alive and, if it is, whether 
it can be classed as Catholic. 

A list of this kind, to be worth 
anything, should be (1) complete, 
(2) accurate, and (3) state the fre- 
quency with which each paper or 

review is issued. 

# * # 

The editor of the Catholic His- 
torical Review (N. S., Vol. I, No. 
1, p. 82) says that, though he is 
"not disposed to be optimistic," 
he believes that "tine Golden Age 
of the Catholic Press [in America] 
has begun" with the publication 
of the pastoral letter of the Am- 
erican hierarchy, Jan., 1920, and 
the initiation of the Press Depart- 
ment of the National Catholic 
Welfare Council. 

W T e of the F. R., though not dis- 
posed to be pessimistic, believe 
that the golden age of the Catholic 
press in America lies in the past 
and that the centralizing move- 

ment undertaken by the N.C.W.C. 
marks a distinct decline. 

The C. H. R. says we Catholic 
editors must "eliminate the per- 
sonal equation," and at least in- 
timates that we must eschew dis- 
cussion and echo the views of the 
hierarchy on every subject and on 
all occasions. That would, in our 
opinion, be suicide. The article on 
"The Need of a Free Catholic 
Press" in No. 10 of the F. R. 
points out a better way. If the 
bishops do not grant liberty to our 
press in all matters of free discus- 
sion and if we editors do not make 
our papers interesting by develop- 
ing- ' ' the personal equation, ' ' i. e., 
individuality, it will only be a mat- 
ter of time until we shall have no 
more Catholic press worthy of the 
name, and that would mean com- 
plete intellectual stagnation. 

St. John of Beverly and the Deaf 
We see from the Literary 
Supplement of the London Times 
(No. 1,008) that there was lately 
celebrated at Beverley Minster, 
near Hull, England, the 1,200th 
anniversary of the death of St. 
John of Beverley (May 7, 721), 
fifth Bishop of York and ordainer 
of the Venerable Bede. A pupil 
first of St. Hilda at Whitby, and 
then of St. Theodore of Tarsus at 
the Cathedral School, Canterbury, 
St. John of Beverley probably 
took part in the inauguration of 
the educational system of which 
St. Theodore of Canterbury was 
founder. On account of his having 
taught a dumb boy to speak at 
Hexham in Lent, 685 (see Bede's 
"History," V, 11), he is regarded 
especially as the patron saint and 
also the first English teacher of 
the deaf. 



July 1 

Since 1896 there exists in Eng- 
land a Guild of St. John of Bever- 
ley for the assistance of the deaf. 
From the Times' description we 
judge that the organiaztion con- 
sists exclusively of members of the 
Anglican Church, though it ex- 
tends help to deaf persons of every 
creed. Its address is 75, Victoria 
Road, London, W. 8, England. 

Our "School-Marm" Civilization 

An Englishman, who lately visit- 
ed this country, writing in the 
National Review (Apr. 1921), thus 
describes our metropolitan press : 

"The first paper which I opened 
was one of the many illustrated 
sections of the Herald and Ex- 
aminer. On the outside page 
was a picture purporting to 
illustrate an article by Elinor 
Glyn, entitled 'My Secrets of 
Love.' Then there was an ar- 
ticle on 'pre-natal influences' 
under the heading ' Can a Baby be 
"Marked" by its Mother's 
Fright?' followed by a two-page 
discussion of the burning question 
'How Amanda C. Thomas, chorus 
girl, twice married and twice di- 
vorced, won the affections of the 
old millionaire, President Shouts. ' 
Then came a ' real life domestic tri- 
angle tragedy,' suitably illustrat- 
ed, headed 'Did Grace La Rue 
"Vamp" Mrs. Hale Hamilton's 
Husband V And on the back page 
was a soap advertisement, with a 
large colored picture entitled 'The 
Skin you Love to Touch, ' and tell- 
ing people how to grow it. 

"Then came the editorial sec- 
tion, dealing with 'Society, Fash- 
ions, Books, and Art.' On its first 
page was an article entitled 'Rus- 
kin, Love and Women,' with a pic- 
ture 'by the brilliant artist, Nell 
Brinkley, illustrating one kind of 

American boy-and-girl affection. 
It is the best kind, probably, the 
young man considering himself 
utterly unworthy of the Being of 
Light and Beauty so far above 
him.' The lady in the picture was 
arrayed in what looked like a tight- 
fitting ball-gown, neat white-satin 
shoes, a large halo, two full-sized 
wings and a seraphic expression. 
She stood on a pedestal, before 
which the young man worshipped 
with bowed head. 

"I waded through several of 
these Sunday papers, all of which 
seemed to exhale the same un- 
wholesome atmosphere. But in the 
end I chanced upon a pictorial ad- 
vertisement which seemed to me 
extraordinarily significant for the 
sociologist. It represented a con- 
jugal fireside tete-a-tete, Monsieur 
smoking and Madame at her 
needlework. The young husband is 
just stretching out his hand to the 
cigar-box by his side, when his 
wife stops him saying, 'Not to- 
night, dear. Take XYZ's chewing 
gum. It purifies the evening kiss.' " 

In "God's own country" the 
primary schools have for many 
years been entirely in the hands of 
women teachers, and in the high 
schools they constitute an over- 
whelming majority. The male 
youth of the U. S. are being led 
from childhood to the very portals 
of manhood, by women, and most 
of these unmarried. 

— The National Federation of Wom- 
en's Clubs seems to have nothing else 
to do in these troublous times than to 
agitate for funds for the purpose of 
helping to rebuild the birthplace of 
Theodore Roosevelt ! No other country 
has as many memorials with so little 
to memorialize as America, and the 
good ladies are evidently determined 
to keep up our reputation in this re- 
gard . 




The Clergy and Worldly Affairs 

Every now and then it is object- 
ed, in answer to the question why 
the clergy are not active against 
the evils of Capitalism, that "the 
priest can do little or nothing in 
such matters. His is a spiritual 
world, whereas these things touch 
the mundane and economic." 

To give the lie to such state- 
ments, we notice that occasional- 
ly — and indeed frequently if 
the occasion demands, — Catholic 
priests can bestir themselves to 
great and pious activity. There is 
the Irish question, for example. 
Its solution is a matter of justice, 
we are told. It is interesting to 
note how many of the clergy, as 
nationality or sentiment moved 
them, have become leaders in this 
movement for the establishment of 
justicial world relations in Ire- 
land's regard. The extremely 
dangerous political aspect of this 
matter has not deterred them, in- 
deed they would be willing to see 
America go to war, if necessary, 
in order that Justice have her 
rightful sway in Ireland. 

We have no quarrel with such 
activity. It is extremely illuminat- 
ing in the teeth of the contention, 
so often heard, that worldly af- 
fairs are beyond the province of 
the clergy. Capitalism is indus- 
trial and economic injustice. In 
its derivative phases it directly in- 
fluences morals, as witness "birth- 
control." Until the great body of 
the clergy in the United States 
recognize this serious matter and 
better themselves accordingly, the 
Catholic Church will not only not 
conquer the world, but, it is to be 
feared, will remain without vital 
influence even anions: her children. 

Masonic Fables 

Intelligent Masons are becoming 
ashamed of the assertion, found in 
so many of their standard books, 
that Freemasonry is of ancient 
origin, and of the tales that are 
told to make the craft appear more 
important than it is. In the "Pro- 
ceedings of the Grand Lodge of 
Nevada for 1920, p. 66, is quoted 
the following sober statement by 
Grand Master Lindsay, of the 
Grand Lodge of North Carolina 
(we are indebted for the quotation 
to the Christian Cynosure, Chica- 
go, Vol. LIV, No. 2, p. 50 sq.) : 

' ' If there were just some way to 
weed out all the fool fables which 
often render ridiculous the noble 
Order of Masonry, it would be bet- 
ter for the standing of the fra- 
ternity. No fault should be found 
with the allegorical teaching in- 
cluded, but when orators of sup- 
posed intelligence gravely tell the 
gullible multitude at Masonic pic- 
nics and on other public occasions 
that Masonic lodges were in opera- 
tion before the Deluge, that our 
present Ritual has been handed 
down from the days of King Solo- 
mon, that there has never been a 
president of the United States who 
was not a Mason, that all signers 
of the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence were Masons, except Bene- 
dict Arnold, who, by the way, was 
a Mason, it is enough to make an 
Egyptian mummy laugh. The 
writer once heard a much-traveled 
visiting Brother seriously declare 
in a lodge at Raleigh that he had 
visited lodges in India which had 
records running back six thousand 
years. Ananias and Baron Munch- 
hausen were paragons of veracity 
as compared with that Brother." 


July 1 

Closed or Open Shop? 

Air. Gompers has announced 
that a great and general effort will 
be made by the A. F. L. in behalf 
of the closed shop. 

The closed shop is insisted upon 
by the labor unions as a means of 
protection for the workingmen, 
while the open shop, employing 
union and non-union labor indis- 
criminately, is desired by employ- 
ers to protect themselves and the 
public against unreasonable de- 
mands on the part of the unions. 

It cannot be denied that labor 
as well as capital has the right to 
organize, to protect its own inter- 
est, and therefore no fault is to be 
found with labor leaders in their 
efforts to unionize all the work- 

But we must distinguish be- 
tween the means which are used 
to bring about the consolidation of 
labor. If labor leaders or union 
workers can persuade non-union 
men to affiliate themselves with an 
organization in order to obtain 
better working and living condi- 
tions, they are merely exercising a 
right which is founded upon the 
principle of self-preservation. If, 
however, threats of violence are 
used to force any man into a union, 
or to place a non-union man before 
the alternative either to join the 
union or to starve, this is evidently 
wrong. And as long as not all the 
workers can be induced to unionize 
by peaceful and lawful arguments, 
the policy of a strictly closed shop 
by compulsion seems to me to be 
unfair. If any one man, dissatis- 
fied with wages or working condi- 
tions, quits, it ought to be another 
man's right to work, and whoever 
interferes with the exercise of this 
right, commits an act of injustice. 

After I had spoken before a la- 

bor union on the sins both of capi- 
tal and of organized labor one day, 
one of the men remarked: "You 
are right, Father; but the capi- 
talists have committed what you 
Catholics call mortal sins, while 
the labor unions committed the 
little fellows (venial sins)." 

I am not so sure of that. The 
indictment and trial of "sluggers" 
in Chicago at the present time 
plainly shows that some unions at 
least try to tyrannize both employ- 
ers and the public. And if pub- 
lic sentiment is changing in favor 
of the open shop, and many manu- 
facturers refuse to recognize the 
unions, we believe that union poli- 
cy and union leadership are large- 
ly responsible. Fr. A. B. 

The K. of C. and the Goat 

To the Editor: — 

On Sunday, May 29th, the Feast 
(transferred) of Corpus Christi, we of 
New Orleans witnessed a peculiar cere- 
mony. The Knights of Columbus Coun- 
cil No. 714 had an initiation — an all-day 
affair — that began with mass at St. 
Michael's Church. The Knights, march- 
ing to the church with a brass band, 
had a live billy goat at the head of their 
parade, both to and from the church. 
While this is not the first time — we had 
been told about it — we could never be- 
lieve that Catholics and intelligent men 
would have a billy goat as their leader, 
until we saw it with our own eves on 
Sunday, May 29th, 1921. 

What does it mean, any way? Of what 
is the billy goat a symbol ? Why did the 
K. of C. select the feast of Corpus 
Christi. when in all of our churches the 
usual procession takes place : in some of 
them, as is the custom here, even 
outside the church? As the initiation 
lasted all day, the Knights who followed 
the billy goat could not and did not at- 
tend the Corpus Christi procession on 
that day. O tempora, o mores! 





[We cannot say why Knights of Co- 
lumbus, in New Orleans or anywhere 
else, should parade a goat at the head 
of their procession. As for the sym- 
bolism of the goat, Albert G. Mackey 
says in his "Encyclopedia of Freema- 
sonry," new and revised edition, Phila- 
delphia, 1906, p. 15: "The old Greeks 
and Romans portrayed their mystical 
god Pan in horns and hoofs and shaggy 
hide and called him 'goat-footed.' When 
the demonology of the classics was 
adopted and modified by the early 
Christians, Pan gave way to Satan, 
who naturally inherited his attributes ; 
so that to the common mind, the devil 
was represented by a he-goat, and his 
best known marks were the horns, the 
beard, and the cloven hoofs. Then came 
the witch stories of the Middle Ages, 
and the belief in the witch orgies, where 
it was said, the devil appeared riding 
on a goat. These orgies of the witches, 
where, amid fearfully blasphemous 
ceremonies, they practiced initiation into 
their Satanic rites, became, to the vul- 
gar and the illiterate, the type of the 
Masonic mysteries ; for, as Dr. Oliver 
says, it was in England a common 
belief that the Freemasons were ac- 
customed in their lodges 'to raise the 
devil.' So the 'riding of the goat,' which 
was believed to be practiced by the 
witches, was transferred to the Free- 
masons ; and the saying remains to 
this day, although the belief has long 
since died out." Are the K. of C. going 
to inaugurate a new chapter in the his- 
tory of the symbolism of the goat? — 

— Another proof of the unreliability 
of Gibbon, the historian of the Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire, is 
furnished by Professor Bury in the 
English Journal of Roman Studies 
(Vol. IX, Part I). Prof. Bury shows 
that the Princess Honoria, whose "re- 
lations with Attila," according to Gib- 
bon, "secured her a scandalous notorie- 
ty," was a pure woman and that Gib- 
bon's view of her profligacy cannot be 
maintained in the light of authentic 

Notes and Gleanings 

— "Our main activity for years has 
been confined to the raising of funds 
for Church purposes, and the more im- 
portant activity of raising men has, to 
a lamentable degree, been neglected." 
(Joseph Rogers in America, May 28, 
1921, p. 133). 

— In answer to a harried father's 
inquiry in No. 11 of the F. R. (page 
l/l sq.) a teacher writes: "To give 
back a composition or exercise with all 
the corrections written in carefully, is 
a waste of time and labor on the part 
of the teacher. Nor is it a help to the 
pupil to have no other indication of the 
quality of his work than percentage 
marks. Since then, we are not to write 
in corrections, nor to score out the mis- 
takes and indicate them by marks, what 
are we to do? I try to explain each mis- 
take orally to the pupil in such a way 
that he will have no difficulty in making 
his own corrections and profiting there- 

— "Zyxt" will be the last word in Dr. 
Murray's "New English Dictionary," 
now nearing completion. "Zyxt" is an 
English dialect form meaning "Thou 
seest." By the way, the completion of 
the tenth and last volume of the Oxford 
Dictionary, as it is commonly known, 
does not mean that the work will be 
finished, for the letters U and W are 
still incomplete. It is now expected that 
the gigantic task, undertaken in 1878, 
will be wholly completed by 1923. We 
have been used to receiving sections of 
this great work three or four times an- 
nually for so many years that we shall 
probably feel lonely when they cease 
to come. 

— Myles E. Connolly in the N. Y. 
America of May 28 describes a Guild 
of Catholic Dentists existing in Boston, 
Mass. This organization has some 200 
members, who meet once a month, and 
seems to have made some progress 
towards attaining its three avowed ob- 
jects, namely, (1) the spiritual advance- 
ment of its members, (2) their pro- 
fessional advancement, and (3) charity. 
The example set by this Guild is worthy 
of imitation. Professional men no less 



July 1 

than laborers should be organized into 
guilds in order to facilitate a solution 
of the social problem along Christian 
lines. Let St. Appollonia's Guild of 
Dentists lead the way. 

— The San Francisco Monitor, the 
most independent among our "official 
organs," says (Vol. 63, No. 5) : "Con- 
trary to the mistaken notion of many 
estimable people, including a certain 
class of Catholics, the ideal Catholic 
newspaper should not be a nice, ladylike 
Sunday school journal, edited for milk- 
sops and mollycoddles. Catholic means 
universal, and no human interest is for- 
eign to the purpose or beneath the 
notice of a model Catholic paper. It 
should treat with candor and truth and 
a passion for righteousness all the great 
issues of the times, especially in their 
moral aspects, for it is a truism that 
the vital social, industrial, and political 
questions of today are fundamentally 
moral problems calling for a Christian 

— Catholic laymen's retreats will be 
held at St. Benedict's College, Atchison, 
Kans., during the months of July and 
August. They are open to men from all 
sections of Kansas and the nearby 
States. The exercises and lecturers will 
be under the direction of the Rev. Fr. 
Henry Courtney, O.S.B., a retreat 
master of recognized ability. St. Bene- 
dict's College is eminently fitted as a 
retreat centre by its ideal location and 
its many conveniences. Retreats for 
Catholic laymen and women will also 
be held at St. Mary's Mission House 
and St. Ann's Home, Techny, 111., under 
the auspices of the Fathers of the So- 
ciety of the Divine Word. Particulars 
will be furnished upon request by the 
Rev. Joseph F. Eckert, S.V.D., Techny, 

— Das Deutsche Buck lately con- 
tained a bibliography of the German 
books that have thus far appeared on 
Einstein's theory of relativity. It con- 
tains in all fifty-four titles, exclusive 
of newspapers and magazine articles. 
Some of these works have gone through 
various editions. A. Pfliiger's "Das Ein- 
steinsche Relativitatsprinzip gemein- 

verstandlich dargestellt" is in the tenth 
edition. This is the work that has re- 
ceived Professor Einstein's personal 
recommendation. The largest, by Max 
B. Weinstein, is a volume of 424 pages. 
The bibliography was compiled by 
Professor Einstein himself. It is plain 
from the titles that the theory of 
relativity is meeting with considerable 
opposition in Germany. Six of these 
books are written solely to refute it. 

— In Mount Vernon, N. Y., a court 
decides that the city authorities have a 
perfect right to withhold a permit for 
a Socialist meeting. In a Connecticut 
city, on the other hand, no one can be 
prevented from saying what he will 
on the street corner, as long as he does 
not offend against the laws of common 
decency. Here are instances which illus- 
trate how even learned judges may 
differ and how one person, in one part 
of the country, may indulge in the an- 
cient American privilege of free speech, 
whilst another, somewhere else, n ay 
not. Surely it is time to call a halt on 
legal technicalities in such essential 
matters as this and to get back to the 
days when free and full discussion of 

Enclose a Postage Stamp to 

Joseph Berning 

212-214 East 8th St. Cincinnati, Ohio 

For a List of Approved Plays 
for the Catholic Stage 

These plays have been successfully produced from 
coast to coast in Catholic schools, colleges and 
academies, and have been strongly endorsed by clergy 
anu teachers for their instructive value and entertain- 
ing features 


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— The Sacred Heart College, Denver, 
has changed its name to Regis College. 
The school paper says : "Our old name 
was too sacred for sport yells and ath- 
letic columns into which it was bound 
to enter." Changing a sacred name into 
one less sacred is one way of solving 
what the Catholic Sentinel calls "a pro- 
blem of conduct which faces many 
Catholic schools." But there are some 
among us who would prefer to see this 
problem solved differently, namely, by 
retaining the hallowed old names and 
relegating athletics and sports in gen- 
eral to the minor and comparatively 
unimportant role which by right be- 
longs to them. The supreme role which 
they have assumed of late years, is not 
in conformity with Catholic ideals and 
bodes ill for the future. 

— In an appendix to the latest part 
of the Westminster Version of the 
Bible, Father Lattey takes the view 
that St. Paul was not the pioneer in 
freeing Christianity from the burdens 
of the Jewish law, but St. Peter, despite 
his temporary lapse, went much farther 
in this respect. St. Paul did not bind 
Gentile converts to obey the prescrip- 
tions of the law, but before the Jewish 

elders at Rome maintained that he had 
never himself offended against the an- 
cestral customs of the Jews. St. Peter, 
in connection with the conversion of 
Cornelius, had received a divine com- 
mand, expressed in very strong terms, 
and even apart from this it was at least 
more fitting that the head of a church 
destined to be world-wide should set 
the example in breaking away from the 
symbolical usages of Jewish exclusive- 
ness and nationalism. 

— Speaking of "Fulsome Flattery," 
writes a clerical reader in connection 
with the article under this title in No. 
11 of the F. R., "would it not be much 
better if all of us, no matter how high 
or how low our station in Church or 
State considered ourselves unprofitable 
servants ? This would spur us on to new 
activities instead of allowing us to 
think that, having done very well, we 
are entitled to rest on our laurels. The 
writer is correct in saying that we 
Catholics, as Catholics, have very little 
influence in the public life of these 
United- States. The Bishop of San An- 
tonio recently said the same thing. In- 
stead of admiring the work already ac- 
complished, we should survey the im- 
mense field that remains uncultivated . 
this would help us in acquiring humili- 
ty, a virtue very necessary for the pro- 
pagation of the Gospel." 

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— Raymond Radclyffe, the financial understand why England will not agree 
editor of Chesterton's New Witness, to nationalise everything — coal mines, 
in No. 443 of that delectable journal railways, banks, and factories. Then his 
says that "over £2,000,000 now stands power of patronage would be so enorm- 
to the debit" of England in the shape ous that he could count upon remaining 
of foreign export credits, and adds: in office for the rest of his life." 
"We behaved like madmen during the — Our revered friend, Msgr. E. B. 
war and piled up debts regardless of Ledvina, was consecrated Bishop of 
the fact that one day they would have Corpus Christi at St. Mary's of the 
to be paid. We may escape bankruptcy, Woods, Ind., June 14. For fourteen 
but we can only do it if the government years the new Bishop was closely con- 
stops spending money. The Morning nected with the Catholic Church Ex- 
Post accurately calls the bureaucrats tension Society, and we speak from 
Mice'. Such parasites do not thrive upon personal knowledge when we say that 
a healthy body. We can make ourselves without him the Society would never 
healthy and kill the parasites, but not have been the success it is. His diligence, 
as long as Lloyd George remains in orderliness, and skilful management 
power. He believes in the bureaucracy, W ere needed to supplement the efforts 
he believes in making credits and in Q f the founder. Bishop Ledvina will 
'fairy gold.' In his heart he cannot find a big field in his new diocese, which 

Havana W/ } T -f •"""■> 1 Imported 

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T> OSS'IBLY you may wonder why segars have not come down in price, as other com- 
modities have. Please allow us to explain: First of all, we wish to impress the smoker 
that we never change the combination of our segars associated with the names of our 
standard brands. When we do make a change, we run them under an entirely new name, 
so as not to deceive the smoker as we believe confidence is a man's greatest asset in trade. 

We wish to call your attention to the fact that our present prices were made January, 
19 ^° — a year before our product reached its peak in that respect. All last year we were 
burdendened with repeated increases in wages of the segar makers. We shouldered these 
increases, as we believed that the time was at hand when things would come our way. 
Not only that, the LONDRES GRANDE and all our "B" class goods were at the jumping- 
off point (they really belong in "C" class), for as soon as we charge more than eight cents 
the Government demands an extra revenue of $3.00 per thousand. 

That would mean not only the labor advance, but the $3.00 extra revenue, which would 
bring the LONDRES GRANDE and all other "B" class goods up to $9.00 per hundred. 
So, it was up to us to sacrifice $5.00 per thousand to save the smoker $8.00. Labor has 
dropped a trifle, but nothing compared with what it increased from January to November 
1920; so we consider ourselves fortunate to be able to hold to our present price. All 
other requisites, such as boxes, labels, cartage, packing etc , have not decreased to any 

Now comes the leaf question. The leaf now being used is 1918 crop because the raw 
material (leaf tobacco) is never suitable, and is not available for manufacturing purposes 
until it is from one to three years old after it has passed the grower's hands. By this 
you see the money is in this commodity and can not be taken out, owing to the fact that 
it was raised under war wages and restricted acreage. 

What the future of leaf will be is yet to be determined, but we cannot see a decline in 
segars for sometime to come. This is answered by the fact that segars did not advance 
until the fall of 1917, where other commodities after 1914, raised from two to three hundred 
per cent. Our total advance for the entire period up to the present time was only 60 per 
cent. This advance had to take care of the revenue increase. 

The law of compensation is inexorable, and those men and industries who and which 
danced to the music of war-time profits, may well expect to pay the fiddler. Having feasted 
mightier of the fat, they can well afford to chew the quid of the lean. But the segar trade, 
as it happens, and as records prove, was not among the industries that so indulged. Hav- 
ing had not feast, it is not now conditioned for a famine. 

Surely the consumer will not penalize the segar man that gave them a square deal when 
his hands were tied; not if he recalls past circumstances and is made acquainted with pres- 
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yard with the needs of which he is 
thoroughly familiar and to which he 
has devoted so many of his best efforts 
in the past. 

— In a review of G. R. Stirling Tay- 
lor's new book, "Guild Politics" (Cecil 
Palmer) the London Catholic Times 
(No. 2804) says that "If the men who, 
starting humbly in life, built up huge 
industries and business firms, had not 
been cleverly induced ... .to extinguish 
themselves under titles . . . .there would 
be no need to question the capability 

of Labor to provide rulers, just as it 
has provided the men, whose business 
capacity has extended the bounds of 
empire." Our contemporary adds: "If 
one were to go back three or four gen- 
erations in the pedigree of many of the 
modern lords of commerce and finance, 
one would probably come to shirt- 
sleeves." In America, one would not 
have to go back three or four genera- 
tions to "come to shirt-sleeves," as 
some of the men who began at the bot- 
tom and forged their way to the top 
are still living. Still we are sometimes 
told that Labor has not the brains re- 
quired to manage big industries ! Labor 
is taking its future seriously, and we 
ought to help it reinforce its aims and 
claims by insisting on the Christian view 
of work and wealth. 

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July 1 

— Some American papers have poked 
fun at the "advisory plebiscite" recent- 
ly held in Silesia. They have a right 
to do so, for in this country we manage 
such things much more smoothly. 
"Here," says the Freeman (No. 63), 
"we hold what are not called advisory 
elections ; we vote for Woodrow Wil- 
son who will keep us out of war, and 
Gamaliel Harding who kill keep us out 
of the League, or the Association, or 
whatever it is they are calling it now; 
and then we go home and unhitch the 
horses and wait to see what will hap- 
pen. When it happens, we hitch up and 
go to town again ; buy a few bonds, tell 
the boys good-bye, change our minds 
about entangling alliances, and general- 
ly and severally get behind the presi- 
dent, who would not have been presi- 
dent at all if we had known what kind 
of a president he was going to be. 
Plebiscites are nothing in the president's 
life or ours, but no one among us has 
yet thought of calling our own elections 
by the frank and apologetic name em- 
ployed in Europe." 

— Father Raymond Vernimont writes 
to us apropos of a note on page 172 of 
the current volume of the F. R. : 
"Should not the case of Antony d' An- 
drea (who was refused Catholic burial 
in Chicago, though he had repented on 
his death-bed and received the last 
Sacraments) be explained for the bene- 
fit of the public? Such things hurt the 
Church. An overzealous priest once re- 
fused burial to a man who had ex- 
pressed a desire to receive the Sacra- 
ments, but could not. Archbishop Elder 
compelled the priest to have him re- 
buried in consecrated ground." We had 
expected that an explanation would be 
made of the Andrea case, but nothing 
so far has been forthcoming except the 
declaration, entirely unofficial, that the 
man had given great scandal bv having 
himself ordained by a schismatic bishop. 
We do not see how this would change 
the case. Canon 1240 of the Code of 
Canon Law, which says that no one who 
has given true signs of repentace should 
be denied Christian burial, dees not 
seem to admit of exceptions. 

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— We are often told that if our 
Catholic press were more efficient, it 
would be more generously supported 
by the faithful. We may be permitted 
to doubt this in view of a statement 
by Archbishop Mclntyre, of Birming- 
ham, contained in a letter to the Lon- 
don Universe (May 13). The Arch- 
bishop says : "The need of a widely 
diffused Catholic press is daily growing 
more urgent. A sound and capable Cath- 
olic press already exists. It is manfully 
doing its duty on behalf of the Catho- 
lic cause; but it is a painful question 
to ask whether Catholics generally are 
equally doing their duty of supporting 
that press? I fear there is much inex- 
cusable apathy. The circulation of our 
Catholic papers ought to be immensely 
larger than it now is. Our press is cer- 
tainly efficiently conducted; and for 
healthy minds affords more interesting 
reading than most of the secular press." 
This statement proves that England has 
an efficient Catholic press, but it is no 
more adequately supported by the faith- 
ful than is our considerably less efficient 
American Catholic press. The key to 
the solution of the problem, here as in 
England, lies not so much in improving 
the Catholic press as in overcoming the 
apathy of Catholics towards it. How 
can that be done? 

— Magdeleine Marx's much-discussed 
book, "Woman," has been translated 
into English. Bertrand Russell, Israel 
Zangwill, and Henri Barbusse are quot- 
ed as saying that this work "expresses 
what has never been exactly expressed 
before." In matter of fact it merely 
preaches free love. The heroine loves 
two men, who both go to war and are 
killed. She has a firm affection for her 
original mate, while his successor 
pleases through novelty. This is all quite 
natural ; but where does "the new 
form" stop? There is no reason why 

the second lover should not be followed 
by a further ninety and nine. "What 
one would like to know," says a critic 
in the New Witness (No. 444), "is how 
the creed of the all-embracing heart 
proposes to deal with the children re- 
sulting from these various unions. 
Magadeleine Marx does not face the is- 
sue. Neither does she adumbrate the 
old age of 'woman' when, her sexual 
attractions at an end, she is driven back 
against that 'exclusiveness of love' she 
sets out to destroy." The best criticism 
of the all-embracing heart theory is 
that, finally, there would be no one left 
to embrace or to be embraced. 

— The last twenty years have added 
many a detail to the portrait of the un- 
happy Marie-Antoinette. Since the dis- 
covery of Count Fersen's papers in 
Sweden and her own letters to Barnave, 
and through the researches of Lenotre, 
Funck - Brentano, Madelin, and de 
Segur, the materials are at last at hand 
for a reconstruction of the Queen's 
tragic story. With ease, urbanity, com- 
petence, and feeling the Marquis de 
Segur has produced a new biography 
of "Marie-Antoinette" (Paris: Cal- 
mann Levy), which, whilst it awakens 
our sympathies for the ill-fated woman, 
reveals the causes of her sad fate. She 
was a being all impulse and nonchalance, 
all pride and futility, with any amount 
of courage and no constancy. Her girl- 
ish vanity and fondness for display led 
her constantly to eclipse her court, 
while her love of mockery spared noth- 
ing she thought old-fashioned, ugly, or 
ridiculous. She was extravagant and 
reckless in money matters at a moment 
when economy counted for a cardinal 
virtue in France. But the fault that 
ruined all was that she must needs have 
her finger in every pie, and that, without 
any political capacity, she weighed 
passionately on her husband's decisions. 



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In two masterly chapters — "La Reine 
et les Ministres," and "La Lutte" — M. 
de Segur shows how his heroine, charm- 
ing, clever and courageous though she 
was, brought down disaster /on the 
throne of France. 

— Judge Ben B. Lindsey, of the 
Denver Juvenile Court, has been com- 
pelled to pay a fine of $500 for contempt 
of court because he had refused to be- 
tray a child's confidence. The contest 
lasted six years and included an appeal 
to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Colo- 
rado Supreme Court sustained the ver- 
dict of the lower court and the U. S. 
Supreme Court refused to review the 
case. Judge Lindsey, in a statement is- 
sued shortly after paying his fine, said: 
"I am sure I have demonstrated that 
in actual practice the courts are wrong, 
and it is decidedly in the interest of 
justice that such confidences should be 
respected. It is a strange rule that this 
is permitted by statute as to other pub- 
lic officials, and as between attorneys 
and clients, pastors and penitents, and 
that it should be denied in a tribunal 
where the value of such a confidence 
to the State and to justice is perhaps 
the highest." The last sentence contains 
an exaggeration, but Judge Lindsey is 
undoubtedly right in demanding that 
the confidences reposed in a juvenile 
judge by his proteges should be made 
inviolable by law. Unless they are, our 
juvenile courts will not be able to ac- 
complish the purpose for which they 
were instituted. 

— Dr. William Barry, in a letter to 
the Tablet (No. 4228), reiterates his 
well-known contention that "it is im- 
possible to supplant the Authorized 
Version [of Sacred Scripture] familiar 
to the English speaking world by any 
new translation, however excellent." 
He holds this view mainly for the rea- 
son that he believes in ultimate reunion. 
"Does any man dream," he asks, "that 
in some future age the Douay Bible, 
revised ever so much, or a brand new 
translation made to-morrow, will super- 
sede the ancient text of which innum- 
erable traces are everywhere discern- 
ible, not only in preachers, but in poets, 

historians, novelists, in essays and 
journalism, and in common speech? If 
not, our Catholic Bible will be a hin- 
drance, not a help, and a second-rate 
performance, which merely adds to the 
general confusion among Christians." 
This point of view, of course, can be 
defended. But it is not the only point 
of view, nor perhaps the most impor- 
tant one, from which this subject can 
and should be regarded. Let us see 
how the new Westminster Version will 
take with English-speaking Catholics. 
Meanwhile there is hardly any need of 
Dr. Barry's reminding us that "no ver- 
nacular version of Holy Scripture is 
an 'authority' or 'authentic' in the sense 
laid down at the Council of Trent." 
The problem is entirely concerned wilh 
language and devotion and with the 
propagation of the faith among non- 

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Literary Briefs 

— The late Dr. McDonald of Maynooth, 
in his last book, "Some Ethical Aspects of 
the Social Question," discusses whether it is 
lawful for a Catholic to join associations 
which are called and call themselves Social- 
istic. His concluding warning to the clergy 
(p. 147) may be quoted: "If Socialism is 
enticing the working man as much as is 
being proclaimed, be sure, you priests, that 
he knows something about what it is, what 
it aims at, and what it does ; and that he 
is not likely to heed your warnings against 
it if, as he hears its tenets set forth, they 
are not so violent or irreligious as you rep- 
resent them, or if the balance of evil to its 
credit, as he finds by experience, is not so 
great as you would have him believe." 

— It is a real pleasure to announce the ac- 
cession to the ranks of Catholic journalism 
in England of Sursum Corda, a review of 
Catholic literature, edited by John Langdon 
and published by the Ambrosden Press. It 
requires a stout heart in these days to publish 
a periodical which aims at bringing earth 
a little nearer to Heaven, "not by the ap- 
proved methods of the hour, but by recog- 
nizing the positive value, even in the mun- 
dane affairs of life, of poetry, imagination, 
and vision." We trust that this example of 
stout-hearted Catholicity in England will 
bring to us in America a little more of 
real journalism and an increase in the num- 
ber of those who will appreciate it. 

— Dr. Maria Maresch, of Vienna, in a 
153-page volume, published by the Volks- 
vereins-Verlag of M. Gladbach, presents a 
selection of "Briefe der Katharina von 
Siena," together with a sketch of her life 
and some brief but trenchant observations 
on her character and development. The book- 
let is well adapted as a means to acquaint the 
reader with St. Catharine and to enable him 
to appreciate her writings. If one looks deep- 
ly into the chalice of the mystic flower of 

St. Catherine's speech one finds therein a 
simple and sound philosophic system, the key- 
note of which lies in the sentence : "I am He 
Who Is, and thou art she who is not." 

— The Catholic Historical Reviezv (Wash- 
ington, D. C) now appears under the editor- 
ship of the Rev. P. W. Brown, D.D., a pupil 
of the former editor. Rev. Dr. P. Guilday. 
The magazine, while keeping its former size 
and character, has launched out into the 
general field of church history. As no peri- 
odical devoted solely to this subject has 
hitherto existed in English, the new Reviezv 
fills a real want. The April number contains 
papers on the Catholic social movement in 
France under the Third Republic, the per- 
sonality and character of Gregory VII in 
recent historical research, the rise of the 
Papal States up to the time of Charlemagne's 
coronation, and other interesting topics. We 
hope this excellent magazine will continue 
to do its work with that singular devotion 
to the truth which characterized it under 
Dr. Guilday's direction, and that it will re- 
ceive the support which it merits. The 
subscription price is now four dollars per 

—In 1906 the City of Vienna entrusted 
August Sauer with the task of bringing out 
a complete edition of Franz Grillparzer's 
works. On April 16, 1921, Sauer delivered a 
lecture in Vienna on the progress he had 
made. The original intention of arranging 
for twenty-five volumes had to be changed, 
though Sauer did not state how many more 
would be needed to contain every line Grill- 
parzer wrote. He feels that he has all the 
material in his possession at present, except 
the contents of the mysterious strong box 
which cannot be opened until January, 1922; 
though he doubts whether even this will re- 
veal anything new, unless it be in regard to 
Grillparzer's .relation to Katharina Frohlich 
and Austrian politics. The edition, as at 
present planned, cannot be completed until 
more funds are available. 



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—We hail with delight the second volume 
of the new edition of Noldin's "Summa 
Theologiae Moralis," revised by the vener- 
able author himself and adapted to the new 
Code of Canon Law. It is the thirty-third 
edition and has been issued in 5,000 copies. 
This fact alone is a sufficient guaranty of 
the book's exceptional worth. The writer of 
this notice has spent many hours of his time 
lately in poring over text-books of moral 
theology, and has found among them many 
that are useful and readable; but he always 
returns to Noldin with a new appreciation 
of that author's clarity, breadth of vision, 
and accuracy of detail. His "Summa" is sur- 
passed by no other modern work of its kind 
and equalled but by very few. (Fr. Pustet 
Co., Inc.) 

— "Adam and Eve and Pinch Me" is the 
curious title of a volume by Mr. A. E. Cop- 
pard, which is quite as remarkable for the 
circumstances of its publication as for its 
literary qualities. The book is the first to 
be issued by the Golden Cockerel Press, a 
cooperative society, the members of which 
propose to print and publish their own books. 
There is to be no paid labor, and all of the 
work is to be done in the society's own 'com- 
munal workshop.' Under this system it is 
thought that a larger share in the profits will 
accrue to the author than is possible when 
books are issued in the ordinary way. The 
first edition consists of but 550 copies, bound 
in golden boards and with the cockerel prom- 
inent on the title-page. 

— We are indebted to the Fr. Pustet Co., 
Inc., for copies of the two pocket editions 
of the "Missale Romanum," recently pub- 
lished by that firm. Like the folio edition, 
they are veritable models of liturgical book- 
making, printed on India paper, and neatly 
and strongly bound. The only point in which 
these pocket editions differ from the larger 
one is that the commemorations are not al- 
ways given in proprio, but are referred to 

the Commune, or to an enclosed adjustable 
folder. This curtailment was evidently dic- 
tated by a desire to make the volume more 
conveniently portable. As it is, though com- 
prising over a thousand pages, it will easily 
go into the average coat pocket. The "Mis- 
sale" ought to be the ordinary prayer book 
of every educated Catholic. There is no ex- 
trinsic reason why it should not be, now 
that it is available in such handy and beauti- 
ful editions as these and at such a moderate 

Books Received 

The Deportation Cases of 1919 — 1920. A 
Study by C. M. Panunzio. 104 pp. i2tno 
Published for the Commission on the 
Church and Social Service of the Federal 
Council of the Churches of Christ in Am- 
erica, 105 E. 22nd St., New York. 50 cts. 

Brief e der Katharina von Siena. Ausgewahlt, 
iibersetzt und eingeleitet von Dr. Maria 
Maresch. 153 pp. 8vo. M. Gladbach, Ger- 
many: Volksvereinsverlag. M. 15. 

Israel und der alte Orient. Von Dr. Franz 
Meffert. 2te erweiterte Auflage. 282 pp. 
8vo. M. Gladbach : Volksvereins-Verlag. 
M. 13. 

Ausgewdlilte Schriften . und Gedichte von 
Fricdrich Leopold Graf en zu Stolberg. Mit 
kurzen Einleitungen und Anmerkungen 
herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. O. Helling- 
haus. 116 pp. 8vo. M. Gladbach: Volksver- 
eins-Verlag. M. 12. (Wrapper). 

A Joyful Herald of the King of Kings and 
Other Stories. By the Rev. F. M. Dreves 
of St. Joseph's Foreign Mission Society. 
128 pp. i2ino. London: Sands & Co.; St. 
Louis, Mo.: B. Herder Book Co. $1.25 net. 

Familiar Astronomy. By Rev. Martin S. 
Brennan. New Edition. 260 pp. i2mo. Illus- 
trated. B. Herder Book Co. $1.50 net. 

Summa Theologiae Moralis. Scholarum usui 
accommodavit H. Noldin, S. J. Vol. II: 
De Praeceptis Dei et Ecclesiae. Editio 33a, 
ab auctore adaptata. 837 pp. 8vo. Fr. Pustet 
Co. Inc. $4.25. 

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The Fortnightly Review 



July 15, 1921 

The Agrarian Question 

By J. M. Sevenich, Editor of 'Der Landmarn" 

The agrarian question has been 
with the American people for 
many years. It occupied the minds 
of the colonists long before the 
Boston Tea Party. 

The colonists recognized the in- 
justice of England's policy to dis- 
courage, and even prevent, the 
manufacture of farm implements, 
thus compelling them to make 
their purchases in England. The 
same system is substantially still 
in vogue, — of selling to the farmer 
with many profits added to every 
article, and of buying from him 
cheaply and adding many profits 
before the product reaches the 
ultimate consumer. 

Many of our great industries 
have been developed at the ex- 
pense of the farmers. The differ- 
ence between the price paid to the 
farmer for wool, cotton, grain, 
live stock, hides, fruit, poultry, 
etc., and the price paid for the 
finished article by the ultimate 
consumer, has built the mills, 
slaughter houses, canning fac- 
tories, ware houses, cold storage 
plants, etc. The transportation of 
farm products to the cities, and of 
the finished products back to the 
towns, villages and hamlets has 
paid a larger percentage of the 
railroad earnings than the pas- 
senger service. 

The importance of agriculture 
was recognized early by our gov- 
ernment, but the government, un- 
til lately, has treated this subject 

in a rather one-sided manner, and 
has sought to promote agriculture 
in the wrong way. Altogether too 
much attention was paid to pro- 
duction and distribution was com- 
pletely disregarded. To the farmer 
the one is as important as the 
other, for what availeth it to him 
if he produce in overabundance 
but lose all the profits? Statistics 
furnish proof that every bumper 
crop results in glutted markets 
and prices lower than the cost of 

One of the first steps taken by 
the government to promote pro- 
duction was the passage of the 
Morrill Act, way back in 1862. 
This act materially aided agricult- 
ural societies and the organization 
of agricultural colleges. In order 
to give the farmers some of the 
benefits derived from these col- 
leges, Farmers' Institutes were, 
and are still conducted during the 
winter months with papers and 
lectures concerning efficiency in 

It must have been apparent al- 
ready to the farmers of the six- 
ties that the promotion of produc- 
tion alone did not suffice to pro- 
mote the welfare of the farmers, 
i. e., to put farming on a paying 
basis, because, in 1867, the Grange 
(Order of Patrons of Husbandry) 
was organized as a secret society, 
and in three years became a pow- 
erful organization with 20,000 
local branches. Owing to too many 



July 15 

would-be leaders, the membership 
in course of time dwindled down 
to practically nothing. Of late, new 
life came into the Grange, and it 
is safe to say that now we have 
in America more than 1,000,000 
persons who have been or are 
members of this organization. The 
Grange has held strictly to its 
non-partisan platform, but never 
hesitated to favor or fight pro- 
posed political measures that were 
favorable or unfavorable to Am- 
erican agriculture. This shows 
that our farmers are convinced 
that favorable legislation is need- 
ed to make possible cooperation 
as a means of direct collective 
selling and buying. 

The decline of the Grange led 
indirectly to the formation, in 
1886, of the Farmers' Alliance, 
which originated in Texas and 
paved the way for similar organi- 
zations in other States, and to a 
powerful union for political pur- 
poses in 1889. The Grange had en- 
deavored mainly to protect the 
farmer against the encroachments 
of monopoly and the middleman; 
the Alliance demanded the aboli- 
tion of national banks, increased 
issue of legal-tender greenbacks, 
the free coinage of silver, and the 
government ownership of the 
means of transportation and in- 
tercourse. Its power was demon- 
strated in the electoral campaign 
of 1890, which led to the defeat of 
the Republicans. The Alliance 
gained control over the legis- 
latures of the big agricultural 
states of Kansas and Nebraska 
and held the balance of power in 
Illinois, Minnesota, and South 
Dakota. It elected nine Congress- 
men and three U. S. Senators. In 
1892, the Alliance united with the 
Knights of Labor, formed the 

People's Party (Populists), and 
proceeded to nominate a candidate 
for president. This led to a split in 
its ranks, and defeat sealed the 
fate of the Alliance as a political 

The following decade was a 
"calm before the storm." In 1902, 
two new farmers' organizations 
were formed, the Farmers' Edu- 
cational and Cooperative Union 
and the American Society of Equi- 
ty. Since then numerous other or- 
ganizations, most of them known 
as Cooperative Associations, have 
come into existence. 

It is estimated that nearly every 
third farmer of the six million be- 
longs to an organization dealing 
with the marketing question. At 
first glance there seems to exist 
a hopeless division, but upon clos- 
er investigation we find that the 
various organizations are ap- 
proaching two camps — the Ameri- 
can Farm Bureau Federation and 
the National Board of Farm Or- 
ganizations. Of these two the Am- 
erican Farm Bureau Federation 
has not only the larger member- 
ship, but the more constructive 
programme. With over a million 
members and Bureaus in 47 
States, the A.F.B.F. has assumed 
leadership among Farmers' or- 

— Mr. George Jean Nathan, in his new 
book, "The Theatre, the Drama, and the 
Girls" (Knopf) exposes the attempts 
of certain American producers in war 
time to pass off adaptations of German 
and Austrian plays as Scandinavian. 
These efforts, by the way, to Mr. Na- 
than's malicious delight, completely de- 
ceived his critical colleagues of the New 
York press and led them to devote many 
paragraphs (some of which he reprints) 
to showing how clearly these plays fol- 
lowed in the tradition of Ibsen. 




On the Wrong Track 

Review of "A Catechism of the Social Question" by the Rev. Drs. Ryan and McGowan 

"In "A Catechism of the Social 
Question," by the Rev. John A. 
Ryan, D.D., and the Rev. R. A. 

McGowan (Paulist Press, New 
York), the following question is 
asked: "Why should Catholics be 
interested in the social question?" 
The answer is : "Because they are 
commanded by God to love their 
neighbor, and to do justice. If all 
men performed these two duties to 
a degree that is easily possible, 
the wage-earners would have very 
few real grievances. If the moral 
and social principles of the 
Church were followed and en- 
forced in the industrial world, 
there would be no such social ques- 
tion as the one that troubles us 
to-day. As Christians and Catho- 
lics; we ought to be eager to do 
our best toward making industrial 
conditions and relations less con- 
trary to justice and charity. The 
duty of Catholics to become inter- 
ested in the social question, and to 
strive for a right solution of it, 
has been clearly and strongly as- 
serted by the present Holy Father 
and by his two immediate pre- 
decessors. The words of Pope Leo 
XIII, written nearly thirty years 
ago, on the 'Condition of Labor,' 
are still pertinent and timely: 
'At the time being, the condition 
of the working classes is the press- 
ing question of the hour; and 
nothing can be of higher interest 
to all the classes of the State than 
that it should be rightly and rea- 
sonably adjusted.' " 

We quote this passage in full as 
it shows the sterility of the pre- 
vailing school of Catholic social 
economy in America. The authors 
of the pamphlet in question are 

regarded as the foremost ex- 
ponents of the American hier- 
archy's social teaching. If justice 
and love of neighbor were observ- 
ed as they should be at the present 
moment, we venture to assert, 
contrary to the illustrious authors, 
that the wage-earners would still 
have very many real grievances. 
In fact, we believe that their griev- 
ances would be even greater. At 
certain times in the past four or 
five years, certain sections of wage 
earners had their purchasing pow- 
er increased to what probably 
represented the highest possible 
limit under any system. And yet 
who will say that they were con- 
tented? We have not in mind, of 
course, the disaffection arising 
from a wrong view-point of life or 
a lack of religious background. 
But given as much of this as one 
could reasonably expect in a sin- 
ful world, we still believe that 
90% of the grievances of the wage- 
earners arise solely from the fact 
that they are wage-earners and 
nothing more. In other words, the 
present system of classification of 
employer and employed is pro- 
ductive of 'most of our troubles. 

In short, the writers and repre- 
sentatives of Catholic sociology in 
America have not yet broken 
loose from the trade-union, liberal- 
political school of social reform. 
They are for patching up the 
present order, which is breaking 
away from under their feet more 
every day. The pamphlet, "A 
Catechism of the Social Ques- 
tion." in which these views are 
expounded, though it is inspired 
by a laudable zeal, is ineffective 
and for the most part useless. 


July 15 

Another choice specimen of the 
prevailing thought in sociological 
circles in Catholic America is pre- 
sented to us in a fly-sheet from 
the National Catholic Welfare 
Council's Department of Social 
Action. It is entitled ''Govern- 
ment Intervention Called for By 
Catholic Teaching." Of late ex- 
cessive interference by meddle- 
some officials has begun to arouse 
resentment in the hearts of long- 
suffering industrialists, whose 
business is so hedged about as to 
make it almost unfeasible. These 
resentments are lashed by the 
writer of the present sheet who 
asserts that Catholic teaching 
justifies government intervention; 

This is the orthodox and com- 
monly accepted opinion at present, 
in this country at least. We have 
called attention to the serious fal- 
lacy in the warp of this opinion 
before this and confess to not a 
little surprise that apparently no 
other voices have made themselves 
heard against this dangerous er- 

We venture to lay down three 
contradictory assertions to the 
promulgated doctrine of ' ' Govern- 
ment Intervention Called for by 
Catholic Teaching," namely: (1) 
The authorities for this teaching 
have no historical basis for their 
doctrine; (2) The State, as con- 
stituted at present, is by no means 
the State of Catholic tradition, 
but a vile abomination which 
should be scrapped as soon as pos- 
sible; (3) The function of govern- 
ment is not, as laid down by these 
authors, "the purpose of provid- 
ing individuals, families and eco- 
nomic classes with the opportuni- 
ties of obtaining their welfare. . . " 

Unfortunately the opinions of 
these semi-official sociologists, as 

promulgated through the N. C. 
W. C, are making their way with- 
out the slightest opposition. The 
Catholic Central Society, usually 
so alert for dangerous errors, is 
strangely silent. These are days 
of tribulation, for we are in liber- 
al-political hands, than which 
there is nothing more dangerous 

and ineffective. 

W. A. F. 

Our Inconsistency in Sex Matters 
While the exponents and guard- 
ians of morality exhort the youth 
of the nation, in public and in pri- 
vate, to "lead a clean, vigorous 
life and not 'to worry about sex 
matters," there is perhaps 1 no 
country in the world in which the 
idea of sex is more persistently 
and prominently brought before 
that youth in the press, in current 
literature, at the theatre, and, 
above all, in the slushy sentiment- 
alism of the "movies." In railway 
trains, hotels, etc., notices posted 
in conspicuous places proclaim: 
"War declared by the government 
against venereal disease," in 
which young men are urged to 
"forget" the strongest of nature's 
elemental instincts; but fnearly 
every newspaper and magazine 
with which the young man beguiles 
the passing hour is of a nature 
to stimulate the sexual instinct and 
to stir the imagination. From the 
advertisements to the police and 
divorce news, these publications 
which, with the "movies," provide 
the spiritual food of the masses, 
reflect an artificial standard of 
manners and morals which has 
obviously no relation to actuali- 
ties : on the one hand, they do 
everything to emphasize sex mat- 
ters; on the other, they utter the 
shibboleths of a social code which 
professes to ignore them. 




One of the Cures That Failed 

So many reputable physicians 
maintain that alcohol is of benefit 
to patients in some diseases that 
we have always thought there 
must be some objective truth in 
this view. Yet against it militated 
the almost unanimous contention 
of the modern school of physiol- 
ogists that alcohol is never a stim- 
ulant, but always a narcotic, 
which, while it may make people 
feel better temporarily, is sure to 
harm them in the end. 

Dr. James J. Walsh, in a paper 
entitled "The Cures That Have 
Failed" in a recent issue of 
Studies (Dublin, Vol. X, No. 37, 
pp. 62 sq.) explains the apparent 
contradiction as follows : 

"The most important element 
in the psychology of the use of 
alcohol is the power of the ma- 
terial to minimize or eliminate 
dreads and fears, fear-thoughts 
as they have been called, of vari- 
ous kinds, which often have a 
serious effect upon patients. In 
pneumonia, for instance, a man of 
middle age who discovers, even 
though he may not be told, that 
he has pneumonia, will recall 
friends and acquaintances who 
have died of the disease and will 
become disheartened from the fear 
of such a result in his own case. 
This dread literally affects the 
heart, and a pneumonia patient 
needs all his heart activity to en- 
able him to push blood through 
a hepatized lung. He may actually 
scare himself to death, or at least 
make his case ever so much worse 
than it would have been. If such a 
patient be given alcohol, it brings 
on euphoria, that is a sense of 
well-being in Avhich he does not 
mind so much what happens to 

him. That is an excellent mood in 
which to face the issue; for at 
least it prevents hampering anxie- 
ty. Probably whatever good was' 
noted from the use of whiskey in 
tuberculosis was due to the same 
thing. In this affection, however, 
the drug was dangerous because it 
had to be continued for so long 
that to produce effects ever larger 
and- larger quantities had to be 
used, the physical bad effects were 
consequently emphasized, a habit 
was produced, and the last state 
of the man was worse than the 
first. Probably the use of whiskey 
in snake bites meant nothing more 
than this lifting of the scare. Most 
snake bites, except the extremely 
poisonous varieties, are not fatal, 
though they may produce rather 
acute systemic disturbance for a 
time: but people bitten by snakes 
scare themselves to death or very 
near it, and, if only given enough 
alcohol, they become indifferent to 
the consequences." 

"The story of alcohol," con- 
cludes Dr. AValsh, "illustrates 
very well the whole history of the 
cures that have failed. The reme- 
dies have been materials that for 
some reason or other have pro- 
duced a favorable effect upon the 
minds of the patients, and it was 
because of this mental effect, and 
not because of any physical bene- 
fit, that the remedies secured their 

— Prehistoric ruins of what is believed to 
have been a different race of cliff dwellers 
from those who inhabited the ruins in the 
Mesa Verde national parks have been dis- 
covered in an almost inaccessible region 
north of the Navajo Mountains in Colorado. 
The discoverer believes he was the first 
white man to view the ruins, many of which 
are larger and better preserved than those 
in the Mesa Verde national park. 


July 16 

Another choice specimen of the 
prevailing thought in sociological 
circles in Catholic America is pre- 
sented to us in a fly-sheet from 
the National Catholic Welfare 
Council's Department of Social 
Action. It is entitled "Govern- 
ment Intervention Called for By 
Catholic Teaching." Of late ex- 
cessive interference by meddle- 
some officials has begun to arouse 
resentment in the hearts of long- 
suffering industrialists, whose 
business is so hedged about as to 
make it almost unfeasible. These 
resentments are lashed by the 
writer of the present sheet who 
asserts that Catholic teaching 
justifies government intervention; 

This is the orthodox and com- 
monly accepted opinion at present, 
in this country at least. We have 
called attention to the serious fal- 
lacy in the warp of this opinion' 
before this and confess to not a 
little surprise that apparently no 
other voices have made themselves 
heard against this dangerous er- 

We venture to lay down three 
contradictory assertions to the 
promulgated doctrine of "Govern- 
ment Intervention Called for by 
Catholic Teaching," namely: (1) 
The authorities for this teaching- 
have no historical basis for their 
doctrine; (2) The State, as con- 
stituted at present, is by no means 
the State of Catholic tradition, 
but a vile abomination which 
should be scrapped as soon as pos- 
sible; (3) The function of govern- 
ment is not, as laid down by these 
authors, "the purpose of provid- 
ing individuals, families and eco- 
nomic classes with the opportuni- 
ties of obtaining their welfare.. . " 

Unfortunately the opinions of 
these semi-official sociologists, as 

promulgated through the N. C. 
W. C, are making their way with- 
out the slightest opposition. The 
Catholic Central Society, usually 
so alert for dangerous errors, is 
strangely silent. These are days 
of tribulation, for we are in liber- 
al-political hands, than which 
there is nothing more dangerous 
and ineffective. W. A. F. 

Our Inconsistency in Sex Matters 
While the exponents and guard- 
ians of morality exhort the youth 
of the nation, in public and in pri- 
vate, to "lead a clean, vigorous 
life and not 'to worry about sex 
matters," there is perhaps 1 no 
country in the world in which the 
idea of sex is more persistently 
and prominently brought before 
that youth in the press, in current 
literature, at the theatre, and, 
above all, in the slushy sentiment- 
alism of the "movies." In railway 
trains, hotels, etc., notices posted 
in conspicuous places proclaim: 
"War declared by the government 
against venereal disease," in 
which young men are urged to 
"forget" the strongest of nature's 
elemental instincts; but (nearly 
every newspaper and magazine 
with which the young man beguiles 
the passing hour is of a nature 
to stimulate the sexual instinct and 
to stir the imagination. From the 
advertisements to the police and 
divorce news, these publications 
which, with the "movies," provide 
the spiritual food of the masses, 
reflect an artificial standard of 
manners and morals which has 
obviously no relation to actuali- 
ties : on the one hand, they do 
everything to emphasize sex mat- 
ters; on the other, they utter the 
shibboleths of a social code which 
professes to ignore them. 




One of the Cures That Failed 

So many reputable physicians 
maintain that alcohol is of benefit 
to patients in some diseases that 
we have always thought there 
must be some objective truth in 
this view. Yet against it militated 
the almost unanimous contention 
of the modern school of physiol- 
ogists that alcohol is never a stim- 
ulant, but always a narcotic, 
which, while it may make people 
feel better temporarily, is sure to 
harm them in the end. 

Dr. James J. Walsh, in a paper 
entitled "The Cures That Have 
Failed" in a recent issue of 
Studies (Dublin, Vol. X, No. 37, 
pp. 62 sq.) explains the apparent 
contradiction as follows : 

"The most important element 
in the psychology of the use of 
alcohol is the power of the ma- 
terial to minimize or eliminate 
dreads and fears, fear-thoughts 
as they have been called, of vari- 
ous kinds, which often have a 
serious effect upon patients. In 
pneumonia, for instance, a man of 
middle age who discovers, even 
though he may not be told, that 
he has pneumonia, will recall 
friends and acquaintances who 
have died of the disease and will 
become disheartened from the fear 
of such a result in his own case. 
This dread literally affects the 
heart, and a pneumonia patient 
needs all his heart activity to en- 
able him to push blood through 
a hepatized lung. He may actually 
scare himself to death, or at least 
make his case ever so much worse 
than it would have been. If such a 
patient be given alcohol, it brings 
on euphoria, that is a sense of 
well-being in which he does not 
mind so much what happens to 

him. That is an excellent mood in 
which to face the issue; for at 
least it prevents hampering anxie- 
ty. Probably whatever good was' 
noted from the use of whiskey in 
tuberculosis was due to the same 
thing. In this affection, however, 
the drug was dangerous because it 
had to be continued for so long 
that to produce effects ever larger 
and larger quantities had to be 
used, the physical bad effects were 
consequently emphasized, a habit 
was produced, and the last state 
of the man was worse than the 
first. Probably the use of whiskey 
in snake bites meant nothing more 
than this lifting of the scare. Most 
snake bites, except the extremely 
poisonous varieties, are not fatal, 
though they may produce rather 
acute systemic disturbance for a 
time: but people bitten by snakes 
scare themselves to death or very 
near it, and, if only given enough 
alcohol, they become indifferent to 
the consequences." 

"The story of alcohol," con- 
cludes Dr. Walsh, "illustrates 
very well the whole history of the 
cures that have failed. The reme- 
dies have been materials that for 
some reason or other have pro- 
duced a favorable effect upon the 
minds of the patients, and it was 
because of this mental effect, and 
not because of any physical bene- 
fit, that the remedies secured their 

— Prehistoric ruins of what is believed to 
have been a different race of cliff dwellers 
from those who inhabited the ruins in the 
Mesa Verde national parks have been dis- 
covered in an almost inaccessible region 
north of the Navajo Mountains in Colorado. 
The discoverer believes he was the first 
white man to view the ruins, many of which 
are larger and better preserved than those 
in the Mesa Verde national park. 


July 15 

A Wrong Interpretation of Goethe's "Faust" 

A reviewer of Prof. Hume 
Brown's ''Life of Goethe," re- 
cently edited by Lord Haldane, in 
the Literary Supplement of the 
London Times, calls attention to 
a question of interpretation on 
which the author and Lord Hal- 
dane have committed themselves 
to what is clearly an untenable 

Prof. Brown speaks of Faust 
(p. 741) as having in his compact 
with Mephistopheles "bartered 
his soul," and Lord Haldane (p. 
752) writes:— 

"In the First Part Faust has 
made his covenant with the Devil 
that, if and when he should say 
to any moment of satisfaction 
which the Devil might provide 
him, 'Stay, thou art so fair,' he 
should then serve the Devil as the 
latter was in the first instance to 
serve him." 

This, of course, is the compact 
of the popular legend, and it is 
also the compact proposed by 
Goethe's Mephistopheles, but it 
is not the compact accepted by 
Goethe's Faust. To summarize a 
lengthy dialogue: what Faust re- 
plies is that he can answer for 
this life, but not for the next; he 
knows nothing of the world be- 
yond the grave or the conditions 
and control which there prevail; 
he will be ready to die when the 
hour of perfect satisfaction has 
arrived; "then let happen what 
may, and can." Mephistopheles 
agrees: "in this sense you may 
venture ' ' to sign the covenant. He 
expects that by his association 
with Faust he can drag him to 
perdition; and the final issue de- 
pends on whether this expectation 
will prove to be justified or not: 
in other words, it depends not on 
the compact in the old legendary 

sense, but on the nature of the 
service in which Faust is to find 
his full satisfaction. Faust's sal- 
vation, then, is not secured by the 
arbitrary incursion of a troop of 
angels armed with burning roses, 
but is a perfectly legitimate out- 
come of the situation as defined at 
the beginning. All this seems per- 
fectly and indisputably clear in 
Goethe's text; the compact is for 
life, not for eternity; but most 
commentators seem unable to rid 
their minds of the legendary con- 
ception, the alteration of which is 
precisely one of the most striking 
and significant features in Goe- 
the's drama and a cardinal point 
in its structure. 

There is another and a minor 
but not uninteresting question in- 
volved in Lord Haldane 's render- 
ing (p. 791) of the famous lines 
uttered by the Almighty in the 
Prologue : — 

' ' Ein guter Mensch in seinem dunkeln Drange 
1st sick des rechten Weges wohl bewusst. " 

Lord Haldane translates this, "A 
good man even in his hours of 
darkest pressure is yet conscious 
of the true path that lies before 
him." "Drang" surely has the 
same meaning here as when Faust 
cries, "Soil ich gehorchen jenem 
Drang"; nor does "dunkel" in 
German bear the meaning of 
"dark" in its evil connotation. 
One would not translate "Powers 
of Darkness" by "Machte der 
Dunkelheit. ' ' The reference is not 
to the stress of perplexities and 
temptations, as Lord Haldane ap- 
pears to take it, but to an impulse 
or monition rising from obscure 
depths below the level of the logi- 
cal intellect. Bayard Taylor more 
correctly renders the lines: 

"A good man, through obscurest aspiration, 
Has still an instinct of the one true way." 




The Church and the Laboringman 

To the Editor: 

My attention lias been called to 
an editorial in the Little Rock 
(Ark.) Guardian for June 25, com- 
menting on my article in the F. R. 
of June 15 regarding the present 
status of the Church and the Cath- 
olic laborer in this country. The 
reverend editor believes that my 
observations are overdrawn. In 
confirmation of this opinion he re- 
marks : "It is well known that Dr. 
John A. Ryan is the guiding spirit 
in the sociological department of 
the National Catholic Welfare 
Council, and he certainly is both 
well-affected towards the labor- 
ingman and knows his business. 
But the Church cannot right all 
wrongs at once. As long as she 
had her own way in the world, the 
laboring class had no complaint to 
make. The occasions for the com- 
plaint arose precisely from ignor- 
ing the policy of the Church. The 
Church is always the friend of the 
laboringman and will be his helper 
in proportion as he stands by her 
to carry out her social pro- 

This is typical of the stuff that 
has passed for downright, honest- 
to-goodness thinking for some 
time in Catholic circles in the 
United States. Yes, it is well 
known that Dr. John A. Ryan is 
the guiding spirit of the socio- 
logical department of the N. C. 
W. C. — that is, well known in a 
limited circle. My experience, 
which has not been particularly 
limited, leads me to make the un- 
demonstrable assertion that 90% 
of the Catholic laborers in this 
country do not know Dr. Ryan or 
the position he holds. But even in 
the event that every last Catholic 

workman in America knew of him 
and his work, it is beyond my 
power of deduction as to how this 
would affect the situation in the 
slightest. Dr. Ryan is a very cap- 
able economist, but I fail to see 
how he alone could even begin to 
reach the laboring population in a 
way commensurable with their 

What we need is thorough-going 
organization, a well-trained force 
to direct this organization (built 
up along parish lines, probably), 
a thousand men like Dr. Ryan to 
direct and inspire the promoters, 
and an active ecclesiastical body 
to keep the whole infused with life 
and energy. 

What we lack, then, is first of 
all intelligent, whole-hearted ec- 
clesiastical action; secondly, the 
promoters, teachers or educators, 
and the organization of laboring- 
children of the Church upon whom 
would be expended the activities 
of the tout ensemble. We have 
then, as a matter of fact, one ele- 
ment or unit in the structure to be 
reared. (It is not at all unlikely 
that we need first of all courses 
in all of our larger Catholic uni- 
versities for the training of lead- 
ers. I have omitted this, as it 
merely complicates the problem 
for the present and would be 
readily accomplished if we but had 
the elements enumerated above.) 

The Guardian sensibly remarks 
that the Church cannot right all 
wrongs at once. And we might add 
that, even if she could, her ex- 
perience with human nature would 
lead her to adopt a more slowly 
operating programme. However, 
it is my opinion that the plan, as 
most briefly outlined here, would 



July 15 

take several decades before it 
could be said to be in a healthy, 
normal state. Surely, then, it is 
not too early to begin, in view of 
the pressing needs of our times. 

In my previous article I care- 
fully added that the three reasons 
mentioned by me to explain the 
alienation of the laboring element 
from the Church might be incor- 
rect, but that they represented 
what to me seemed to be the rea- 
sons of the men themselves. No 
one man, however broad his ex- 
perience, can measure the temper 
of a whole country; but my own 
experiences in several representa- 
tive districts have led me to be- 
lieve that, they were representa- 
tive. My critic believes that the 
charges were overdrawn. Perhaps. 
However, he thereby admits that 
there is an alienation taking place 
from the Church's fold amongst 
her laboring children. I venture 
to assert that the reverend editor 
and the ecclesiastical authorities 
would be greatly surprised if they 
knew the conditions that actually 
exist among the Catholic laboring- 
people. I do not refer so much to 
the loss in actual figures, but to 
that other more subtle loss, aliena- 
tion from the true spirit of 
Christ's Church. Surely one good 
and great man like Dr. Eyan can- 
not be expected to do the impos- 
sible. One of the greatest defects 
in the existing Catholic press is 
just this manifestation of snug 
contentment with existing condi- 
tions and an intellectual sloth that 
is only equalled by ability to tuck 
away the most momentous prob- 
lems within the compass of a few 
editorial words. To read them one 
would suppose that we were living 
in the millennium without a single 

trouble, — local, national, or inter- 
national, on the horizon to disturb 

A Catholic Laboringman 


The U. S. Grain Growers Inc. 
The IT. S. Grain Growers Inc. 
(50 E. Madison St., Chicago, 111.) 
present a report of their meetings 
held on June 2 and 3, Kansas 
City, June 6 and 7, Omaha, St. 
Paul, June 9 and 10 in a Bulletin 
numbered 6. We know little of the 
Grain Growers Inc., but their 
efforts at organizing the farmers 
and making effective cooperative 
societies is praiseworthy. We trust 
that the Catholic farmers will be 
active in these affairs and make 
themselves heard according to 
their Catholic convictions. Likely 
as not, however, little will be said 
in Catholic circles until some one 
discovers that the Grain Growers 
Inc. has a Socialistic tendency and 
some radicals at its head have pro- 
posed hair-brained theories. Then 
the whole Association will be 
roundly denounced, the Catholic 
farmers will be advised against 
affiliating themselves with such a 
dangerous movement, and, in gen- 
eral, there will be much official 
chagrin. Unfortunately, there is 
but one organization which has 
any definite policy with regard to 
the agricultural population in this 
country, and that organization, 
by the circumstances of the time, 
has but little influence in Catholic 
circles. The others will make them- 
selves heard as soon as this or 
any other farmers' organization 
becomes what to them seems So- 
cialistic. Observer 

— Every few days you discover a word that 
you have mispronounced all your life. 




Chesterton on the American Republic 

Gilbert K. Chesterton, in the 
course of a series of articles he 
has contributed to the New Wit- 
ness since his return from Am- 
erica, pronounces the following 
none too nattering judgment upon 
what he calls ' ' the Republic of the 
Age of Reason," i. e., our own U. 
S. of A. He says (No. 448) :— 

But when I say that the Repub- 
lic of the Age of Reason is now a 
ruin, I should rather say that at 
its best it is a ruin. At its worst 
it has collapsed into a death-trap 
or is rotting like a dunghill. What 
is the real Republic of our day, 
as distinct from the ideal Republic 
of our fathers, but a heap of cor- 
rupt capitalism crawling with 
worms; with those parasites, the 
professional politicians? Looking 
again at Swinburne's bitter but 
not ignoble poem, "Before a 
Crucifix, ' ' in which he bids Christ, 
or the ecclesiastical image of 
Christ, stand out of the way of the 
onward march of a political ideal- 
ism represented by United Italy 
or the French Republic, I was 
struck by the strange and ironic 
exactitude with which every taunt 
he flings at the degradation of the 
old divine ideal would now fit the 
degradation of his own human 
ideal. The time has already come 
when we can ask his Goddess of 
Liberty, as represented by the ac- 
tual Liberals, "Have you filled 
full men's starved out souls; have 
you brought freedom on the 
earth!" For every engine in which 
these old free-thinkers firmly and 
confidently trusted has itself be- 
come an engine of oppression, and 
even of class oppression. Its free 
parliament has become an oli- 
garchy. Its free press has become 

a monopoly. If the pure Church 
has been corrupted in the course 
of two thousand years, what about 
the pure Republic that has rotted 
into a filthy plutocracy in less 
than a hundred? 

O, hidden face of man, whereover 
The years have woven a viewless veil, 
If thou wert verily man's lover 
What did thy love or blood avail? 
Thy blood the priests make poison of; 
And in gold shekels coin thy love. 

Which has most to do with 
shekels to-day, the priests or the 
politicians? Can we say in any 
special sense nowadays that 
clergymen, as such, make a poison 
out of the blood of the martyrs? 
Can we say it in anything like the 
real sense, in which we do say 
that yellow journalists make a poi- 
son out of the blood of the sol- 
diers 1 

But I understand how Swin- 
burne felt when confronted by the 
image of the carven Christ, and, 
perplexed by the contrast between 
its claims and its consequences, 
he said his strange farewell to it, 
hastily indeed, but not without re- 
gret, not even really without re- 
spect. I felt the same myself when 
I looked for the last time on the 
Statue of Liberty. 

— We certainly need a more equitable 
distribution of representation in this 
country, for a statistical table published 
by the New Republic (No. 342) shows 
that in some States one vote has as 
much weight towards the election of a 
president as ten votes have in another 
The extremes are California and South 
Carolina. In the former State at the 
last election there was an average of 
85,000 votes cast for each presidential 
elector, whereas in the latter the aver- 
age was only 7,000. 



July 15 

The Business Depression 
In these dour days of business 
depression, the like of which has 
not been seen in this country since 
the nineties of the last century, 
everyone is wondering what will 
happen next and just when we 
shall return to that dear "normal- 
cy" of which we heard so much 
during the last campaign. 

While everyone is waiting for 
"the other fellow" to start some- 
thing — just what no one knows — 
let us consider a few simple pro- 
positions like the following: (1) 
The high protective tariff of the 
present administration closes our 
doors effectively to foreign trade ; 
(2) The universal policy of reduc- 
ing wages first, and far below the 
reduction in the cost of living, de- 
creases the buying power of the 
masses and in the end causes trade 
to stagnate; (3) Our cooperation 
with European muddle-heads in 
an insane reparation policy 
destroys all hope that we shall be 
able, for many years to come, to 
compete with German-made goods, 
not only in foreign markets, but 
even at home. Prison-made repa- 
ration goods will flood the markets 
of the world and hinder normal 
production in this and other coun- 
tries; (4) Our basic industries 

like coal and transportation are 
absolutely demoralized and on the 
verge of ruin. While power and 
transportation costs remain so 
high it is impossible even to think 
of reducing the cost of manufac- 
ture to reasonable figures. 

In other words we are in for a 
long jseige of business doldrums, 
and our political quacks are mak- 
ing a bad situation worse. 

Nuns as Jurors 

In England a nun has been sum- 
moned to serve as juror and ac- 
cording to a statement issued by 
the Catholic Union of Great 
Britain, "not even Carmelite nuns 
and others of the cloistered orders 
are safe from being called upon to 
serve, in which case it would mean 
breaking their vows." Strangely 
enough the feminists have uttered 
no protest against this injustice. 
But Mr. Chesterton's New Wit- 
ness is coming to the rescue. 

"Why should not a nun be able 
to claim the same exemption as a 
monk?" asks that journal (No. 
448). "Why should a woman who 
elects to devote her life to relig- 
ious observance receive less con- 
sideration than a clergyman of the 
Church of England, a Roman 
Catholic priest, or a Noncon- 

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formist minister? It is obviously 
unfair that a woman should be 
forced to serve on a jury when a 
man in similar circumstances is 
exempt from such service." 

The silence of the feminists is 
traced by the New Witness to 
fundamental irritation that any 
woman can prefer the religious to 
the political life ; and rather than 
permit any evasion of the duties 
of a citizen they are prepared to 
condone an act of injustice funda- 
mental and apparent. 

We note that the Catholic Union 
of Great Britain is drafting a Bill 
to give immunity to nuns, and it 
is expected that the House of 
Commons, unlike the feminists, 
will see to it that women of the 
religious orders shall receive the 
same privileges as men. 

The question has not yet prac- 
tically arisen in this country, we 
believe, but it will surely arise 
soon; and as the feminists here 
are no more likely to interest 
themselves in solving it correctly 
than in England, our Catholic or- 
ganizations should see to it that 
laws are adopted in the different 
States properly safeguarding the 
rights of religious women. To 
compel a woman to break the vows 
she has taken of her own free will, 
when at the same time a man in 
similar circumstances remains im- 
mune, is one of the grossest acts 
of oppression that can be imag- 

Let Us Have Peace! 
The Ave Maria (No. 25) re- 
spectfully declines to publish the 
letter of the Archbishop of Paris, 
Cardinal Dubois, to the Arch- 
bishop of Cologne, Cardinal 

"It is an unusually interest- 
ing letter, and elegantly phrased 
of course; but we fail to see 
what good could possibly come 
from its publication. In duty 
bound — diplomatic etiquette de- 
manded it — the new German Car- 
dinal had announced his elevation 
to the honors of the Roman purple, 
expressed his good will, etc. The 
French Cardinal, not content with 
congratulating and complimenting 
his eminent confrere, and praising 
him for what he did to alleviate 
the sufferings of French prisoners 
during the war, reminds him of 
the great injury done to France 
by Germany — 'we were attacked 
unjustly' — of Germany's con- 
tinued evasion of obligations 
strictly incurred; and calls upon 
him to demand the reparation 
which justice requires, etc. We are 
hoping that if his Eminence of 
Cologne sends a reply to his Em- 
inence of Paris, it will not be pub- 
lished — that is, unless it is a de- 
cidedly different kind of a letter 
from the one in question. Ger- 
many has had something to suffer 
from France, even since the close 
of the war; and the demands of 
justice must be quite as well un- 
derstood in Cologne as in Paris. 
It is in the power of both these 

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July 15 

princes of the Church to do much 
towards establishing peace be- 
tween their two nations; it would 
be doing less than nothing — worse 
than nothing, we venture to assert 
— to dwell upon the great injuries 
inflicted, the enormous wrongs 
done, or the strict obligations 
evaded on either side." 

We heartily agree with the 
esteemed editor of the Ave Maria. 
The F. R. has called attention be- 
fore this to the strange attitude 
taken by the Archbishop of Paris 
and the anomalous position in 
which it places the Church of 
France. In our humble opinion not 
a little of the charge made against 
Christianity by modern indiffer- 
entists, that the religion of Jesus 
Christ is moribund, is true. More 
correctly, of course, it is the dis- 
ciples who are sleeping. But what 
shall be said of the Church in that 
particular region in which the 
chief pastors not only do not help 
to restore Christian unity, but 
actually fan the flames of discord? 

The American Legion 
We read in the New Republic 
(No. 339), in the course of an ar- 
ticle on 4 4 Pseudo-Americaniza- 

"The American Legion presents 
a problem of a somewhat different 
nature. There is a wide divergence 
between what the Legion says and 
w r hat it does. In its public state- 
ments, in its bulletins from natio- 
the Legion 

rial headquarters, 

seems sound on Americanization, 
though it is very vague. On the 
other hand, and in spite of this, 
the foreign born groups have no 
conndence whatever in the Legion 
and are more than likely to regard 
any Americanization issuing from 
this source with a deep and cordial 
suspicion. Why is this! Probably 
for a variety of Reasons. In the 
first place the American Legion 
has given its endorsement to the 
Americanization programme and 
policy of the Y. M. C. A.; in the 
second it has openly joined hands 
with the National Security League, 
which is thoroughly tainted with 
Palmerism, in calling the National 
American Council. More than 
these, however, is the fact that in- 
dividual Legion posts have ap- 
peared to regard Americanization 
more as super-police duty than as 
fraternal understanding. It is diffi- 
cult to mob Kreisler's concerts, 
break up meetings being held by 
Poles and Lithuanians, refuse 
Louis Post permission to speak, 
threaten German societies with 
rifles when they try to hold a tag- 
day for starving women and chil- 
dren, and endorse a plan by which 
Legion members are to be mobiliz- 
ed for active duty during times of 
strikes by 'radicals,' and still have 
it believed that you are doing un- 
prejudiced Americanization work. 
The faults appear to be chiefly 
with individual posts, but unless 
national headquarters takes public 
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posts the Legion must expect to 
be misunderstood. Certainly the 
foreign born have no doubts in the 
matter. To the mass of them the 
Legion is, rightly or wrongly, ana- 

A Masonic Tale from France 
Bro. Charles F. Irwin recounts 
m the Masonic Builder (Vol. VII, 
No. 5) some of his experiences as 
a soldier serving in the American 
Expeditionary Force in France. 
He tells among other things how 
the good Catholic people of 
France disliked the Freemasons 
and adds: "Occasionally we ran 
across crude tradition as to the 
devilishness of the Freemasons. 
One which I encountered most fre- 
quently among the peasants of 
Brittany was to this effect : Every 
time the Masons gave a banquet, 
they caught a small Catholic child 
and served it, just as we would a 
succulent roast porker. I recall 
hearing this story while at the ta- 
ble of a wealthy, educated French- 
man, a counseller of a large 
French city. When I asked him 
the source of this and similar 
stories, he shrugged his shoulders, 
threw out his hands in their pecul- 
iar gesture, smiled and said, "le 

Of course, the French priests do 
not believe or spread such absurd 
tales; but they know something 
about Freemasonry and warn 
their people against its allure- 
ments, and that is why they are 

Will Our Big Cities Disappear? 

Our big cities have often been 
called excrescences on the social 
body, symptoms of serious disease 
that will disappear when that dis- 
ease is cured. It is encouraging to 
note that Henry Ford is already 
predicting their disappearance. 
1 ' The movement of the country to 
the city and the city to the coun- 
try," he says in the Dearborn In- 
dependent, which is by no means 
all filled with Antisemitism, but 
contains many wholesome and 
constructive articles, "is a move- 
ment that will some day empty the 
cities and transform the country. 
In the cities men learned how to 
live, and now that they are carry- 
ing that learning into the country, 
the function of the city as a place 
of residence seems to be about 
done. As central assembling 
plants and distributing points, 
some of the cities might continue 
to exist; but not as living places 
for hundreds of thousands of 
people. The city had a part to play 
in the civilization of mankind, but 
that part has been played." 

This prophecy may come true, 
but it will not and cannot come 
true until the present Capitalistic 
regime has been supplanted by a 
more efficient and a fairer social 
and economic system, something 
akin to Christian Solidarism. 


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July 15 

Restoring the Ruined Churches of 

It is comforting to learn from a 
little book entitled "L 'Opera di 
Soccorso per le Chiese Rovinate 
della Guerra" (Venice: Typo- 
graphia San Marco) that the work 
of restoring the churches profaned 
and ruined by the war is making 
good progress in Italy. The labor 
is likely to be a long one, for not 
only have many churches to be re- 
stored and rebuilt from the foun- 
dations, but when the invaded ter- 
ritories were freed, there was 
scarcely a church bell to be found. 
They had been carried away to 
make Austrian cannon, and they 
have all to be replaced. The latest 
figures show that 167 churches 
have been utterly destroyed, 207 
seriously damaged, while 206 can 
be restored at relatively small cost. 
The missing bells number about 
10,000, and the injury to church 
fittings, furniture, and works of 
art can hardly be estimated. The 
work of reconstruction and re- 
placement, which is now in the 
hands of the committee respon- 
sible for this publication, was orig- 
inated in 1917; but the disaster 
ofCaporetto turned people 's atten- 
tion in the direction of the safety 
of their country rather than their 
churches, and it was not until the 
end of 1918 that the matter could 
be seriously discussed. 

The first care of those charged 
with the work was to prepare ac- 
curate statistics, which are sum- 
marized in the appendix to this 
volume; the next was to collect 
funds, and then to enlist the aid 
of a number of well-known artists 
and architects in order to make 
sure that the rebuilding should be 
fitting and in good taste. Consider- 
able progress has now been made 

with the work, and a number of 
bells have been cast and hung. 
Some of the missing bells were dis- 
covered in enemy territory after 
the armistice, and it was possible 
to restore these practically at 
once. In other cases, where new 
bells have had to be provided, they 
have been cast as far as possible 
to resemble the old ones. The old 
inscriptions have been preserved 
and a fresh inscription has been 
added in every case, so that post- 
erity may know the history of each 
bell. If anything further were 
needed to provoke our good wish- 
es, it is the series of sad little pic- 
tures of the ruined churches them- 

Readers who desire to follow the 
progress of this work can do so in 
the pages of the review Arte Cris- 
tiana, where they will find month 
by month a record of the work 
undertaken and projected. 


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The Campaign Against Unnecessary 

We read in The Nation, No. 

"Mention in the newspapers re- 
cently that a laboratory has been 
endowed to study the elimination 
of noise from our industrial civili- 
zation is worth more than amused 
or indifferent remark. We ought 
long ago to have begun to take the 
matter seriously; to realize that 
this age, instead of progressing 
toward the reduction of noise, has 
introduced into the world a vast 
amount of new and peculiarly ir- 
ritating babel. There is a great 
difference in noise. City dwellers 
who go to the country for rest 
sometimes complain that they are 
kept awake at nights by croaking 
frogs or waked before dawn by 
ambitious roosters. But country 
noises are nature's nbises; gener- 
ally they are musical or at least 
not actually discordant. One not 
only becomes accustomed to them, 
but eventually finds many of them 
soothing, such as the strange 
whirr and hum by night and by 
day of the poignant and myster- 
ious insect chorus of forest and 
field. Our city noises are other- 
wise. They are largely unmusical, 
a vast dissonance of screeching, 
grating, banging, chattering, that 
makes sleep unrestful (although 

we may not realize it) and short- 
ens life by the erosion of our 
vitality. Some day our epoch may 
be known as the age of Unregen- 
erate and Unregulated Noises . . . 
Some years ago Mrs. Isaac Rice 
organized an anti-noise society in 
New York City. It consisted main- 
ly of herself, and was regarded 
by the rest of the community as an 
amusing and harmless bit of luna- 
cy. In truth Mrs. Rice was a path- 
finder for what will one day be- 
come a great crusade; she was a 
pioneer in the eradication of an 
evil which we shall eventually com- 
bat with the same seriousness and 
effort that we now employ against 
impure water or the Great White 
Plague. ' ' 

A Protestant Preacher on Secret 

The Rev. 0. F. Englebrecht, of 
Milwaukee, in the course of a 
strong, article on secret societies 
in the Christian Cynosure (Vol. 
LIV, No. 2) says: 

"In this day and age, when the 
nations of the world have experi- 
enced the evil of secret diplomacy, 
when open covenants openly ar- 
rived at were hailed, the world 
over, as the sign of a new era in 
the history of governments, now 
that public authorities all over the 

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country are coming to see the evil 
or the possibilities for evil of 
secret societies in high schools 
and colleges, is it not a peculiar 
inconsistency that so many of our 
officials, from the President down, 
are members of secret, oath-bound 
societies? Is it not an intolerable 
condition that [Protestant] min- 
isters should be members of secret 
societies, when Christ, their Mas- 
ter, whom they profess to serve, 
carried on openly before the world 
and declared before His would-be 
judges: 'In secret have I said 

' ' So far from supporting secret 
societies with their contributions 
and above all through their ex- 
ample, ought not Christian min- 
isters and enlightened citizens 
everywhere, lift up their voice in 
protest against an institution that 
is so little Christ-like, and that has 
within itself great possibilities for 

— You can say one thing for this season 
of depression. It isn't so difficult to find the 
reading-matter in the popular magazines. 

—Germany's casualties in the World War 
are placed at 6888,982 by the commander of 
the American medical corps. 

Notes and Gleanings 

— The Literary Supplement of the 
London Times, whose contributors are 
among the most "advanced'' scholars in 
England, devotes the major portion of 
a page to Loisy's new book on the Acts 
of the Apostles ; but it does not approve 
of this new piece of destructive radical- 
ism. "For our own part," says the re- 
viewer towards the end of his notice 
(No. 1,010), "with the fullest recogni- 
tion of the learning, resourcefulness, 
and skill displayed by M. Loisy, we feel 
that the basis on which the theory rests 
is too narrow and too insecure, and that 
the strength of the argument for a 
more conservative position is very in- 
adequately recognized." 

— Owing to the fact that Martin 
Luther himself said, "I am the son of 
a peasant (Bauer) ; my father, grand- 
father, and great-grandfather were 
genuine peasants," it has heen custom- 
ary to regard Luther as a glorious 
example of a man who "rose from the 
ranks." On the basis of what seems to 
be reliable investigation, it now appears 
that Martin Luther descended from the 
German nobility. Hans Luder, the 
father of the reformer, inherited the 
two largest and best estates in Mdhra 
and established a coppersmelting in- 
dustry which gave him preeminence 
among the industrial and social leaders 
of his day. Having killed a peasant, 

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however, he was forced to flee. He be- 
took himself to Eisleben, where he 
again entered the copper business and 
where Martin was born. The story is 
told in Ad. Baring's "Deutsches Ro- 
landbuch fur Geschlechterkunde," Vol. 
I, Dresden, 1918. 

— Father Herbert Thurston, S. J., 
continues in the June Month his series 
of essays on "Some Physical Phenome- 
na of Mysticism." His formidable ar- 
ray of evidence for the incorruption of 
the bodies of a large number of the 
saints should compel the attention of 
medical men and scientists. One of the 
frequent concomitants of incorruption 
is the flow of a peculiar liquid from 
the body, of which Father Thurston re- 
marks : "However we may explain the 
phenomenon or fail to explain it, the 
exudation of some sort of viscous, oily 
fluid from many incorrupt bodies seems 
to be a fact beyond dispute, and also a 
fact which has never been registered by 
medical science." 

— England seems bent on cleaning the 
Poles out of Silesia. So far as we have 

been able to determine, there is no prom- 
ise of "swag" connected with the job. 
This seems almost preposterous ; and 
yet, if true, England deserves not a lit- 
le credit. There are a few matters still 
to be straightened out in Europe, among 
them getting the Poles out of Silesia, 
the English out of Ireland, the Greeks 
out of Turkey, and the French out of 
Germany. After that we shall be able 
to start on this side of the water and 
get ourselves out of Haiti as best we 
can. Until then we shall be making of 
that unfortunate country another Bel- 
gium, except that, in this case, we are 
pursuing our selfish and brutal policy 
under the old guise of idealism, while 
the Germans in Belgium considered it 
an honest-to-goodness military occupa- 

— The widely quoted utterance of 
an eminent English physician and scien- 
tist that vaccination is a crime and the 
germ theory has been thoroughly ex- 
ploded, reminds us once again that 
modern medicine, despite the great pro- 
gress made in the last two generations, 

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July 15 

is still in its infancy. "Great fields are 
still unexplored," observes the Nation 
(No. 2916), "and much material, the 
product of forty years of clinical ob- 
servation and laboratory research, is as 
yet little understood and remains to be 
clarified. Only by co-ordinating the 
various and now rapidly diverging spe- 
cialties in medicine is the fullest pro- 
gress possible." For this purpose a great 
medical centre is to be created in New 
York, at a cost of $15,000,000. Let us 
hope that this new institution will be 
conducted by men of real scientific 
acumen who will not stick to ancient 
superstitions simply because they have 
been propagated with so much per- 

— The National Christian Association, 
through its official organ, the Christian 
Cynosure of Chicago, is vigorously com- 
batting the Towner bill, mainly for the 
reason that the measure is sponsored by 
the Freemasons. Behind it stands, 
among other sinister influences, ''The 
Masonic Service Association of the 
United States," which was organized 
in 1919 by some eighty representatives 
from thirty-four grand lodges for the 
purpose of "giving American Free- 
masonry a national voice." That voice 
is naturally raised in favor of any and 
every measure ultimately aimed, as the 
Towner bill no doubt is, at Christian 
education. The Protestant ministers 
constituting the National Christian As- 
sociation are gradually beginning to see 
that, with the increasing influence of 
anti-Christian Masonry in our public 
schools, they will have to follow the 
example of the Catholics and the Luth- 
erans and establish their own schools 
for the Christian training of their chil- 

— The canonization of Blessed Peter 
Canisius 'seems now assured 1 . The 
Bishop of Fulda, but recently returned 
from Rome, declared that it was an 
event to be looked for in the near future. 
In an audience granted by the Holy 
Father to students from Innsbruck in 
Holy Week he told them of "another 
miracle" wrought by Blessed Peter not 
far from Rome. The case was that of 

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a religious who had been suddenly 
cured from intestinal tuberculosis upon 
application of a relic of the Blessed. 
Just two days of life is all physicians 
were willing to promise the sick Sister. 
The cure was instantaneous and quite 
remarkable, as the disease had been of 
long standing and an operation (remov- 
ing part of an intestine) had been per- 
formed to relieve the patient. Early in 
May another miracle was reported to 
have taken place through the interces- 
sion of Bl. Canisius, but the details of 
the same have not yet been made public 
Meanwhile, a vice-postulator has been 
appointed and the reports on the 
miracles have been declared to be very 
satisfactory to the Roman authorities. 

—The Rev. J. Roach Stratton, D.D., 
of Calvary Baptist Church, New York 
City, who attended the Dempsy-Carpen- 
tier prize fight at Jersey City on July 
2 at the request of the managers of 
the Universal Service, describes the af- 
fair as "a disgraceful orgy of blood and 
bestiality" and says the conduct of the 
90,000 spectators "illustrates the deep- 
ening of the blood lust." He calls par- 
ticular attention to the fact that there 
were present at the fight no less than 
5,000 women, who, "shorn of all 
womanly delicacy and gentleness, gloat- 
ed with their male consorts in fever of 
the blood lust," resembling the degener- 
ate women of ancient Rome who turned 
down their jeweled thumbs at the gladi- 
atorial combats as a sign that the de- 
feated combatants must die. "The war 
knocked the props from beneath our 
moral idealism, and like a rocket we 
have shot down the greased ways to- 
ward hell." 

— Mr. J. Kenneth Turner, in a letter 
to the Freeman (No. 68), expresses the 
opinion that "not one of the excuses 
for our past war is valid, even when 

tested by ordinary standards; that a 
preliminary task of those who would 
prevent another war is to clear away 
the myths of the recent one; that re- 
gard for individual reputations, per- 
sonal vanities, or national pride, must 
not be permitted to hinder the job; that 
only after the shams of the previous 
war have been exploded, its true mo- 
tives revealed, and its methods and re- 
sults shine clear in the light of those 
motives, can a beginning be made to- 
wards ways that will insure us against 
future horrors." Mr. Turner ought to 
write a book on "The Myths of Our 
War Propaganda" and get some weal- 
thy philanthropist to scatter ten mil- 
lion copies of it broadcast as a prophy- 
lactic against the next attack, which is 
sure to come. 

— For the first time Quintilian's 
classical "Institutio Oratoria" will be 
adequately brought within the reach of 
the educated English public through 
the translation now appearing in the 
Loeb Classical Library. That transla- 
tion is the work of H. E. Butler and is 
based on Halm's text. Mr. Butler does 
not do full justice to Quintilian's "lucid 
parsimony of words" and often para- 
phrases rather than translates ; but his 
rendering is, on the whole, clear and 
graceful, and of real help towards an 
intelligent apprehension of the original. 
As an exponent of formal oratory 
Quintilian does not, of course, mean 
much to the modern world. But as an 
educationist, he is still worth reading. 
Thus there is much to be said in favor 
of his view that reading should begin 
with poetry rather than with prose, that 
•the very best teachers are needed for 
beginners, that there is not much danger 
of "over-pressing" a boy, but a great 
deal of danger in allowing him to fol- 
low his own apparent bent, etc. He is 



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July 15 

particularly sound in what he says on 
the unity of education throughout its 
different stages. 

— To the average non-Catholic reader 
of to-day, penetrated with notions of 
complete personal freedom, Bossuet ap- 
pears as a kind of pious Hobbes, big- 
oted and prejudiced, sycophantic to 
royalty, and conservative in a manner 
which is ridiculous. His correspon- 
dence, as lately published in France, has 
convinced at least one critic that the 
modern view of Bossuet is false. "It 
is certain," writes a reviewer in the 
London Times Literary Supplement 
(No. 1,010), "that the Bishop of 
Aleaux, if not the 'last Father of the 
Church,' as Chateaubriand believes, was 
one of the noblest characters and most 
considerable minds of his age. ... If 
there is anyone who doubts the cour- 
age and integrity of Bossuet's character, 
let him read the two long letters to the 
King (exhorting him to repentance and 
to abandon his mistresses), which are 
reproduced in the volume edited by M. 
E. Levesque. [Lettres sur l'Education 
du Dauphin;' Paris: Bossard]." 

— M. Alfred Loisy's massive volume 
on "Les Actes des Apotres" (Paris, 
Nourry) proves that the author has not 
receded from the modernistic errors 
that brought about his excommunica- 
tion. His theory is that the Acts, while 
originally the work of St. Luke, were 
transformed by an unknown redactor, 
who retained the frame-work, but com- 
pletely travestied important portions, 

notably the second book. He invented 
miracles and discourses on a great scale, i 
taking his marvellous stories from types ' 
furnished by the Old Testament, Gos- 
pel tradition, or contemporary pagan- ; 
ism. Scarcely any word recurs more , 
frequently in this book than the word I 
"liction." Loisy goes even beyond Nor- 
den. In his reply to that radical critic, j 
Harnack some time ago expressed him- 
self ready to refute the hypothesis of 
a redactor if it were applied to the whole 
of the Acts. If he will keep his prom- 
ise, we shall witness the strange spec- 
tacle of a modern Rationalist defending 
the authenticity and genuineness of a 
portion of the New Testament against 
an apostate priest. 


Literary Briefs 

— The many admirers of Father Ernest 
R.Hull S.J., and may their number increase! 
will do well to get the latest Bombay Ex- 
miner reprint which appeared originally 
under the somewhat strange title of "Herr 
Schnebels." In their new form the essays 
are called "A Practical Philosophy of Life," 
a title which they well bear out. The book 
keeps up the reputation of the author as one 
of the most gifted Catholic writers in the 
English language. One almost wishes at 
times that Father Hull had not the exact- 
ing duties of an editor to perform, but could 
devote himself wholly to the writing of 
permanent works. However, it is probable 
that here again the lie is given to the old 
adage that writing under necessity is never 
literature. At any rate it is evident that 
the conditions in India have given Father 
Hull the inspiration to produce works for 

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readers who must ibe appealed to from the 
: purely natural standpoint. And who will 
say that this is not important even in the 
Western world, where the curse of devital- 
ized denominationalism is upon us? In the 
. present instance Father Hull has gathered 
together the common-sense principles under 
the three categories of philosophy of facts, 
principles, and actions, and made them into 
a splendid practical guide-book. Had the au- 
thor been following the prevailing custom 
he would have entitled his latest booklet 
"The Psychology of Something-Or-Other." 
But he has taste as well as acumen and 
spares us the absurdities of the present 
craze. Father Hull's latest book, like all his 
previous ones, deserves attentive reading 
and re-reading. (B. Herder Book Co.) 

— The "Thesaurus Doctrinae Catholicae 
ex Documentis Magisterii Ecclesiastici." 
compiled by the Rev. Ferd. Cavallera, pro- 
fessor of theology in the Catholic University 
of Toulouse, is all that its title implies, 
namely, a systematic collection of the ex- 
plicit authorities and sources for all the 
doctrines of the Catholic faith, so arranged 
as to be available to the busy student. It is 
a sort of enlarged Denzinger's Enchiridion, 
brought up to date. Thus it contains the de- 
cisions of the Biblical Commission and the 
pronouncements against all the later heresies, 
including "Americanism." A very valuable 
feature are the copious indexes. (Paris: G. 
Beauchesne; St. Louis, Mo.: B. Herder 
Book Co.) 

— Father Edw. F. Garesche's latest book, 
"Social Organizations in Parishes" (Benzi- 
ger Bros.), is a compendium of information 
for pastors, superiors and organizers, both 
lay and clerical who have in their charge an 
actual or projected parish organization of 
whatever kind. The Sodality has been taken 
as the standard, and "the thoughtful reader" 
is expected to "be able easily to apply the 
suggestions made to the work of almost any 
Catholic society." Father Garesche has had 
considerable experience in this sort of work 
and makes excellent use of what he has seen 
and heard. There is in his book, however, 

one very distressing lack, which should be 
pointed out, namely, that of laboring men's 
societies, of which we are in particular need. 
Father Garesche has done well to give us 
the fundamentals of organization, and, as 
stated, these can be applied concretely at will. 
It is a fact, however, that an omission of 
the kind mentioned delays the possibilities 
of the foundation of what seems to be the 
most crying need in Catholic America to-day. 
Moreover, the section headed "The Academy 
of Social Study" is decidedly weak and lack- 
ing in suggestive possibilities and scope. In 
spite of these and a few other defects, how- 
ever, the book deserves careful study by all 
who have at heart the organization of Am- 
erican Catholics, so necessary in these 
troublous times. 

— Catholic authors should exercise some 
supervision over the advertising matter that 
appears on the covers of their books. The 
reviewer is forced to issue this warning after 
reading the cover announcement of a book 
published by the firm of Frederick Pustel 
Co., Inc., entitled "Efficiency in the Spiritual 
Life" by Sister M. Cecilia. For religious the 
shortest "short cut to holiness" is the rule 
of their respective order or congregation, 
and not an adaption of the so-called prin- 
ciples of efficiency, which have about had 
their brief day in the industrial world. How- 
ever, the author has not gone that far in 
her work, but merely desires to make easier 
the path to perfection by an application of 
these principles, some of which are of un- 
doubted value, to the spiritual life. But 
is it necessary or even advisable to employ 
the thirteen principles of Emerson for this 
purpose? And if so, will the result be a 
greater concern for the "efficiency" of our 
spiritual life or the actual sanctity for which 
we must strive? Is this not making use of 
the enemy's methods with a vengeance? We 
recall that these principles were put forth 
as embodying a "morality" for the attain- 
ment of the desired end. In our opinion Sister 
M. Cecilia's book is not necessary and may 
even lead to harmful results, in spite of the 
fact that the work itself is well done. 



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July 15 

—The Rev. P. Boylan, professor of Scrip- 
ture and Oriental languages at Maynooth, 
under the title "The Psalms," presents the 
first volume of "A Study of the Vulgate 
Psalter in the Light of the Hebrew Text" 
The volume comprises Psalms I— LXXI. 
There is a general introduction of some 
seventy pages concerned with the text and 
language of the Psalter, its poetical form, 
the titles of the Psalms, and their classifica 
tion. Each Psalm has a short introduction of 
its own. The text, in Latin and English, is 
followed by exegetical and textual notes. 
The work marks an advance in English 
Biblical scholarship. As the book is intended 
to supply those who recite the Divine Office 
daily with a satisfactory solution of the 
difficulties met with in the Psalms, the author 
avoids all abstruse discussions and pays little 
attention to diversities of opinion. At the 
same time he shows that he is in touch with 
the latest results of criticism, as when he 
suggests the possibility that Ps. vii, 7 — 12 
may be an independent poem embedded in 
the main psalm. The print is large and clear 
and the binding substantial. (M. H. Gill & 
Son and B. Herder Book Co.) 

— "The Choice and Formation of a Native 
Clergy in the Foreign Missions," a reprint 
in pamphlet form of a "Letter Addressed to 
the Superior of the Mission of Kiang-nan, 
China, from Rome, August 15th. 1919, by 
the Very Rev. Wladimir Ledochowski, Gen- 
eral of the Society of Jesus," is a valuable 
contribution to a subject which should be 
pondered well in certain circles in the 
United States. St. Ignatius ever insisted on his 
subjects learning the language of the people 
among whom they were working and labor- 
ing. This is in direct contrast to the modern 
American idea, which insists that the Cath- 
olic lay population learn the language of 
their ecclesiastical superiors who are direct- 
ing their spiritual welfare. It is usually 
not put in such bald words, but covered 

over with the plea of "Americanism," etc. 
The excellent document before us is not 
in form like to the usual allocation addressed 
by a superior to his subjects. It is well docu- 
mented, clearly and forcefully written, and 
most interesting. Not only is the subject ot 
the native priest well expounded, but the 
reader of this letter will be well repaid in a 
most satisfactory account of the Catholic mis- 
sions in the vast empire of China. It were 
well if some of our Catholic societies in- 
terested in the foreign missions undertook to 
spread this pamphlet far and wide. (P. J. 
Kenedy & Sons, New \ork). 

Books Received 

Moral Principles and Medical Practice. The 
Basis of Medical Jurisprudence. By Charles 
Coppens, S. J. New and Enlarged Edition 
by Henry S. Spalding, S. J. 320 pp. 8 vo. 
Benziger Brothers. $2.50 net. 

Schuts- und Trutzwaffen im Kampfe gegen 
Unglaubcn und Irrglanbcn. Weitern Krei- 
sen der Gebildeten und des Volkes darge- 
boten von P. Peter Nilkes, S. J. 18. Auf- 
lage. Herausgegeben von August Deneffe, 
S. J. 496 pp. 32mo. Kevelaer: Butzon & 

Sozialismus und Solidarismus. Von A. Hei- 
nen. 68 pp. i6mo. M. Gladbach: Volksver- 
einsverlag. M. 3 (Wrapper). 

Der "wisscnschaftliche" Sosialismus, die 
Grundage der Sozialdemokratie. Nach dem 
Vorkriegsstande gemeinverstandlich er- 
ortert von Dr. Ludwig Nieder, 2nd ed. 
40 pp. 8vo. M. Gladbach : Volksvereinsve.-- 
lag. M. 1.80 (Wrapper). 

A Parochial Course of Doctrinal Instructions 
for all Sundays and Holydays of the year. 
Based on the Teachings of the Catechism 
of the Council of Trent and Harmonized 
with the Gospels and Epistles of the Sun- 
days and Feasts. Prepared and arranged 
by the Rev. Charles J. Callan, O. P., and 
the Rev. John A. McHugh, O. P. Dogmatic 
Series. Vol. II. x & 560 pp. 8 vo. New 
York : Joseph F. Wagner, Inc. 

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The Fortnightly Review 



August 1, 1921 

Capitalism and After 

Mr. Joseph Clayton discusses 
Jhe problem what is to supersede 
Capitalism in No. 451 of Chester- 
ton's Neiv Witness. He says inter 
alia : 

It is all very right and proper, 
no doubt, to express our hatred of 
Capitalism, and to declare our ab- 
horrence and detestation of the 
functions of the capitalist. Such 
hatred and abhorrence may be 
taken as the signs of a healthy 
mind, intimations of a desire for 
social change, tokens that justice 
and goodwill are still held of good 

But what is our plan for ridding 
this land of the pestilent business 
of the capitalists ? What social and 
industrial arrangements are con- 
templated for the days when Capi- 
talism has been superseded ? 

There must be a plan and a 
policy if the superseding is to be 
accomplished without the vast and 
widespread misery of battle, mur- 
der or sudden death. 

The capitalist enjoys a liveli- 
hood on the profit made by em- 
ploying somebody else at a definite 
wage. If the profit on the labor of 
the person employed does not ex- 
ceed the wages paid, then the 
capitalist fails to get a living and 
becomes a bankrupt. 

To the liberal economist and 
university professor of the nine- 
teenth century the position of the 
capitalist was highly meritorious, 
and the fact that his riches were 
derived from the labor of others 

was regarded neither as unjust 
nor as a matter of reproach, but 
rather as a merciful dispensation 
of Providence for bringing about 
the greatest happinesg of the 
greatest number. In the face of 
appalling destitution, sweating 
and other horrors that seemed to 
suggest a greatest misery of the 
greater number, the liberal econo- 
mists and university professors 
still held their ground, and the 
capitalists piled up riches with the 
comfortable feeling that all was 
for the best. 

To-day, so far from Capitalism 
being generally approved it really 
is considered hateful, unjust, and 
generally disastrous to the com- 
munity that a comparatively few 
people should enjoy riches merely 
by making profit out of the labor 
of others. 

And such enormous profits and 
such huge riches ! Our picture pa- 
pers, daily and weekly, are full of 
illustrations of the spending of 
these profits, of the way the money 
goes. A steady and continuous 
propaganda for social revolution 
is maintained by our picture pa- 
pers (and the ''movies"), and this 
propaganda is not by any means 
futile. The working people are 
compelled to understand what 
happens to the wealth created by 

Now that it is at last understood 
that all material wealth is created